James A. Duke Herbal Vineyard Fulton, Maryland


M. Coburn Williams

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Biology Department Utah State University Logan, Utah

PHYTOTOXIN TABLES Being aware of concern about “natural” and “unnatural” chemicals in our environment, I have tabulated the distribution of toxins (as defined in NIOSH in 1975) in higher plants. Using NIOSH as a reference and accepting only the toxins listed therein, it is easy to list many “toxic” chemicals such as chlorophyll, fructose, fumaric acid, glyceraldehyde, glycerol, lysine, niacin, pectin, propionic acid, retinol, riboflavine, rutin, shikimic acid, tannic acid, and thiamine, which occur in many if not all green plants. Many vitamins found in nature are cited as “toxic” chemicals by NIOSH. NIOSH changed its title from Toxic Substances List to Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances in recognition of the fact that all substances can be toxic if misused. Listed in Table 1 are “toxic” chemicals from NIOSH (1975) which are also reported to occur in higher plants. The toxicity column, derived completely from NIOSH, follows their system of recording. Unless otherwise stated, toxicity units are per kilogram body weight. For example, the LD5 for abobioside administered intravenously to cats is reported as 0.699 mg. For economy of space, the symbols, /kg, which indicate per kilo-

gram body weight, are omitted. Unless parts per million is specified, assume that toxicity figures refer to per kilogram body weight. For more detailed data on these “toxins” and others not yet reported from plants, the reader is referred to NIOSH, where references to the original data sources are found. All symbols and toxicity values in Column 2 of Table 1 are derived from the voluminous NIOSH source. Many less relevant symbols from NIOSH were omitted for the sake of brevity. Of the 16,500 “toxins” listed in NIOSH few have so far been reported to occur naturally in plants. Since original sources of the NIOSH data are tabulated in NIOSH, they will not be retabulated here. Column 3 of Table 1, listing plant genera reported to contain the toxins, was compiled from references at the end of this article. Table 2 may be useful to medical doctors and veterinarians treating humans or animals who have ingested plants suspected of being poisonous. I know of no other ready reference like this one. In Table 2, a list of “toxins” (cited in NIOSH) reported from higher plant genera is compiled. NIOSH indicates that they did not verify all published data, nor can the toxic dose values presented be considered definitive for describing safe or unsafe concentrations for human exposure. November 1977


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Sirice different chemicals have different metabolic pathways, strict mathematical comparisons of LDsos for different chemicals are not valid; they can, at best, give a very rough approximation of the relative toxicities. The numbers presented in Table 2 were not intended to imply that mathematical relationships are yet possible. LDSOs are not directly comparable from one chemical to another, nor from one test species t o another. Knowing that a plant contains a highly toxic chemical means little until toxicity doses for the subject animal and quantitative data on the spatial and temporal distribution of the toxin in the plant have been obtained. The

LDsO is only an approximation within the range in values found reported for the same chemical on the same species of test animal. Though not a valid comparison, it is interesting t o compare “natural” toxins, such as caffeine and nicotine, with some of the “unnatural” toxins being added t o our environment. None of the data tabulated here are original. This is strictly a compilation from the published literature, a tabulation I find very useful in answering some of the hundreds of queries received on poisonous plants. I hope that those readers who also find it useful will inform me of errors or omissions that should be corrected.

TABLE 1 Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Toxicity”’



ivn cat LD, I, 0.699 mg ivn cat LD, D , 679 pg or1 rat LD, o , 1,930 mg

Acetic acid

or1 limn TDLo, 1,470 pg GIT

Ab,Jbioside Abonionoside


Acetophenone (hypnone) Aa:tylcholine (choline acetate ester) u-A cetyldigitoxin 0-Acetyldigitoxin wA.cetyldigoxin

c-Acetyldigoxm o:A.cetylgitoxin Ac(1longifloroside E Accmitine

ilil limn TDLo. 816 ppm/3 inin IKR orlrrlt LD,,, 3,310nig or1 nius LD, o , 4,960 mg or1 rbt LD,,, 5 , 3 0 0 m g or1 dog LDLo, 8,000 mg ilil man TCLo, 12,000 pprn/4 h r CNS ilil hmn TCLo. 500 ppin EYE or1 rat LD,, , 9 0 0 mg ipr mus LDLo, 200 rng 011 nius LD, o , 3,000 mg

or1 cat LD, o , 250 pg ivn cat LD, o , 5 14 pg or1 gpg LD, o , 50 mg ivn cat LD, o , 476 pg or1 cat LD, o , 200 pg or1 gpg LD, o , 3,300 fig ivn cat LD, D , 466 pg ivn cat LD, ~,430 pg or1 gpg LD, 40 mg ivn cat LD, o , 259 pg ipr rat LDLo. 250 pg ivn dog LDLo. 350 pg o 1

Plant genera

Adeniirm A deriirr i n Brassica. Carpinrts, Carum, Cinnamomum, Cirms, Foeniculrrm, L,ycopersicon. Menrha. Nicotiatra. Piinpinella. Pyrus, Quercus. Rosa, Rosmarinus, Sorbus Widespread, both free and combined

Coriandrum, Erythroxylum, Hevea. I.ycopersicotr, Manihor. Phaseolus:Pogostemon

Cainellia, Cistus, Corcliorus, Iris, Populus, Srillingia. Urtica Artocarpus. Capsella. Craraegus, ~ i g i r a l i s . Laportea. Solanum, Urtica, Viscuni

Difitalis Digitalis Digitalis

Digitalis Digitalis Acokan tlrera A conitu m

“A11 toxicity data derived from NIOSH, 1975.” Unless otherwise indicated, all gram, milligram, and microgram entries are expressed as per kilogram body weight. b’I’he following list of abbreviations is taken from NIOSH, 1975.” BLD, blood effects: C. continuous; Ca, calcium; CAR, carcinogenic effects; chd, child; ckn, chicken; CNS, central nervous system effects; ctl, cattle, D, day; dck, duck; d, dog; dom, domestic aninial; EYE,eye effects; frg, frog; GIT, gastrointestinal tract effects; gpg, guinea pig; ham, hamster; h i m , human; I, intermittent; ihl, inhalation; ims, intramuscular; ipr, intraperitoneal; IRR, irritant effects; ivn, intravenous; LC,, , lethal concentration 50% kill; LCLo, lowest publishcd lethal concentration; LD,,, lethal dose 50% kill; LDLo, lowest published lethal dose; mam, mammal (species unspecified); mky, monkey; mus, mouse; MUT, mutagenic effects; N1uhoisia, Ijwscvatrlrs. Mandragora, Scopolia, Solandra, Solanirm

or1 hmn TDLo, 100 pg PSY or1 rat LD, ,, 622 mg or1 mus LD, o . 400 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 1,450 mg or1 gpg LD, o , 1.100 nig or1 rat LD, o , 1,300mg or1 gpg LD,, , 1.000 mg scu rat LDLo. 5,000 mg or1 rat LD, D , 3.040 mg or1 mus LD,, ,2,370 mg or1 rat LD, o , 1,230 ntg or1 mus LD, o , 1,580 mg or1 rbt LD,,, 1.940 mg or1 rat LD, o , 270 mg or1 mus LD, D , 78 mg ipr rat LDLo. 500 mg


ivn mus LD,, ,830 mg

Bicuculline Birlorine ((marine , protopine)

ipr thus LDLo. 25 rng ipr rat LDLo, 100 mg


or1 rbt LDLo, 2,000 mg

Baroside D Brdcken

ivn cat LD,, , 0. I I mg oil rat TDLo. 3,050 g(17 WC CAR or1 ctl TDLo, 495 g16B WC NEO or1 hmn LDLo, 30 mg or1 rat LD, o , 1 rng or1 rbt LD,. ,4mg ivn limn TDLo, 2 mg ipr mus LD, o , 290 mg scu mus LD,, ,195 mg ihl hmn TCLo, 25 ppm or1 rat LD, D , 790 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 4,250 mg TWA 100 ppm ihl hmn TCLo, 580 mglm' 011 rdt LD, o , 2,490 mg



