Editorial

Whats New in Emergencies, Trauma and Shock ? Hematuria in hemodialysis patients Attur Ravindra Prabhu Department of Nephrology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Hematuria in hemodialysis patients may be a manifestation of the bleeding diatheses seen in renal failure. But it certainly needs further evaluation for structural causes specific to the genito urinary tract and to prevent massive bleeding. The authors of the article “Unusual causes of hematuria in dialysis patients”[1] in this journal have added to the repertoire of causes of hematuria in dialysis. This report also highlights the urgency required in both diagnosis and treatment in view of preexisting anemia, platelet dysfunction, and kidney failure. A systematic approach to this problem would be useful. Presence of red blood cell (RBC) casts, proteinuria, dysmorphic RBCs on urinalysis indicate a glomerular source whereas clots indicate a urologic cause. Loin pain and renal mass would indicate an upper urinary tract involvement. A combination of fever, dysuria, and flank pain suggests infection, stones or malignancy. A colicky pain with radiation suggests ureteral obstruction due to stone, blood clot or sloughed papillae. Initiation hematuria is of urethral source and termination hematuria due to bladder neck or prostatic urethra pathology. When history and physical examination suggest a nonglomerular bleeding source, this warrants a urine culture and imaging.[2] Coagulation profile, ultrasound exam of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) urography followed by cystoscopy and angiographic localization of the bleeding site may be necessary.[3] The causes of hematuria in dialysis patients include the bleeding diatheses due to platelet dysfunction of uremia, use of anticoagulants during the procedure, dissection of blood Address for correspondence: Dr. Attur Ravindra Prabhu, E-mail: [email protected] Access this article online Quick Response Code: Website: www.onlinejets.org

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.120361

Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock I 6:4 I Oct - Dec 2013

from a hemorrhagic cyst into the collecting system in polycystic kidney disease.[3] Other causes include urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, retro peritoneal bleed, and malignancy in the kidney or urinary tract,[3] renal papillary necrosis,[4] and rarely spontaneous rupture of the kidney.[5] One of the important causes specific to dialysis patients is acquired cystic kidney disease with an overall incidence of 40-50% especially after 3 years and approaches 90% incidence at 10 years of dialysis.[6] This may pre dispose to adenocarcinoma.[7,8] Management of hematuria includes assessment of severity and hemodynamic stabilization. Correction of the platelet dysfunction requires desmopressin with or without cryoprecipitate, heparinfree dialysis till bleeding settles and packed RBC, if necessary. Intravenous conjugated estrogens are useful in prolonged bleeding.[9] Angio-embolization of the bleeding source in the affected kidney or endoscopic coagulation of the bleeding sites in the calyces would be necessary in severe bleeding.[3] Nephrectomy is indicated in uncontrolled bleeding,[3] intractable pain, and in suspected or proven malignancy. Presence of recurrent hematuria without apparent cause warrants use of alternatives to systemic heparinization during dialysis such as low dose heparin, regional heparinization with protamine, low molecular weight heparin, regional citrate or switching of modality of dialysis to peritoneal dialysis. To conclude, as emphasized in the article published in this issue, though hematuria in dialysis patients may be due to bleeding abnormalities of uremia, it should not be ignored. Careful history taking, physical examination, and judicious use of imaging are necessary to identify the cause. Treatment includes hemodynamic stabilization, correction of platelet dysfunction, and use of packed red cells, angioembolization, and nephrectomy as a last resort. REFERENCES 1.

Kumar S, Nanjappa B, Barapatre Y, Prasad S, Ganesamoni R, Rathi M. Unusual causes of Hematuria in dialysis patients: Diagnostic dilemma, risks and management. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2013;6:276-9.

2.

Michael Emmett H, Andrew Z. Fenves, John C. Schwartz. Approach to the patient with kidney disease: Hematuria. In: Brenner and Rector’s textbook 233

Prabhu: Hematuria in hemodialysis patients

The Kidney. Vol. 1., 9th ed. Editors Maarten W Taal, Glenn M. Chertow, Philip A. Marsden, Karl Skorecki, Alan S. L. Yu, Barry M. Brenner. Elsevier Saunder’s; 2012. p. 844-7. 3.

Kar Neng Lai, Petras V. Kisielius, Biff F. Palmer. Chapter 39 Genitourinary tract and male reproductive organs. In:. Handbook of Dialysis. 4th edition 2007. John T. Daugirdas, Peter Gerard Blake, Todd S. Ing, editors Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Handbook. pages. 656-8.

4.

Ifediora O, Benz RL. Renal papillary necrosis in a hemodialysis patient. Clin Nephrol 1993;39:279-81.

5.

Bensalah K, Martinez F, Ourahma S, Bitker MO, Richard F, Barrou B. Spontaneous rupture of non-tumoral kidneys in patients with end stagerenalfailure: Risks and management. Eur Urol 2003;44:111-4.

6.

Ishikawa I. Acquired cystic disease: Mechanisms and manifestations. Semin Nephrol 1991;11:671.

234

7.

Truong LD, Krishnan B, Cao JT, Barrios R, Suki WN. Renal neoplasm in acquired cystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1995;26:1.

8.

Levine E, Slusher SL, Grantham JJ, Wetzel LH. Natural history of acquired renal cystic disease in dialysis patients: Aprospective longitudinal CT study. Am J Roentgenol 1991;156:501.

9.

Hedges SJ, Dehoney SB, Hooper JS, Amanzadeh J, Busti AJ. Evidencebased treatment recommendations for uremic bleeding. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2007;3:138-53.

How to cite this article: Prabhu AR. Whats new in Emergencies, Trauma and Shock? hematuria in hemodialysis patients. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2013;6:233-4. Received: 26.02.13. Accepted: 28.02.13.

Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock I 6:4 I Oct - Dec 2013

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