The First International Symposium on Integrated Global Ocean Monitoring held in Tallin, U.S.S.R., 2-10 October, 1983, was aimed at the coordination of the ecological and physical aspects of integrated global ocean monitoring, exchange of latest scientific achievements, and development of international cooperation in the study of the World Ocean. The Symposium was sponsored by the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Science and Technology, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and U.S.S.R. State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Control of Natural Environment, with the support of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Symposium was attended by more than 200 scientists and experts from 26 countries as well as representatives and observes of the following intergovernmental organizations: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), International Maritime Organization (IMO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Helsinki Commission, and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). About 100 papers devoted to urgent problems of ocean ecology and physics were presented and discussed at the Symposium. The concept of the assimilative capacity of the ocean was presented at a plenary meeting, and the necessity shown for assessing the hydrodynamic transfer of pollutants, and their destruction and removal from the ocean water masses in the process of microbial metabolism and biogenous sedimentation. Much consideration was given in the papers presented, to the analysis of the modern ecological situation in the World Ocean. Interrelationships were shown between the physical and ecological phenomena in the oceans, and the development of the scientific rationale for integrated global ocean monitoring was proved necessary. The participants reviewed the results of the ongoing and planned ocean monitoring research programmes implemented at national and international levels within the framework of various organizations. In numerous papers it was shown that the, at present, negative effects of human activity are detected in the coastal zones of the World Ocean. The participants were of the opinion that these effects should be taken as serious warning signals of the potential danger of contaminating open ocean areas and of irreversible changes to the pelagic communities of marine organisms. At a plenary session of the Symposium, the basic scientific problems included in the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) were also reviewed. New examples of estimations of the atmosphere response to anomalous ocean temperatures were demonstrated, and schemes of the use of observational data for modelling the largescale processes occurring in the ocean were presented ('Sections' Programme). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 7 (1986) 1-4.
v u . A. IZRAEL
At the sessions of the ecological section it was shown that the most important problems of the modern ecology of the ocean comprise the study of ecological effects of anthropogenic impact, investigations of biological indication of ocean pollution, the study of biogeochemical cycles of pollutants, etc. Papers and discussions generally stressed the necessity of the further development of marine atmospheric chemistry relevant to long-range transfer and deposition of pollutants on the underlying surface - that of the World Ocean. The participants focussed attention on the problem of the bioaccumulation and biosedimentation of pollutants in various areas of the World Ocean in connection with the assessment of its accumulative capacity. The urgency to improve the methodology for analysing the state of the marine environment and to intercalibrate methods at national and international levels was stressed in numerous papers. The physical section of the Symposium was concerned with the problems of modelling the global circulation of the ocean, largescale ocean-air interaction, development of the World Ocean satellite monitoring, the problems of carbon cycle in the atmosphere and oceans, EI-Nifio and southern oscillations, physical aspects of pollution distribution and modelling the hydrophysical and hydrochemical processes in certain seas. The discussion showed that the monitoring of the hydrophysical characteristics of the World Ocean is one of the most important and promising developments of modern oceanology. At the concluding session the results of the work of the ecological and physical sections were discussed and the final document 'Resolution and Recommendations of the First International Symposium on Integrated Global Ocean Monitoring' was accepted. The recommendations of the Symposium as accepted by its participants are presented below. Yu A. IZRAEL
(1) It was obvious from numerous presentations at the Symposium that the concept of integrated global ocean monitoring must be developed. There is the need to explore carefully all aspects of such monitoring and to develop a sound scientific basis for establishing an integrated global ocean monitoring programme. International experts should be brought together within the framework of the United Nations system to discuss the development of such a programme. Taking note of the past activities of GESAMP, in particular its recent Review of the Health of the Oceans, the meeting recommended that GESAMP be requested to develop the aspects of integrated global ocean monitoring (IGOM) related to marine pollution and the protection of the marine environment, as part of UNEP's Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). In developing the concept, GESAMP should he requested to examine the scientific rationale for IGOM, as well
as its methodological feasibility, structure (elements), and the support required for its implementation. UNEP was invited to take the initiative in bringing the matter to GESAMP's attention and to prove support for the preparation of the conceptual framework of IGOM through GESAMP. The climatic aspects of IGOM would be developed in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme. (2) Considering the importance of climatic and physical processes in evaluating the state of the oceans and noting that several programmes have been initiated, such as the ongoing programme 'Sections' (Programme of investigations of the air-sea interaction for exploration of short-range climatic variations), as well as the planned programmes TOGA, WOCE, and exploratory time series, the Symposium strongly recommended that these programmes be supported. Relevant biological projects could also be considered along with these programmes. (3) The Symposium noted that it was feasible to utilize mussels (Mytilus sp.) as indicator organisms for monitoring the level of pollutants in the marine environment. The Symposium recommended that the competent international organizations consider the possibility of expanding the current Mussel Watch activities to determine the levels of organohalogen compounds in molluscs, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the southern hemisphere. (4) Noting that the concept of integrated global ocean monitoring and other elements, including assessment methodologies, biological and ecological indicators, assimilative or receiving capacity, need further research and development, the Symposium recommended that monitoring should only be developed in a gradual way and in close contact with research and that intercalibration exercises must be included in order to ensure intercomparability of data. (5) Eutrophication of the ocean can be monitored microbiologically and biochemically by measuring parameters that have a direct relationship with the turnover rate of biological elements. The technique for measurement can be applied in any country for global monitoring. It is recommended that monitoring for sanitary-microbiological indices be encouraged, with special reference to eutrophication. (6) Noting that the information on contamination levels in the World Ocean, provided by GIPME, needs to be enhanced, the Symposium recommends that programmes be devised for baseline studies of selected contaminants in the open ocean. It is further recommended that after the programmes have been devised by relevant experts, they be supported on an international basis and their results presented at the Second International Symposium on IGOM. (7) Considering the many important results presented at the Symposium, the concepts developed, the exchange of information and the great importance of the subject, it is recommended that the proceedings of the Symposium be published in Russian and English. (8) Regarding the many important results concerning the ecological situation in the World Ocean and the obvious values of the exchange of scientific information
YU. A. IZRAEL
related to the development of integrated global ocean monitoring, the Symposium recommended that the Second International Symposium on Integrated Global Ocean Monitoring be held in 3-4 years. (9) The participants of the Symposium request the Chairman of the Organizing Committee to convey the present conclusions in the name of the Secretary-Generals of the sponsoring international organizations and ask them to inform relevant bodies or expert groups of these organizations about the outcome of the Symposium. (10) The Symposium recognized the success of monitoring activities undertaken by the Regional Seas Programme. The Symposium supports the regional approach to environmental research and monitoring as a vital element in the achievement of integrated global ocean monitoring.