Bul bocapnine Butyl alcohol


Butyric acid


Plant genera



or1 rat LD,, ,2,940 mg or1 mur LDLo, 500 rng nrl rbt LULo, 3,600 nig

C'KC Critical Reviews inToxicology


A risrolochia Acorus. Asamm, Daucus, Orthodon. Piper Chenopodium Widespread

Acacia. Canatr,qa,Diantlrtis, I:riycwia. Hvacirrrhris. l l ~ ~ l u l , ~ r tKc~~I rS .l l .R l f l l l f ~K,l l r o Aniba. Cananga, Cinnaniomum. Eugenia, Caultheria,

Globitlaria. Myroxylon. Vacciniitm, Xanthorrliea 4cacro. Canangn. DIan thus. Eugenfn. ffyarinihur Jasminum. Narcissus, Polianrhes. Viola Codonocarpus, Lepidiunt. Lepracriaa, Tropaeolum

A rherospcrnia. Eerberis. Mahonia, ~ctiarrlrena, Stephania Atriplex. Beta. Cichoriuni. Clvcine. Gossypirrm. Heliantlius. Lycium. Orfliosiphon. Parrlienirim. Scopolia Adlirmia. Corydalis. Dicrnrra, Fumaria Adluniia. A rcromecon. ArRemone, Bocconia. ~ ' h r ~ l i ~ l ~ ~ ~(iyi,dalih, r i r t t t r , (:i~sricaptro.s. Dacrylicarpus, Dendromecon. Dicentra. Dicranosrigma. Eschscholtzia, Rtmaria. Clauciirnt, Hunnemannia. Hypecoum, Maccleaya. Meconella. Mcconopsis, Nandina, Pnpawr, Plar.wapnos, Plarysrrnion. Pteridophyllurn, Roemeria. Romneya. Saiytinaria. Sarcocapnos. Srvlophorirnr A ngelica. Asariini. Eiuinua, Eonvellia. Cinnamomuni. Cirrus. Coriandrifm. Civnbopogon, Dr.vobalanops. Clcrraria. l..', Lindera. Marricaria. Myrisrica. Rosmarinus. Salvia, 7hymus. Valeriana. Zingibrr Eowiea

Prrris Stryclinos

Drsmodium. Lespedeza. Plialaris. Pipradrnra. Virola Corydalis. Dicciirra. Fumaria Meritlra

Acacia. Arremisia, Camellia, Carpinus, b'rtcalyptus. Lavandula. Melaleuca, Monarda, Morus, Quercirs. Raplianus Eucalyp rus? , Sapindus?

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant genera


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Caffeine kuaranine)

Cajeput oil Cajeputol (epoxymanthane) Calamus oil Calotropin Camphor

Cimpto thecin

or1 hmn LDLo, 192 mg or1 rat LD, , I92 mg or1 mus LD, .,, 6 2 0 mg or1 cat LDLo. 125 mg od rbt TDLo. 1.500 mg (1-15 DpregTER) or1 mus TDLo, 650 mg (6- I8 D preg TER) or1 rat LD',,, 387 mg or1 rat LD,,, 2,480 mg scu mus LDLo, 50 mg or1 rat LD,, ,777 mg or1 cat LDLo, I20 mg ipr rat LDLo, 900 mg scu mur LDLo, 2.200 mg TWA 2 ppm


Annona, Camellia, Cereus, Coffea. Cola. Combrerum. Davilla. Erodium. Callesia, Genipa. Guazirma. Harrisia, Helicteres, Herrania. Ilex, Lrocereus, Maytenus, Neea. Oldenlandia, Paullinia, Pilocereus. Piriqueta. Pleiocarpa. Sterculia, Theobroma. Trichocereus, Turncra, Urginea, Villaresia. Melaleuca Melaleirca

ivn hmn TDLo. 2,500 bg/7 Di BLD

Acorus , Asclepias. Calotropis, Pewlaria Ach'illea. Acorus, Alpinia. Arisrolochia, Arremisia, Chenopodium. Chrysanthemum. Cinnamomum. Curcuma, Lavandula. Lippia. Matricaria. Meriandra. Ocimum. Prunella. Rosnrarinus. Salvia. Sassafras, Tanaeetuni Camptotheca

ipr mus LD,, , I25 mg


or1 rat LD, I, 860 mg


or1 rat LD, o , 666 mg


orlmusLD,,.482mg or1 dog LDLo, 525 mg ipr rat LDLo. 500 mg


(Naaalt) Cannabinol, tetrahydro Cannabinol, (delta 8. tetrahydro) Cannabinol. (delta 9, tetrahydro) Capuarine (capauridine) Capric acid (decanoic acid) Caproic acid (hexanoic acid) Caprylic acid (occanoic acid) Capsaicin Caraway oil Carbatole (class of alkaloid) Carene Carthamoidine Carvacrol

1 Carveol Carvone Cassia oil

ivn mus LD,

I29 mg

or1 rat LD, o , 3,500mg

Citrus, Cuphea. Cymbopogon. Lavandula. Litsea. Neolitsea. Ruta. Sassa)hs, tilmus. Zelkova i, Carndlia, ~ l i r i ~ s a i i t l i ( ~ i i i i r~i i;ii ,i i i a i i i f ~ i i i r r i i COC(IS, Launrs. Lavandirla. Men tha, Prunirs. Ruta Asrroca~yum.Cinnamomum. Citrus. Cocos. Ciiphra. Cymbopogon, Mentha. Myristica, Rcseda. Roysronea. Spartium. Ulmirs. Zrlkova Capsicum Carum

skn rbt LD, o , 1,780 mg ipr mus LD, D , 200 mg

Claitsenia. Glycosmis. Murraya


or1 rat LDLo. 3,000 mg

ivn mus LD,, ,600 mg ivn cat LDLo, 1,600 re.

or1 rat LD,

b ,

4,800 mg

ivn mus LD,, , 6 8 mg or1 rat LD,,, 810 mg or1 rbt LDLo. 100 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 2,700 mg or1 rat LD,.. 3,000 mg 011 rdt LD,, , 1,640 mg or1 gpg LD, o , 766 mg or1 rat LD,

D ,

2.800 mg

Chcnopodirrrn. Citrus. Dacrydium. Eucalyptus, Illicium. Kacmpferia. Pintrs, Piper Seirecio Carum. Cinnamomum, Mentha, Neprta, Ocimirm. Origanum. Orthodon. Ritra. Satureja, Schinits. Th.vmrrs, Zea Carum Anethum, Carum, Chrysanthemum. Citrus. Cympobogon, Eucalyptus. Lavandula. Lindera. Lippia, Litsea, Menrhs Nigrlla, Orthodon, Satureja Cinnamomum

skn rbt L D S , , 3 2 0 m g Catechol (see Pyrocatechol) Cedarleaf oil Cephaeline (HCI) Cerberin Cevadine

