Zdrav Var 2016; 55(3): 212-217
Gabrovec B, Eržen I. Prevalence of violence towards nursing staff in Slovenian nursing homes. Zdrav Var 2016; 55(3): 212-217
PREVALENCE OF VIOLENCE TOWARDS NURSING STAFF IN SLOVENIAN NURSING HOMES PREVALENCA NASILJA NAD ZAPOSLENIMI V ZDRAVSTVENI NEGI V DOMOVIH STAREJŠIH OBČANOV Branko GABROVEC1*, Ivan ERŽEN1,2 National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 1
Received: Nov 16, 2015 Accepted: Mar 24, 2016
Original scientific article
Introduction. The purpose of this research was to identify the prevalence of violence towards nursing staff in Slovenian nursing homes.
Keywords: workplace violence, nursing, nursing homes
Methods. For the purpose of this study, a non-experimental sampling method was employed, using a structured questionnaire as a data collection instrument (n=527). The contents of the questionnaire proved valid and reliable, with a high enough degree of internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha minimum 0.82). Results. The nursing staffs working in nursing homes for senior citizens are at high risk of violence. In the last year, the employees were most often faced with verbal violence (71.7%), physical violence (63.8%) and sexual violence (35.5%). 35.5% of employees suffered injuries at their working place. During aggressive outbursts of nursing home residents, employees particularly experience vulnerability, fear and insecurity. Conclusion. There is a need for a comprehensive approach to tackle workplace violence. Some psychiatric health care facilities have already introduced certain measures in this field, and reduction of workplace violence proves that it is possible to reduce aggressive outbursts of patients. After conducting further quantitative research, which would expose detailed characteristics and the background of such violence, it would be sensible to develop similar measures in the field of health care in nursing homes.
Uvod. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti pojavnost nasilja, usmerjenega proti zaposlenim v zdravstveni negi v domovih starejših občanov.
Ključne besede: nasilje na delovnem mestu, zdravstvena nega, domovi starejših občanov
Metode. Za to raziskavo smo uporabili neeksperimentalno metodo z anketnim vprašalnikom za zbiranje podatkov (n=527). Rezultati. Raziskava je pokazala, da so zaposleni v zdravstveni negi v domovih za starejše v nevarnosti za nastanek nasilja. V zadnjem letu so se zaposleni največkrat soočili z verbalnim nasiljem (71,7%), fizičnim nasiljem (63,8%), in spolnim nasiljem (35,5%). 35,5% jih je bilo poškodovanih. Med agresivnim izbruhom se zaposleni soočajo z ranljivostjo, strahom in negotovostjo. Zaključki. Raziskava kaže na to, da obstaja potreba po širšem pristopu k obvladovanju nasilja na delovnem mestu. Nekatere psihiatrične ustanove so že uspešno izvedle nekatere ukrepe na tem področju, kar dokazuje zmanjšanje števila agresivnih izbruhov. Po dodatni kvantitativni raziskavi, ki bi razkrila podrobne karakteristike in ozadje tovrstnega nasilja, bi bilo smiselno razviti podobne ukrepe tudi na področju zdravstvene nege v domovih starejših občanov.
*Corresponding author: Tel: ++ 386 40 381 470; E-mail: [email protected]
© National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0).
