Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports 3 (2015) 26–29

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ebcr

Case Report

Recurrent status epilepticus as the primary neurological manifestation of CADASIL: A case report☆ Naim Haddad a,⁎, Catherine Ikard b, Kim Hiatt b, Vignesh Shanmugam a, James Schmidley c a b c

Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Education City, PO Box 24144, Doha, Qatar University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W Markham St, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA Virginia Tech-Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history: Received 19 February 2015 Accepted 22 February 2015 Available online 1 April 2015 Keywords: CADASIL Status epilepticus Seizures EEG MRI

a b s t r a c t Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) often presents with a history of migraine with aura and eventual manifestations of dementia with unrelenting, repeated cerebral vascular insults. Only 6–10% of patients with CADASIL have been reported to develop seizures, and status epilepticus (SE) is exceedingly rare. Here, we describe a patient who presented with recurrent SE, with eventual biopsy diagnosis of CADASIL. An 80-year-old woman presented to our hospital three times in two years with decreased level of consciousness and subtle intermittent right-sided upper extremity and facial twitching. There was no known significant family history and no past medical history for seizures, stroke, migraine headache, or overt dementia. Electroencephalography revealed recurrent focal seizures with left hemispheric onset and evolution, fulfilling the criteria for focal SE each time. All three admissions required sedation with midazolam to control seizure activity, in addition to high doses of multiple antiepileptic drugs. Brain MRI repeatedly showed extensive abnormalities in the periventricular and deep white matter, subcortical white matter, and bilateral basal ganglia. Skin biopsy was obtained on the third admission, and electron microscopy showed numerous deposits of granular osmiophilic material, which are pathognomonic for CADASIL. Detailed investigations failed to reveal any other etiology for the patient's condition. This case illustrates the potential for nonconvulsive SE to be the sole manifestation of CADASIL. With the appropriate brain MRI findings, CADASIL should be added to the list of rare causes of SE. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a disease of the vascular smooth muscle typically caused by a mutation of the Notch3 gene [1]. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy often presents with a history of migraine with aura and eventual manifestations of dementia with unrelenting, repeated cerebral vascular insults [1,2]. Diagnoses have been made singularly or by a combination of genetic testing and skin biopsy [1]. Only 6–10%

Abbreviations: CADASIL, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy; SE, status epilepticus; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; PEG, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy ☆ The investigations were carried out to a high ethical standard after a written consent from the Ethics Committee at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. ⁎ Corresponding author at: 445 East 69th St, Suite 432, New York, NY 10021, USA. Tel.: +1 974 44928386; fax: +1 974 44928377. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (N. Haddad), [email protected] (C. Ikard), [email protected] (K. Hiatt), [email protected] (V. Shanmugam), [email protected] (J. Schmidley).

of patients with CADASIL have been reported to develop seizures, and status epilepticus (SE) is exceedingly rare [1–3]. Here, we describe a patient who presented three times in two years with SE of an unknown cause, with eventual biopsy diagnosis of CADASIL.

2. Case report An 80-year-old woman presented to our hospital three times in two years with a decreased level of consciousness and subtle intermittent right-sided upper extremity and facial twitching. Her past medical history was only significant for well-controlled hypertension, with no history of seizures, migraine headaches, strokes, or overt dementia. There was no known significant family history. Electroencephalography revealed recurrent focal seizures with left hemispheric onset and evolution, fulfilling the criteria for focal SE each time (Fig. 1). Brain MRI repeatedly showed extensive abnormalities in the periventricular and deep white matter, subcortical white matter, and bilateral basal ganglia (Fig. 2). No acute infarcts were seen. Cerebrospinal fluid studies consistently revealed culture-negative, predominantly neutrophilic pleocytosis (range: 27 to 92). Otherwise, detailed and

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebcr.2015.02.004 2213-3232/© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

N. Haddad et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports 3 (2015) 26–29

27

Fig. 1. A and B. EEG findings: A: EEG revealed recurrent focal seizures with left hemispheric onset and evolution, fulfilling the criteria for focal status epilepticus. B: Interictal left posterior quadrant sharp waves.

repetitive investigations failed to reveal any clear etiology (metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, paraneoplastic, etc.) for the patient's condition. All three admissions required sedation with midazolam to control seizure activity in addition to high doses of multiple antiepileptic drugs. The patient made a slow but full recovery after the first and second episodes, following five-week and four-week hospital stays, respectively. The third episode occurred despite the regular intake of

antiepileptic drugs (valproate and levetiracetam), and the patient remained minimally responsive afterwards. The patient did eventually require tracheostomy and PEG tube placement and was discharged to a nursing home. Months after discharge, she is still in a nursing home with unimproved mental status. On the third admission, the extensive MRI changes and recurrent episodes of stupor prompted consideration of CADASIL. Skin biopsy was

28

N. Haddad et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports 3 (2015) 26–29

Fig. 2. Imaging: Brain MRI repeatedly showed extensive abnormalities in the periventricular and deep white matter, subcortical white matter, and bilateral basal ganglia.

obtained and returned positive; electron microscopic images showed gaps and discontinuities in the perivascular smooth muscle layer with numerous deposits of granular osmiophilic material (Fig. 3). These findings are reported to be diagnostic of CADASIL [1]. Genetic testing was not pursued.

3. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CADASIL presenting as nonconvulsive SE, without the other typical manifestations. Seizures are seen in a small percentage of patients with CADASIL, but they often follow a stroke and are not typically the first manifestation of the disease [1,2]. Status epilepticus is also very rare in this disease; we found only one published case report of EEG-proven nonconvulsive SE in a patient with established diagnosis of CADASIL [3]. Schon et al. described six patients with CADASIL with a reversible acute encephalopathy; four of them had seizures during their hospitalization. However, their EEG data did not show ictal seizure activity, although the recordings were apparently brief and not continuous [4]. Similar case reports can be found, again lacking adequate EEG data [5,6]. It is possible that the diagnosis of nonconvulsive SE was missed in at least some of these cases, suggesting that this complication of CADASIL is underdiagnosed. Our case is also peculiar for its late onset. Manifestations of CADASIL usually start in early or mid-adulthood, with gradual accumulation of deficits. However, the phenotypic and prognostic variability has already been emphasized with 14% of biopsy-proven patients over 60 years of age having no disability at all [2]. Also, Mourad et al. reported on 4 patients diagnosed after age 60 [7]. The consistent CSF pleocytosis in this case is unusual for CADASIL [8], but the co-occurrence of SE may be a confounding factor.

Fig. 3. Skin biopsy findings: Electron microscopic images showed striking gaps and discontinuities in the perivascular smooth muscle layer, vacuolization within the smooth muscle, and numerous deposits of granular osmiophilic material (red circles) — much of which, because of the degree of vascular wall breakdown, was free-floating.

This case illustrates the potential for nonconvulsive SE to be the sole manifestation of CADASIL. With the appropriate brain MRI findings, CADASIL should be added to the list of rare causes of SE, regardless of a subject's advanced age.

N. Haddad et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports 3 (2015) 26–29

Conflict of interest statement The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. References [1] Chabriat H, Joutel A, Dichgans M, Tournier-Lasserve E, Bousser MG. CADASIL. Lancet Neurol 2009;8:643–53. [2] Dichgans M, Mayer M, Uttner I, Bruning R, Muller-Hocker J, Rungger G, et al. The phenotypic spectrum of CADASIL: clinical findings in 102 cases. Ann Neurol 1998;44: 731–9. [3] Valko P, Siccoli M, Schiller A, Wieser HG, Jung H. Non-convulsive status epilepticus causing focal neurological deficits in CADASIL. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78:1287–9.

29

[4] Schon F, Martin RJ, Prevett M, Clough C, Enevoldson TP, Markus HS. “CADASIL coma”: an underdiagnosed acute encephalopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74: 249–52. [5] Martikainen MH, Roine S. Rapid improvement of a complex migrainous episode with sodium valproate in a patient with CADASIL. J Headache Pain 2012;13:95–7. [6] Fan Y, McGowan S, Rubeiz H, Wollmann R, Javed A, Mastrianni J. Acute encephalopathy as the initial manifestation of CADASIL. Neurol Clin Pract 2012;2:359–61. [7] Mourad A, Levasseur M, Bousser MG, Chabriat H. CADASIL with minimal symptoms after 60 years. Rev Neurol 2006;162:827–31. [8] Dichgans M, Wick M, Gasser T. Cerebrospinal fluid findings in CADASIL. Neurology 1999;53:233.

Recurrent status epilepticus as the primary neurological manifestation of CADASIL: A case report.

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) often presents with a history of migraine with au...
1MB Sizes 1 Downloads 11 Views

Recommend Documents


Case report: bipolar disorder as the first manifestation of CADASIL.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebrovascular disease, clinically characterized by variable manifestations of migraine, recurrent transient ischemic attack or lacu

Recurrent intussusception as initial manifestation of primary intestinal melanoma: Case report and literature review.
Enteric intussusception caused by primary intestinal malignant melanoma is a very rare cause of intestinal obstruction. We herein present a case of a 42-year-old female patient with no prior medical history of malignant melanoma, who was admitted wit

Recurrent Paronychia as a Presenting Manifestation of Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Case Report.
Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an unusual clinical finding. The most common clinical manifestations include chronic paronychia and onychomadesis. We report an adult female patient with PV who initially presented with chronic paronychi

Mandibular brown tumor as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism: A case report.
Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (brown tumor) are usually asymptomatic and clinical presentation of the tumor in the jaws is rarely the first sign of the disease. We report a 45-year-old female patient who presented with a mandibular swelli

Rapidly progressive cognitive impairment with neuropsychiatric symptoms as the initial manifestation of status epilepticus.
The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features of patients diagnosed with non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with uncommon cognitive and behavioral involvement. We present two cases with sub-acute c

Recurrent primary mediastinal liposarcoma: A case report.
Primary mediastinal liposarcomas are extremely rare. The current study reports the case of a 63-year-old man presenting with a primary liposarcoma arising from the posterior mediastinum. The patient reported a 6-month history of chest pain with incre

Incidental pedal manifestation of primary bone lymphoma: a case report.
Primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) is an uncommon entity and is extremely rare in the foot and ankle. In this case, PLB was identified from the bone specimen after a bunionectomy of the first and fifth metatarsals. The diagnosis was confirmed with pathol