Cevine Ceylon cinnamon

or1 rat LD,, ,830 mg


iprrat LD,,. lOmg

Alangium. Bothriospora. Capirona, Cephaelis. Ferdinandusa. Hillia, Psychotria. Remijia. Tocoyena Cerbera, Tangliinia. Thevetia Schoenocaulon. Veratrum

ivncat L D , , . 3 7 0 r g ivn mus LD, o , 1 mg scu rbt LDLo, 900 pg scu gpg LDLo, 1 mg ipr rat LD, D , 67 mg ivn mus LD, o 1 87 mg oil rat LD, I, 4,160 mg

Schoenocaulon, Veratrum Cinnamomum


Cheiran thuin Clieirotoxin

ivn cat LDLo, 44 pg ivn cat LDLo, I19 rg

Cheiranthus Cheiranthus

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Toxicity’‘b




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Choleste rol

scu rat LDLo, 300 mg scu mur LDLo, 300 mg scu rbt LDLo, 300 mg scu gpg LDLo, 300 mg scu frg LDLo.300 mg ipr mus LD, o , 400 mg ivnmusLD,,.285 mg ivn gpg LDLo. 8 0 mg ECU mus TDLo. 600 mg/9 W I CAR or1 rbt TDLo, 84 g/42 DI NEO


ipr rat LD, o , 400 mg

Chr ysnrobin Cicu toxin Cinchonidine Cinvhonine Cineole (1-8) (eucalyot-1)

ipr mus LDLo. 4 mg orl cat LDLo, 7 mg ipr rat LD,, .206 mg ipr rat LD,. , 152 mg or1 rat LD,, , 2,480 mg scu mus LDLo, SO mg

Cinnamaldeh yde

Cinnamyl alcohol

or1 gpg LD,, , 1.160 mg 011 rdt LD,, , 2 2 2 0 mg ipr mus LD,,, 200 mg par mus LDLo, 200 mg or1 rat LD,. , 2,000 mg


or1 rat LD, o , 4,960 mg

Citrk acid

ipr rat LD, (I,884 mg ipr mus LD,, ,961 mg ivnmusLD,,,42mg ivnrbt LD,,,330mg

Citronella oil Citronellol

or1 mam LDLo, 1,000 mg imsmusLD,,,4,000mg

Clove oil Cocaine





c? =


rat LD, o , 3,720 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 126 mg ivn mus LDLo, 3 0 mg ivnratLDS,.18mg orlmusLD,,.250mg ivn rbt LD,, , 34 mg scu rat LD,,,SOO mg ipr mus LD,, , 2 0 0 mg scu mu6 LDLo, 241 mg ivn rat TDLo, 5,700 p g NEO ipr mus LDLo. I 5 mg unk rbt TDLo, 500 rg (prep) TER or1 hmn LDLo, 4 3 p g ipr mus LD,, , 8 4 mg

Reports are very dubious.

CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Plant genera

Chelidonium. Dicranostigma, Glaucium, Stylophomm

All green plants

Calendula, Dioscorea. Haplopappus, Hefianihus, Hypochoeris, Ilex. Phoenix. Populus, Solanurn, Tamnus Acorus. Adonis, Artemisia. Atropa. Caltha. Canavalia. Cannabis. Capsella, Cephaelis, Cicer. Cichorium. Coffea, Combretum, Convallaria, Daucus, Dictamnus. Digitalis. Doryphora. Erodium. Eupatorium, Fagus. Cenista, Clycine, Gossypium, Helianthus. Humulus, Hyoscyamus, Hyssopus. Lactuca. Lagenaria. Lens. Leonurus, Linum, Luffa, Magnolia, Marrubium, Medicago, Moms, Olea, Orthosiphon. Oryza. Pachyrrhizus, Panicum. Pennisetum. Phaseolus. Pimpinella, Pluchea, Scopolia. Strophanthus, Taraxacum, Trigonelfa, Valeriana. Vicia. Withania Andira. Cassia. Rumex Cicuta Cinchona. Remiiia. Strychnos Cinchona, Remijia Achillea. Aglaia. Alpinia. Artemisia, Blumea, Cinnamomum. Comptonia. Curcuma. Cyprus. Elletaria, Eucalyptus. Eugenia, Illicium. Laums. Lavandula. Lippia, Litsea. Luvunga, Melaleuca. Miwtha. Michelia. hlwothantntts, Mvrrus. Ocimrtni. Pimen ta, Piper. Rosrnarinus. Ruta. Salvia, Zingiber Cassia. Cinnantomum. Hyacinthus. Lavandufa. Narcissus, Pogostemon

Cinnamomum, H.vacinthrts. Xarcissus. Populus, Xanthorrhoea Aglaia. Backhousia. Caniellia. Citnrs. Cvmbopogon, Eucalypfus. Lavandula. Lrpiosprrmum, Lippia. Melissa. Ocimum. Pelargonium. Phebalium. Pimenta. Piper. Prunus, Rosa. Sassafras, Thymus, Zingiber Ananas, Angelica. Asprrula. Berberis. Bela. Bryophylhtm. Cltelidonium, Cirrus. Digitalis, Drosera, Fagus. Frogaria. Calium. Garcinia, Helianthus. Hibiscus. Ilex. Kleinia. I.actuca. Loliuni. Malus. Mammea. Medicago. Morus. Musa. Myrtus. Nicotiana. Oryza. Papavrr. Passi~lora. Plantago. Pyrus. Ribes. Sclerocarya, Sedum. Spinacia, Tamarindus’,Tanacetum, Vitts Cymbopogon Backhousia. CaljJthrix,Camellia. Cinnamomum, Citrus, Cymbopogon. Lippia. Melissa, Pelargonium. Rosa, Xanthorrhoea Syzygium E?yrhrorylum. GlrdirAio?c

Colchicum. Gloriosa, Merendera

Colchicum. Merendera

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Toxicityasb

Chemical Colchicine

or1 hmn LDLo, 186 pg 4 D skn musTDLo, 144 mg/14 W NEO ipr mus TDLo, 2,500 mg MUT ivn ham TDLo, 10 mg (14 D preg) TER

Coniine (cicutine)

scu mus LDLo, 75 mg


scu mus LDLo, 600 mg

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Convallatoxin Convallatoxol Convalloside Coramine

Corchoroside A Coriamyrtin

Coriander oil Corlumine Corynantlirine Costus oil Cotoin Coumarin

pCresol pCresol methyl ether Croton oil Cryogenine Cuachichicine (HCI) Cucurbitacin E (elaterin)

ipr rat LD,, , 3,400 pg ivii rat I.I)Lo. 38 ma ivn frg LDLo, 300 pg ivn cat LD,, , 8 7 pg ivn cat LDLo, 21 5 pg or1 hmn TDLo, 18 mg PSY or1 rbt LD, I , 650 mg scu rat LD, ,240 mg ivn dog LDLo, 175 mg ivn cat LD, , 17 pg orlmusLD,,,lmg scu rat LDLo, 1 mg ivn rat LDLo, 700 pg orlrat LD,,,4,130mg ipr rat LDLo, 25 mg ivn mus LDLo, 1,400 ug or1 rat LD, ,, 3,400 mg scu frg LDLo, 224 mg skn mus TDLo, 1,800 mg NEO or1 mus LD,, , 196 mg or1 rat LD, o , 293 mg or1 gpg LD,, , 2 0 2 mg

, ,


or1 rat LD,,, 1,454 mg orlmusLD5,,X61mg or1 rat LD,,, 1,920 mg

ipr mus LDLo, 1 mg ipr rat LD, , 5 5 mg ivn mus LDLo, 10 mg ivn cat LDLo, 10 mg ipr mus LD, D , 2 fig


