Case Report

Pulmonary embolism: An abdominal pain masquerader Jenna Gantner, Jotham E Keffeler1, Charlotte Derr Departments of Emergency, 1Aeromed, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, Florida, USA

ABSTRACT Abdominal pain is an uncommon presenting symptom for pulmonary embolism (PE). A delay in the diagnosis when a patient presents with atypical symptoms can postpone proper treatment and can be catastrophic. We report the case of a 48-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with worsening right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Abnormal findings on biliary ultrasound and chest radiograph could have resulted in misdiagnosis. Instead, the physician maintained a high index of suspicion, and further diagnostic testing revealed a large central PE in the right main pulmonary artery. The present article discusses the dangers of using a pattern recognition approach to medical decision making in patients with abdominal pain. Included are the various pathophysiologic mechanisms that may contribute to the development of abdominal pain in patients with PE. Additionally, we review the role of chest radiography in the setting of PE and present the findings that ultimately lead to the diagnosis. Key Words: Abdominal pain, Hampton’s hump, pulmonary embolism

INTRODUCTION The consequences of missing a pulmonary embolism (PE) can be catastrophic. It is believed to be responsible for 50,000-200,000 deaths yearly. Overall mortality for PEs without treatment is estimated to be 30%. The diagnosis can be elusive, since there is no pathognomonic sign or symptom for PE. Clinicians often take solace in clinical decision rules in patients without any clear risk factors. We present a case report on a patient with abdominal pain who was ultimately diagnosed with a large PE. The diagnostic considerations that lead to the consideration of this abdominal pain masquerader are discussed in the present article. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a 1-year history of intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal Address for correspondence: Dr. Charlotte Derr, E-mail: [email protected] Access this article online Quick Response Code: Website: www.onlinejets.org

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.120376

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pain. He had been seen by his primary care physician 1 week earlier for the same pain and had an ultrasound performed. The patient stated he was unaware of the results and that today the pain became acutely worse. The patient denied any other associated symptoms. He denied any personal history or family history of medical problems. The patient was a smoker, drank up to a six-pack of beer daily, and used marijuana. He did not take any medications. The vital signs were as follows: Blood pressure 112/52, pulse 82, respiratory rate 16, oxygen saturation 99% on room air. He was afebrile. Physical exam revealed a well appearing male in moderate distress secondary to pain. His abdominal examination was remarkable for severe right upper quadrant pain to palpation without guarding or rebound. There was no costovertebral angle tenderness. His lung sounds were clear bilaterally. The patient remarked that the abdominal pain was made worse with deep inspiration. His cardiac exam was normal. Laboratory analysis revealed a normal complete blood count, complete metabolic profile, urinalysis, and lipase. A right upper quadrant ultrasound examination was performed, which demonstrated a positive sonographic Murphy’s sign and slight dilation of the common bile duct at 0.66 cm [Figure 1a and b]. A chest radiograph was significant for a right lower lobe infiltrate in the lung periphery [Figure 2]. At this time, it was felt that this could represent a Hampton’s hump; however, the patient had a low pre-test probability for having a PE. A d-dimer test was added and was positive (1.0 mg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units, Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock I 6:4 I Oct - Dec 2013

Gantner, et al.:Abdominal pain and pulmonary embolism

a

b

Figure 1: (a) Normal sagittal gallbladder (b) Mildly dilated common bile duct in left lateral decubitus position (arrow)

been misinterpreted as infection. Instead, the physician carefully considered the radiographic findings and determined that the patient needed further diagnostic testing.

Figure 2: Right lower lobe pulmonary infarct (arrow)

normal

Pulmonary embolism: An abdominal pain masquerader.

Abdominal pain is an uncommon presenting symptom for pulmonary embolism (PE). A delay in the diagnosis when a patient presents with atypical symptoms ...
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