Table 1: Association between chlamydia seropositivity and other relevant factors Other relevant factors Study group Control group No of cases Pos. cases (%) No of cases Pos. cases (%) Age group 15-25 years 6 2 (33.3) 4 1 (25) Age at 1st sexual contact <20 years 12 7 (58.3) 26 2 (7.6) H/O oral contraceptives 4 2 (50) 4 1 (25) Asymptomatic 26 6 (23) 28 2 (7.1) Vaginal discharge 9 3 (33.3) 8 1 (12.5) Spontaneous Abortion in case of secondary infertility 12 5 (41.6) 5 1 (20) Ectopic pregnancy 2 0 0 0 IUD/still birth 2 0 0 0 IUD: Intra uterine death
planning the treatment.[1,4] So there is a scope for further study of this causative aspect of infertility with larger number of case studies, in a longer duration of time with well equipped confirmatory diagnostic procedure. *DG Mohan, AK Borthakur Department of Microbiology (DGM), Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Department of Microbiology (AKB), Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Assam, India *Corresponding author (email: ) Received: 19‑08‑2013 Accepted: 19-07-2014
diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility: An epidemiologic update. Epidemiol Rev 1990;12:199‑220. 3. Cates W Jr, Wasserheit JN. Genital chlamydial infections: Epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:1771‑81. 4. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Female infertility. In: Speroff L, Fritz MA, editors. Clinical Gynaecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. 7th ed. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Press; 2005. p. 1013‑68. 5. Tyagi P, Singh VS. Chlamydia and gonococal serology in women with tubal infertility. Indian J Med Sci 1998;52:231‑5. 6. Sharma M, Sethi S, Daftari S, Malhotra S. Evidence of chlamydial infection in infertile women with fallopian tube obstruction. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2003;46:680‑3.
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1. Jones RB, Batteinger BE. Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma, perinatal infections, Lymphogranuloma Veneraum and other genital infections). In: Mandell GI, Benett JE, Dolin R, editors. Mandell, Douglas and Benett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed., Vol 2. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2000. p. 1989‑2004. 2. Cates W Jr, Rolfs RT Jr, Aral SO. Sexually transmitted
Uncommon causes of fungal sinusitis from Eastern India Dear Editor, We read with interest your article “Unusual causes of fungal Rhinosinusitis: A study from a tertiary care centre in South India.” We want to share our experience regarding this. In the last 2 years we have isolated two cases of Schizophyllum commune and one each of Acremonium falciforme, Curvuleria lunata and Fusarium verticilloides from maxillary sinus mass from among 14 patients with paranasal sinus mass. All the five patients were residents of Eastern India. These patients presented with nasal obstructive
symptoms, facial pain and headache and in two cases there was history of epistaxis. CAT scan of the para‑nasal sinuses showed no bony involvement and no intra‑cranial extension of the mass. The masses were removed endoscopically. Direct KOH mount and GMS staining revealed narrow hyphae with septations. Histology confirmed the fungal aetiology excluding tissue invasion. All the isolates grew in both 37°C and 25°C on SDA. Identification of all the fungal isolates were confirmed by the Mycology division of PGI, Chandigarh.
Aspergillus had been regarded as the most common agent to cause fungal sinusitis. These rare agents of fungal sinusitis had been infrequently reported from India mostly from the southern and northern part. Swain et al. had reported the only case of Schizophyllum commune sinusitis from India. But we feel these aetiological agents of allergic fungal sinusitis may not be so rare after all. In most of these cases removal of the mass is curative without the requirement for any antifungal therapy. So awareness among mycologists and clinicians are required for proper aetiological diagnosis and optimum management. References
4. Pagella F, Matti E, De Bernardi F, Semino L, Cavanna C, Marone P, et al. Paranasal sinus fungus ball: Diagnosis and management. Mycoses 2007;50:451‑6.
*R Ujjwayini, S Dutta Consultant Microbiologist (RU,SD) Registrar Microbiologist, Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, India
1. Giri S, Kindo AJ, Rao S, Kumar AR. Unusual causes of fungal rhinosinusitis: A study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2013;31:379‑84. 2. Chakrabarti A, Sharma SC. Paranasal sinus mycoses. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2000;42:293‑304. 3. Swain B, Panigrahy R, Panigrahi D. Schizophyllum commune sinusitis in an immunocompetent host. Indian J Med Microbiol 2011;29:439‑42.
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