Cumene Cumin oil Cuminic alcohol Cuminic aldehyde (cuminaldehyde)

or1 rat LD,,, 1,400mg orlrat LD,,,2,500mg or1 rat LD, , 1,020 mg or1 rat LD, ,, 1,390 mg skn rbt LD,, ,2,X00 mg


Ivn dog LD, o , 1,200 pg ivn rbt LD, , 1,300 pg scu dog LD, I, 500 p g ipr mus LDLo, 3 mg

Curarine Cyanocobalamin (vitamin 8 , 2 ) Cycasin

Cyclopamine Cymarin Cymarol pEymene


or1 rat LDLo, 400 mg/2 DC CAR or1 mus TDLo, 300 mg CAR or1 ham TDLo, 100 mg CAR or1 dam TDLo, 800 mg (8 D preg) TER ivn cat LDLo, 130 ug ivn cdt LDLo, 99 pg or1 hmn TDLo, 86 mg CNS or1 rat LU, ,, 4.750 mg ipr gpg LDLo, 2.162 nip

Plant genera

Androcymbium, A sphodelus, Bulbine. Bulbocodium. Carnptorrlriza. Ct)lchicirni, Crocns. 1lipidn.x. Cloriosa, Hemerocallis, IphiKenia, Lit tonia, Lloydia. Merendera. Muscari, Narcissus, Ornifhoglossum, Sandersonia. Tofieldia, Tulipa, Veratrum Aerhitsa, Amorphophallus, Arisariim. Aruni. Caladium. Conium. Humulus, Pnrietaria, Punica. Sarcolobus Convallaria Antioris, Convallaria, Ornithogalum Antiaris, Convallaria Convallaria. Ornithogalum Corydalis

Castilla, Corchorus, Erysimum Coriarin Coriandrum Corydnlis. Dicentra Corynanthe, Pausinystalin, Pseudocinchona costus Aniba. Necrandra. Rudgeq Wide distribution, Achylis. Alyxia, Asperula. Cerarophyllum, Chrysuphyllum, Cinnamomum, Dipteryx. Ficus, Hemidesmus, Herniaria. Laserpitium, Lavandula, Levisticum. Liatris, Macrosiphonia, Melilotus, Pasrinnca, Peristrophe. Petroselinum. Phoenix, Prunus. Rhinacanthus, Ruta, Stenolobium, Tabt-buiu, Talauma, Verbascum, Vitis Acacia. Camellia. Citrus, Cnaphalium, Jnsminum, Ledum. Lilium, Pimpinella Cananga Crofon Decodon, Heimiu Gnrrya Bryonia. Citrullus, Cucurbira. Ecballium, Echinocystis, Kedrostis, Lagenaria, Luffa, Peponium, Telfniria Cuminum Cuminum Cinnamomum, Cuminum, Eucalyptus. Lnvandirla. Ledum Acacia, Aegle, Artemisia, Cicuta, Cinnamomum, Cuminum, Lavnndula. Pectis. Peumus. Ruta. Znnthoxylum Strychnos StrJ'ChnOS Medicago. Symphytum Cycas

Verntriim Adonis. Antioris, Apocyiiiini. Cnstilla. Pac~liycarpiis. Strophantlius A ntrnris. Stropliarithiis Aegli,, Boswelliu. Chenopodiuni, Cninamomiim Cifrirs Coriandrrrm. Cvoton. Cir~ninir~n, Eschsrhultzlo. Eucnlyptir~.Eirpntoriiini, lllrciiiin Lpdum. Lirs?a. Mdnlivwa. Afyristrca.A'igeIh, Ori~arir~iti. Sariirela, Thymus

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant genera Cytisine

or1 mus LD,, , 101 mg

Uaphe Daniascenini (HCI) Decamine

ipr mus LDLo, 500 mg or1 mus LD,,, 1,800 mg or1 hnin LD,,,80mg or1 rat TDLo. 25 mg (6-15 D preg) TER or1 miis LD,,, 368 mg or1 rat LD,,, 3,730 mg

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Decand Decanolc acid (capric acid) Decyl alcohol Deniecolcine

Dea: rpid ine Dkd< ctyl

(buranedione) Dichroinc Diethylamine

Digitalis glucoside (iizara) Digi toxin Digi ioxoside Digaxin Dih) drokawain


Dime thy1 tryptamine (indole) Dipentene (see Limonene) Divaricoside Dod(!cyl alcohol Don:ixine (gamine) Dopa


ivn mus LD,, , I29 mg or1 rat LD1,.4.720mg ihlmus LC,,.4.000mg!m3 ivn rat TDLo, 6 mg or1 rat LDLo. 100 mg or1 dog LDLo. 100 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 200 me or1 gpg LDLo, 75 mp: ipr mus LD, o , 60 me or1 mus LD, ,, 500 mg or1 rat LD, o , 1.580 mg or1 gpg LD, D , 990 nig or1 mus LD, ,2,740 rg ivn mus LD,, , 10 mg ivn rat TDLo. 5.720 rrg 1 Y I CAR scu rat TDLo. 0.5 mg (12- 15 D preg) TER or1 dog LDLo, 180 mg ivn dog LDLo, 4 mg or1 rat LD,,, 100 rg orlcat LD,,,0.18mg ivn cat LDLo. 400 rrg or1 gpg LD,, ,3500rg or1 cat LD, o , 200 erg or1 mus LD,, ,920 mg ipr mus LD,,. 325 me ipr rbt LD,,, 350 mg or1 rat LD,, , 6 9 8 mg or1 mus LD,,, 316 mg or1 rbt LD,, , 2 4 0 mg or1 gpg LD, o , 240 mg TWA LOppm ims man TDLo, I rng CNS iprmusLD,,, l l O m g ivn mus LD,, , 4 3 mg


ivn cat LD,,. 16Spg ipr rat LD, D , 800 mg ipr rat LDLo, 250 mg iprmusLD,,. 122mg or1 rat LD, o , 582 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 950 mg or1 man TDLo, 5,733 mg or1 wmn TDLo, 300 r g / D (1st 7 W preg) TER or1 rat LD, ,, 165 mg or1 mus LD, , 145 mg ivn cat LD,, , 2 9 0 rg ivn cat LD,, , 3 0 0 rg ipr mus LDLo, 512 mg ipr mus LD,. , 1 2 mg or1 gpg LDLo, 20 mg

Anagyris. Argyrolobium. Baprisia. Cladrasris, Coronilla, Cyfisus. Euchresta, Genista, Gledifsia.Laburnum. Lotus, Piofanthus. Senecio, Sophora, Spartium, Templetonia. Tliermops~s.Ulex Daphne Nigella Decodotr

Acacia. Cassia. Cinnamomum. Cirrus, Coriandrum. Iris, Lavandula Cirrus. Cuphea. Cynibopogou, Lavandda. Lrrsea. Neolirsea. Ruta, Sassafras. Ulmus, Zelkova Cirrus. Pntnus, Simmondsia Colrhicum. Merendera Derris