1 INTRODUCTION Increased workplace violence towards health care professionals has already been reported [1–3]. Healthcare professionals encounter many medical risks while providing healthcare services to individuals and the community . Healthcare workers (particularly nursing staff) are most frequently the object of psychiatric patients’ violent behaviour. However, other employees working with those patients – police officers, security officers, paramedics and nursing home staff – also experience some degree of workplace violence . In total, 35–80% of all healthcare employees experienced at least one physical assault at their workplace; whereby, the nursing staff is the most exposed group of all . 6.1 of injuries have been reported per 10,000 of health care employees, while the prevalence among other employees is much lower, 2.1 per 10.000 employees . The reported prevalence of workplace injuries in the field of healthcare is high; however, the actual prevalence of injuries at workplace seems to be even higher, since many incidents remain unreported . Up to 70% of incidents or cases of abuse towards the nursing staff remain unreported . According to the Swedish study, the majority of the respondents (85%) reported to have been exposed to workplace violence at some point in their career, and 57% of respondents reported having been victimized in the past 12 months . In 2013, an extensive study on the prevalence of workplace violence towards employees in psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric homes, nursing homes, and special education, work and care centres (SEWCC) was conducted in Slovenia . Altogether, 92.6% of respondents reported to have experienced aggressive verbal behaviour by their patients in the past 12 months. 84.2% of respondents were physically abused during that period and 63.5% of nursing staff has already suffered injuries, which were inflicted on them by their patients. In the past 12 months, 40.9% of staff were subjects of verbal abuse by patients’ family members . There are also few researches that were conducted for nursing homes alone. Aggressive behaviour poses not only a challenge, but also a burden for caregivers working in nursing homes. In the study conducted by Zeller and colleagues, 40% of the staff was exposed to workplace violence during the past year and 18% reported experiencing workplace violence on a daily basis . A significantly higher number of employees working in nursing homes reported violent behaviour compared to employees working in different types of settings . Physical violence was the most frequently (76%) reported type of violence. Helplessness, sadness, anger and feelings of insecurity were feelings most often experienced by staff faced with violent behaviour . Physical aggression was more frequently present in nursing homes (83.9%
Zdrav Var 2016; 55(3): 212-217
of employees); whereas, verbal aggression was more common in psychiatric hospitals (96.7% of employees). In the United States, the highest incidence of workplace assault is observed among nursing assistants working in long-term healthcare settings . 31% of the caregivers (n=120) were subjected to workplace violence in the last year, with physical violence as the most frequent type of violence . All types of caregivers were exposed to workplace violence, and their reactions were commonly very emotional . 34% of nursing assistants included in the study reported to have suffered physical injuries in the past year due to aggressive behaviour of nursing home residents. Nursing assistants employed in nursing homes with Alzheimer’s care units were more likely to suffer these types of injuries, including bites . The purpose of this research was to establish the prevalence of violence towards nursing staff in nursing homes in Slovenia.
2 METHODS The empirical part of the study is based on quantitative, non-experimental research, with a questionnaire being used as the method for gathering data. 2.1 Participants In Slovenia, 96 public and private nursing homes are operating in 10 geographical regions. A random sample of 3/4 of nursing homes in each region was included in the research. Questionnaires were sent to 72 nursing homes altogether, and each nursing home received 15 questionnaires that were randomly distributed among nursing staff. Questionnaires were randomly distributed among employees who were willing to participate in the study. Each participant could respond only once. In total, 1,080 questionnaires were distributed to employees, whereas 527 (48.79%) were returned. The total number of respondents included 46 (8.7%) men and 481 (91.3%) women. The average age (±SD) of the respondents was 39.72±10.35. The oldest respondent was 60 years old, and the youngest 19 years old. Levels of education: secondary 441 (83.8%), graduate 71 (13.5%), postgraduate 14 (2.7%). 2.2 Procedures The survey was conducted in April and May 2015. The participation was voluntary and the participants’ anonymity was ensured. When necessary, the administration of the relevant institutions gave their consent to participation in the study. The poll was conducted in accordance with the Code of Ethics for Nurses and Nurse Assistants and the Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. 213
Zdrav Var 2016; 55(3): 212-217
2.3 Instruments and Data Analysis
The questionnaire was prepared after reviewing the literature on previous studies, different situations faced by employees in the event of outbursts of aggression, and the quality and safety of patient treatment [5, 6, 9, 11, 16, 20].
Have you been exposed to verbal abuse by patients at your workplace in the last year?
YES = 378
1-2x 3-5x 6-9x 10x