Rauwolfia. Tonduzia Carum. Fagraea. Polvalrhia Dichroa Arum, Sauromalum

Digitalis Digiralis Diniralis Digitalis Piper

Arum. Courbonia. Cratoegus, Dracunrultis. Heracltunt. Saurumatum

Acoria. Bartisreriopsis. Desmodium, Lespedeza. Mimosa. Petolostylis, Pholoris. Piptadenia. Prrsrouia Srrophonrli its Cirnrs. Fitrcroea. Ligtisricinrt. Rhamnus Acrr. Arundo. Desmodium. Hordeirm. Lirpirilrs. Plraloris Astrogalus. Boprisia. Cyiisus. Eitpliorbia, Lupimts. Mitctrno. Mirsa. Portulaca, Vicia Hrrntidiutri. Mitctrno. Mirsa


khubioside Ekliujin Ehidic acid Emrtine


CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Adeniom A deniu in Delphinium, Physalis. Tribulus Alangrum. Borrrria. Bothriosporo, Capirona. Cephaelis, Ferditraridttsa. Hillia. Hvban thus, .Wanettia. Psychotria, Remiiia. Richardia. Tocoyeria

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant genera


Enteramine (see Serotonin) Ephedrine

or1 mus LD, o , 400 mg PSY or1 rbt LDLo, 590 mg scu hmn TDLo, 357 crg scu rat LD, 300 mg

Aconirum. Carha. Ephedra. Morinna, Roemeria. Sida, Taxus

, ~

Ergine (see Lysergarnide) Ergometrine

scu rat LDLo, 500 crg

Argyreia, Ipomoea, Riven A rgyreia. tpomoea

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ivn rat LDLo, 7,500 pg

Ergosterol (ergocalciferol) (vitamin D,) Erysodine (HCI) Erysopine (HCI) Erysothiopine (Na) Erythraline (HBr) Erythramine (HBr) 0-Erythroidine Esdragole (ertragole) Eserine (see Physostigmine) Estrone

Ethyl alcohol

Ethyhniine (ethanami ne ) (ethyl mercaptan) Eucalyptol (see Cineole) Eucalyptus oil Eugenol

Eugenol methyl ether Evonoside Fenchone (norbornanone) Fennel oil Ferulic acid Ficin

ivn gpg LDLo, 80 mg or1 dog LDLo, 4 rng ipr dog LDLo, 10 mg ivn dog LDLo, 5 mg ims dog LDLo, 5 mg or1 mus LD,, , 1 5 5 mg scu mus LD, o , 100 mg or1 mus LD, o , 18 mg scu rnus LD, , 15 mg scu mus LD, o , 76 mg or1 mus LD, o , 80 rng scu mus LD, ,, 9 2 mg scu mus LD,, , 104 rng ipr mus LD, o , 24 mg ivn rbt LD,, ,8,600 crg or1 rat LD,,, 1,820 mg or1 mus LD,,, 1,250 mg


imp rat TDLo, 16 mg NEO imp gpg TDLo, 2 rng NEO imp ham TDLo, 100 mg CAH parmusTDLo,30mg(11-16 DprcgiTER or1 chd LDLo, 2,000 mg or1 man TDLo, SO mg or1 mus LDLo, 220 mg or1 dog LDLo, 5,500 mg or1 cat LDLo, 6,000 mg or1 rbt LD, o , 6,300 rng orlgpg LD,,,5,56Omg or1 rat LDLo, 400 mg ihl rat LCLo, 3,000 p p d 4 hr skn rbt LD, I, 390 mg


or1 rat LD, ,4.440 mg or1 rat LDLo, 500 mg or1 mus LD, o , 3,000 mg or1 gpg LD,,, 2,130 mg

or1 rat LD, o , 1,I 79 mg ipr mus LD, 540 mg ivn mus LD,,, 112 mg ivn cat LDLo, 839 crg or1 rat LD,, ,4,400 mg or1 rat LD, D , 3.1 20 mg par mus LDLo. 1,200 mg or1 rat LD, o , 5,000 mg or1 rbt LD, o, 5,000 mg or1 rbt LD,, ,5,000 mg or1 gpg LD, ,5,000 mg ivn mam LDLo, 50 mg ipr mus LD,, , 100 mg ivn mus LD, p , 239 mg or1 wmn LDLo, 36 mg arl rat LD, o , 800 me. or1 gpg LD, I , 260 mg scu rat LDLo, 1,300 mg/65 WI NEO TWA 3 ppm

Citrus, Hevea, //ex, Lactitca. Nicotiana. 7riticuni

Eryrhrina Eryrhrina Eryrhrina Eryrlirino Eryrhrina Ery thrina Arremisia. Feronra. Foenicuhrm, /lliciuin, Orimutn. Persea. Pimcnra. Pimpinella Elaeis. Malus. Phornix, Yunica

Angelica, Anrhriscus, Casranra. Cirnts, Eircalyp?us,Frazaria, &racI.ttm, /,vcopersicuiz. Metitha, Nicoriatia. Pasrinaca. Ruhus

Amorphophallus. Arum. Bryonia, Craraegus. Dracunculus. Erudiitm. Sambucus, Sauromarium

Eucalyprus Acorrrs. AIpinia. Cananga. Cannahis. ~'ifiiiaiifoifif~fii, Cirrus. Cryprocarya. Cym bopogon. Dicypdlium Eugenia, Geum. Lcvisricum. Laitrus, Lavandula. Majoramrtn. Michrlia. Myristica, Nicoriana, Ocimttm. Pimeiita. Pimpinella, Piper, Pogostemon, Polianthes, Prunus. Reseda, Syzygium Acacia, Aeorus, Asarum, Arherosperma. Cananga, Cinnamomum, Hyacinrhus. Melaleuca. Pimenta, Piper, Rosa Euonymus Blumea. Founiculum, Lavandula. Prunella, Thuja Foeniculum Elodea. Ferula. Lycopersicon Ficus


Folic acid (vitamin M ) Formaldehyde

Gossypium. Hordeum. hglans. Lacntca, Larhyrus, Lens. Lycopersicon. Madhuca, Malus. Morus. Musa Achillea. Beta. Cymbopogon. Humulus, Monorda

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant genera



d r a t LD,,, 1,210mg orlmus LD,,, 1,100mg or1 dog LD, * , 4,000 mg ivn mus LD, ~,145 mg scu nius TDLo, 5,000 mg NEO

Arnica. Artemisia, Cinnamomum. Cisrus, Citrus, Daucus, Digitalis. Eriodictyon. Humulus. Malus, Mentha. Myrisrica, Nicotiana. Ricinus. Triticum, Urtica, Valeriano Widespread

Funiaric acid

ipr mus LD,,. 200 nig

Fun tumidene

ivn mus LD, o , 21 mg ivn mus LD, o , 30 mg or1 rat LD,,. 127 mg

General? Acer. Angelica, Arnica, Capsella, Carduus, Corydalis. Dicentra. Fumaria. Glaucium. Helianthus, Myrrhis, Oldenlandia, Phaseolus, Ricinus, Senecio. Silybum Funrumia Funrumia Angelica. A rractylodes, Cananga. Canrm. Cinnamomum.Citrus, Cymbopogon, Gossypium, Hordeum. Ilex, Juglans, Lavandula, Mentha, Mvristica, Pimenra. Syzygium, Zea

Foirnic acid

Fructose [ fructopynanune

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Funtumine Fur u r d

Fur uryl alcvliol

Galllc acid

Caryfoline (acetate) Gar-yme (HCI) Gaultheria oil

Gel,,emine Gm tisic acid Geraniol

Geranium oil Geimerrne

GitJin Gitorin Git4)xin Glaucarubin Glyceraldehyde Glycerol Gnciscopine (see Narcotine) Gossypol Gossyverdurin Gramine (donaxhe) Guaiacol Guanidine

Guanine (HCI) Guaranina (see Caffeine)


orlmusLD,,,425mg or1 dog LD, ,, 2,300 mg or1 rbt LD,, , 9 2 8 mg or1 gpg LD, o , 54 1 mg TWA 5 ppin or1 rat LD,,, 215 mg hl rat LD, 233 ppm 4 urlmusLD5,,40mg ivnrbt L D 5 , , 6 5 0 m g TWA 50 ppm or1 rat LD, 5,000 nig



ivn rnus LD, D , 16 mg ivn mus LD,, , I 3 rng par r a t 'I'DLo, 1,500 mg (9- I 1 D preg) TER or1 hmn TDLo, 170 mg or1 rat LD, o , 887 mg orlniusLD,,, 1 , l l O m g or1 dog LD, ~,2,100 mg or1 rbt LD, o , 1,300 mg or1 gpg LD,, , 1,060 mg scu rbt LDLo, 500 pg ivn rbt LDLo. 800 pg or1 rat LD, o , 800 mg or1 rat LD, o , 3,600 mg ims m u s LD, o , 4,000 mg ivn rbt LD,,, 50 mg

skn rbt LD, o , 2,500 mg or1 rat LD,, , 30 mg scu rat LD, , 3,700 pg scu cat LDLo, 500 pg scu rbt LDLo, 2 mg scu mus LDLo, 29 mg ivn cat LD,, ,0.43 mg or1 cat LDLo, 880 pg or1 hmn TDLo, 3 mg GIT ipr rat LO, ~,2.000 mg arl gpg LD,, ,7,750 mg


orlrdtLD,,,2,315mg or1 pig LD,,, 550mg or1 rat LD, o , 660 mg ipr rat LDLo, 250 mg ipr rnus LD, , I22 mg or1 rat LD, B , 725 mg


or1 rbt LDLo, 500 mg scu rbt LDLo, 500 mg scu mus LDLo, 500 mg ipr mus LDLo, 200 mg

CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicologv

Acacia. Arctostaphylos, Areca. Astilbe. Bergenia, Camrllia, Cornus, Digitalis. Juniperus. La wsonia. Malus, Mangifera. Myrica, Phyllanthus. Polygonunr, Prunus. Psidiuin, Punica, @rus Garrya Carrya Gaulth~~ria

~ , ' l ~ l ~ < ~ l l l 1hfl l lls~r il r, l ~ r l

75 Dicot, I monocot families Bursera, Camellia. Cinnamomum. Cirms, Darwinia. Elsholtzia, Eucalyprus, Eugenia, Humulus. Jasminum, Lavandula. Lippra. Mangifera, Melissa. Michelia. Myristrca. Pelorgonium, Polianthes. Prunus. Thvmus, Zingiber Pelargonium Verarrum

Digitalis Digitalis Digitalis Perrirra. Simarirba Universal? Universal?, Oleo, Phoenix, Theobroma Gossypium Gussypium Acer, A rundo, Desmodium. Hordeuw, Lupinus, Phalaris Acer, Apium. Betula, Cannabis. Coffea. Cirrus. Guaiacum, Nicoliana. Pandanus. Ruta Brra. Brarsica. Galega, Glycine, Vicia, Zea


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant genera


Halostachyine (HCI) Harmaline

Harman Harmine

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Heliotrine Helleborein Hep t anal Heptane Heptanoic acid Heptyl alcohol

Hesperidin Heteroxanthine Hexadecanol Hexanal (acpronaldeh yde) Hexanol (hexyl alcohol) Himandrine Hinokitiol Histamine

Ha leaf oil Hordenine (see Anhaline) Hydantoin

Hydrastine (HCI) Hydrocyanic acid

ivn rbt LDLo, 100 mg acu rat LDLo, 120 mg scu rbt LDLo, 100 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 20 mg ipr mus LD, (I,50 rng scu rbt LDLo, 200 mg ivn hmn TDLo, 2 mg PSY ivn rat LD,, , 2 7 4 mg par rat LDLo, 150 mg (preg) TER ivn cat LDLo, 1.900 cg or1 mus LD, o , 500 mg ihl hmn TCLo, 1,000 ppm/6 min CNS or1 mus LD,, , 1 6 0 mg ivn mus LD, o , 1,200 mg or1 rat LD, o , 3.25 mg or1 mus LD, o , 1,500 mg or1 rbt LD,,, 750 mg ipr mus LD, , 1.000 mg ukn frg LDLo, 10 mg skn rbt LD, D , 2,600 mg or1 rat LD, D , 4,890 mg ihl rat LDLo, 2,000 ppm/4 hr Or1 r d l LD,, , 7 2 0 mg orlmusLD,,, 1,950mg sknrbtLD,,,3,100mg ivn rat LD, o , 34 mg scu gpg LDLo, 500 mg scu gpg LD, o , 0.5 mg ivngpg LD,., 1 8 0 ~ ~ ivn dog LDLo, 50 mg scu rat LDLo, 250 mg scu mus LDLo, 600 mg

Halostachys Banisteriopsis, Peganurn

Calligonum, Carex, Ncuboldia, Passiflora, Sickingia, Symp locos. Tribulus Banisteriopsis. Passifloru. Peganum, Sickingia. Tribulus. Zygophyllum Heliorropium Helleborus Cananga. Gaultheria. Hyacinthus. Ricinus Pinus. Pittosporum Acacia, Acorus, Arnica, Viola Hyacinthus, Lirsea

Citrus Beta Ambrosia, Dorema. Ipomoea, Loranrhus, Smilar, Sorghum Quercus Camellia, Fragaria, Lavandula, Litsea. Pelargonium, Salvia Galbulimima Thuja Amorphophallus, Bera. Chelidonium, Chenopodium. Cirrus, Cucumis, Cyclamen. Delphinium. Drosera, Erodium. Lamium, Laportea, Lycopersicon, Mimosa, Ncpenrhes, Pin#uicrrla. Plantagu. Salsola, Salvia. Sarracenia. Silybum. Spinacia, Trifolium, Urera. Urtica. Viscum

or1 rat LD,,, 3.270mg or1 man TDLo, 15 g or1 limn TDLo, 1 mg PSY or1 rat TDLo, 1,500 mg CAR ipr rat TDLo, 100 mg (7-10 D preg) TER orlrat LD,,, 1,000mg scu rat LD, *, 1,270 mg or1 hmn LDLo, 570 irg or1 mus LD,. ,3,700 c1g or1 dog LDLo, 4 mg


Corydalis, Hydras1 is. Meconopsis Acacia, AcaIypha. Acanrhospermum. Adenia, Adenium, Ageratum, Agrimonia, Agropyron, Ailanthus, Albizia. Allium, Alocasia, Altemanrhera, Amaranthus, Annona. Anrhephora, Aristida, Artocarpus, Asplenium, A triplex. Avena, Bauhinia, Berkheyopsis. Beta, Boehmeria, Boscia, Brabejum, Brassica, Cadaba, Caesalpinia. Calodendrum, Canavalia, Cardiospermum. Carica. Cassia, Castalis, Castanospermum. Ceiba, Centella, Centaurea. Cercocarpus, Chaenomeles, Chenopodium, Chironia, Chloris, Chrysanrhemum, Chrysopogon. Cinnamomum. Cirsium, Cissus. Citrus, Citrullus. Coix, Colocasia, Combretum, Commelina, Corchorus. Cotoneaster, Cotvledon, Courbunia, Crotalaria, Cryptolepis. Cucurbira, Cydonia. Cvmbopogun. Cynanchum. Cynodon, Cyperus. Dactylocrenium. Datura. Daucus. Diclrapivalum, Diclirostacliys. Digitaria, Dimorphurlrcca. Dipcadi. Diplolophium. Dudonaea. Dolichus. Duranta. Klrusine. Enrada. Epalrcs. Eragroutis, Eriuborrya. ~ ~ i ~ r h r u p h l i ~ r r n ~ . Eschschultzia. Eucal~~prris. Eirphorbia. ,?.'rrsrach?s. Fagupyrum. Florcstina. Gaknia, Gibhc~rc~lla. . Hc'rfia. Gliricidia. Glwcria. G i i ~ i n i , Grtvillra. Hevea, Hibiscus. Holrrrs. Hi'drangc.a. Hi~dnurarpirs. Indigofera. Ipumoi'a. Jatrulrha. Kalarwlrur. Kcdrosris. Kisei*laria. I.a,qcnaria, 1.a.qwrrs.

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Toxicityavh


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Hyrirucy;inic icid (conlinued)

Hydroxysenkirkine Hyoscyamine

par mus LDLo. IS0 me: or1 rat LD, o , 370 mg ipr rat LD,, , 170 mg skn mus TDLo, 800 mg NEO or1 mus LD, 4 0 0 mg TWA 2 mglm' ipr rat TDLo, 300 mg CAR ivnmusLD,,,95mg

Hypoglycine (cyclopropanealanine) Hypoxanthine Imperatorin

ipr rat TDLo, 30 mg (1-6 D preg) TER ipr mus LDLo, 750 mg par mus LDLo, 6 0 0 mg


scu mus TDLo, 250 mg scu mus TDLo. 500 mg 26 WI CAR

Hydrohydratinine (HCI) Hydroquinone


Inositol-(meso) in yo-inositol) lonone (irisone) lsatidene (retrorsine N oxide) Isoamyl alcohol

lsobutyl alcohol

lsobutyraldehyde Isobutyric acid

Isoohaksine Isosugenol

or1 rat LD, o , 1.000 mg skn mus TDLo, 480 mg scu mus LD, D , 225 mg scu mus TDLo, 1,000 mg (20 WI NEO) ipr mus LDLo. 500 mg

Lantana. Lasiosiphon, Larhyrus. Lepidium. Leucaena. Linum. Lolium, Lorononis. Lotus. Lufla, Lupinus, Macadamia, Malus. Mangifera, Manihot, Medicago, Melica, Melilotus. Melolobium, Mercurialis. Mollugo. Moringa. Mundulea, Myrsine. Nasturtium. Nerium. Nicotiana, Ochna, Ocimum. Olinia. Oryra. Osteospermum, Pangium. Panicum, Pappea. Paspalum. Passiflora, Pennisetum, Persea, Phaseolus, Physalis. Piper, Poa, Pogonarthria. Polygonum, Portulaca, Prunus. Psidium, Pteridium. Pygeum. @rocantha. Pyrus. Rhynchelytrum. Ricinus. Saccharum. Salwla, Sambucus. Sarcosremma. Setaria. Silybum, Solanum, Sorbaria. Sorghum, Spiraea, Sporobolus. Stephanorossia. Srerculia. Suckleyo. Synadenium. Tagetes. Tamarindus. Tephrosia, Terminalia. Thalictrum, Themeda. Thesium, Tithonia. Tribulus, Trifolium. TriKIochiti. L iryinea, I 'wlunia, I';cia. Viola, Vitex, Xanthium. Ximenia. Lea. Zygophyllum Corydalis Arbutus, Bergenia. Hydrangea, Pimpinella. Protea, Pyrus, Rhododendron. Rubus. Vaccinium, Xanrhium Crotalaria Anrhocercis, A rropa. Datura, Duboisia, ffvoseyamits. Lactuca. Mandragora. Pl~.vsochlaina.Scopolia, Solandra, Solanum Blighia Lupinus. Solanum Aegle, Ammi. Angelica. Pastinaca. Peucedanum. Prangos. Ruta Asclepias, Bletia. Calanthe, Croralaria. Echites. Eppidendrum. Indigolera. Isatis. Phaius. Po1.vgala. Polygonir m. R o binia. Wright ia Cheiranthus, Chimonanrhris. Cirrus. Jasminum, Narcissus. Robinia

Alnus, Coriniis, Juglans, Phaseulus. Quercns. Rhus, Viburnum. Viscum, Zea

orlrat L D , , . 4 , 5 9 0 m g

Boronia, Lawsonia. Saussurea

or1 rat TDLo, 1,044 mg/87 W CAR ipr rat TDLo. 225 mg/9 W CAR ivn mua LD, n , 835 mg or1 rat LDLo, 1,300 mg ipr rat LDLo, 81 3 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 4,250 mg skn rbt LD,*. 3,970 mg T W A 100 ppm 011 rdt LD,, , 2,460 mg , ihl rbt LDLo, 8,000 ppm 4 hr or1 rbt LDLo. 3,750 mg &nrbtLDS,,4,240mg TWA 100 ppm orlratLD,,,2,810mg ihl rat LCLo, 8,000 ppm/4 h r or1 rat LD, ~,280 mg skn rbt LD, D , 500 mg

Erechtites, Senecio

ipr rat LD, o , 56 mg or1 rat LD, o , 1,560 mg orlgpg LD,,. 1,410mg

lsolpentyl alcohol (are Isoamyl alcohol)


Plant genera

CRC Criticat Reviews in Toxicolow

Eucalyptus, Fragaria. Lavandula. Menrha, Pelargonium. Rubits. Solaniim

A nrheni is

Acacia. Camrllia. Datura. Morus. Nicotiana. Raphanus Anthemis. Arnica, Artemisia. Ceratonia, Cinnamomuni. Croron. Daucus. Eucalyptus, Eu(vops. Laurus, Lavandula. Peucvdantrm. Prunus, Seseli Cassia CananKa. Cinnamomitm, Leptaclinia. Miclieliu, M.vristica, Necrandra. Prunus

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera


orlrat LD,,. 1,340mg or1 mus LD, o , 2,470mg or1 musTDLo, 61 g/8l WIC CAR ipr mus LDLo, 256 mg


Isovaleric acid

or1 rat LDLo,


ivn mus LD, o , 1.120 mg

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Plant genera




lvn mus LD, o , 77 mg

Jervine Juglone

ivn mus LD,, ,9,300(rg or1 mus LD, 2.500 (rg ipr mus LD, o , 3 mg or1 rat LD,,, 80 mg or1 mus LD, , ,400mg scu mu%TDLo, SO mg/DC NEO ivn rbt LDLo, 1.500 mg or1 rat LDLo. 1,200mg or1 mus LD,, ,487mg

Cananga, Illicium. Ligusficum. Murraya

Camellia, Cinnamomum. Cirrus, Cymbopogon. Eucalyptus. Clycine. H e l i c h ~ s u m .Lavandula. Menrho. Monarda. Quercus, Raphanus Achillea, Angelica, Arfemisia, Calofropis, Cinnamomum. Citrus, Croron. Eucalyprus. Humulus. Lavandula. Levisticum. Lippia. Malus. Melaleuca, Menfha. Musa. Nicoriana. Pelargonium. Pnmus, Rosmarinus. R u f a , Theobroma, Valeriaira. Viburnum Croralaria, Senecio


Khellin Lactose Lapachol

Larasha Lasiocarpine

Lasiocarpine N-oxide Lauric acid (ndodecanoic acid)

Lemon oil Leptoside Leucaenine Leucomycin Leurocristine (vincristine)

Limonene (dipentene)

ims rat TDLo, 2,250 mg 61 WI NEO orlrat LD,,, 150mg ipr rat LD, o , 78 mg ipr rat TDLo, 470 mg 56 WI CAR ipr rat LD, 600 mg ivnmu\LI>.,,. 131 1~1g

or1 rat LD, o ,

2,840 mg

ivn cat LD, o , 1.9 mg or1 rat TDLo, 350 mg (preg) TER ivn mus LD, 650 mg ivn rat LD,,, 1.3 mg ipr rat LD, a , 1,300(rg unk rat TDLo, 250 (rg (9 D preg TER) or1 rat LDLo, 4,600 mg



or1 rat LD,,


ipr mus LD,, ,39.9mg scu mus LD, o , 37 mg ivn mus LD, D , 78 mg

Longilobine (retrorsine) Loturine (see Harman) Lunarine Lupinidcnc (scc Sparkine)

ivn mus LDLo, 62 mg

Amianfhium, Verafrum. Zifadenus Carya. Juglans. PlarycarJr. Pterocarya Ammi Achras, Cerafonia, Forsythia. Lippia. Mimusops. Oldenlandia. Pouteria. Sapindus Adenanthera?. Andira.?. Avicennia, Bassia. Bignonia. Intsia?. Paratecoma. Tabebcria. Tecoma. Tecrona Cirrus Cynoglossum. Heliorropium, Lappula. Symphytum

Heliotropium Acrocomia. Acfinodaphne, Areca. Asrrocaryum, Afralea. Cinnamomum. Cirrus. COCOS.Elaeis. Erisma, Hyphaene. Irvingia. Laurus, Litsea. Neolirsea, Ruta. Salvadora. Umbellularia Cirrus Srrophanthus Leucaena. Mimosa A rremisia


Anelhum. Apium. Baeckca. Barosma. Boswellia, Canarium. Carum. Chenopodium. Cinnamomum, Cirrus. Coriandrum. Croron. Cuminum, CynibopOROn. Darrydium, Daucus. Eleftaria, Eucalyptus, Foeniculum, Humtrlus, Hypris, Illicium. Lavandula. Lippia. L i m a , Mangi]rra. Medicago. Melaleuca. Menrha, Murraya. Myrisrira. Nirofiana. Ocimum. Origanum. Perilla, Pilocarpus, Pimen ra. Piper. Pitrosporum. Premna. Prunus, hidium. Salvia. Seseli, Siler, Solidago. Valeriana Acacia, Arremisia. A ralanfia. Bursera. Camellia, Cananga. Cinnamomum. Cirrus, Coriandrum. Cymbopogon. Eschschol~zia,Eucalyptus. Humulus. Jasminum. I.avandu1a. Majorana. Melissa. Menfha. Morus, Myristica. Orimum, Origanum. Pandanus. Prunus. Salvia, Sassofias. Sarureja, Thymus. Zingiber Lobelia Croralaria,Erech tires, Senecio Lunaria

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Toxicityavb

Chemical Lupulone (himulone)

or1 rat LD, o , 1,800 mg imsrat LD,,, 330 mg or1 mus LD,, , 1,500 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 1,000 mg or1 gpg LD, D , 130 mg

Humulus, Lupulus

Lysine Malcic acid

ivn mii\ l . D % , ,1x1 . 111p or1 rat LD,, , 708 mg skn rbt LD,,, 1,560 mg or1 rot LDLo, 1,600 mg

Universal? Lupinus. Pisum. Robinia, Vicia

Malic acid

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Plant genera

Malonic acid

or1 rat LD,,, 1,310 mg ipr mus LD, o , 300 me

M 31.101

or1 rat LD, o , 1,440 mg or1 mus LD,, , 5 5 0 mg or1 rbt LD,,, 1,620 mg orlgpg LD,,, 1,410mg or1 ckn LD, o , 3,720 mg ipr mus LDLo, 200 mg scu mus TDLo, 1,750 g/SO WC NI:O

(larixic acid)


Mandelonitrile Mansonin Melilotin (hydrocoumarin) Menadione (vitamin K,) Menthol J-Mienthol

Mercurialin (see Menthylamine) Mesaconic acid Mescaline (phenethylmine, triinethoxy)

Metlianethiol (methyl mercaptan) Methanol

scu mu$ LDLo, 23 mg or1 rat LD,,. 116 mg ivncat LD,,,O.IS mg or1 rat LD, I, 1,460 mg or1 gpg LD, o , 1,760 mg or1 mus LDLo, 400 mg ipr mus LD,,, 5 0 rng or1 rbt LDLo, 230 mg orlrat L D , , , 3 , 1 8 0 m g scu rat LDLo. 2,OOC mg or1 rat LD,,, 3,300 mp or1 cat LDLo. 800 mg ipr rat LD,,, 710 mp

ipr mus LDLo, 500 mg or1 hmn TDLo, 5 mg ivn hmn TDLo, 7 mp or1 mus LD, p , 880 mk ivn gpg TDLo, 450 pg 8 D preg TER ihl rat LCLo. 10.000 ppm scu mur LD,, ,2.4 mg or1 hmn LDLo, 340 mg or1 hmn TDLo. 100 mg EYE

ihl hmn TCLo, 300 ppm CNS or1 mur LDLo, 420 mg or1 dog LDLo. 6,300 mg or1 mky LDLo, 7,000 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 4,750 mg TWA 200 ppm Mettioxalen (see Xanthotoxin) Methylamine (morcurialin)

scu mus LDLo, 2,500 mg

scu frg LDLo, 2,000 mg TWA 10 ppm


CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Acer, Ananas, Artemisia, Asperula, Berberis, Beta, Bryophyllum. Capsicum, Coriandrum, Cydonia, Datura, Daucus. Drosera, Ficus, Fragaria, Fraxinus. Helian thus, Hibiscus, Hippophae, Ilex, Juniperus. Lactuca, Lolium, Lycopersicon, Madhuca, Malus, Medicago,Moms, Musa, Myrtus. Nicotiana, Oryza, Papaver. Passiflora. Prunus, Pyrus. Rhrrs, Ribes. Ricinus. Rubus, Rumex. Sambucus, Sclerocarya. Sedum. Sempervivum, Solanum. Sorbus. Tamarindus, Vaccinium. Vitis Anthriscus, Anthyllis. Apium. A stragalus, A vena, Bunias. Colutea. Helianthus. Hordeum, Lotus, Lupinus, Mcdirago, Ueiilotus, Ononis, Phaseolus. Sophora. Sremona. Thcrmopsis. Trifolium. Trigonella. Triricum A bies. Cichorium. Corydalis. Larix

A conitum. Bassia. Bryophylhim, Ceratonia, Chrysactinia. Daucus, Glycine. Hyflophila. Lathyrus. Lippia, Malus, Mercurialis, Musa, Oryza. Panax. Phaseolus. Schizopepon, Trifolium, Tropaeolum. Tvpha. Llmhilicus Cotoneastcr, Eucalyptus. Pnrtnts, Pteris, Sambucus Mansotria Mclilotus

Mentha, Thymus Calamintha. Hedcoma, Hyptis. Mentha. P.vcnanthcmum

Brassica Gymnocalycirim. Lophophora. Opuntia. Trichocereus

Brassica. Camellia. Coprosma. Lasianthus, Pacderia, Raphanus Angelica. Anthriscus, Boehmeria, Camellia. Carum. Gossypium. Heracleum, Lycopersicon. Men tho, Pastinaca, Pimenta. Syzygirim Vitex

Acorus?, Amorphophallus. Arum. A tropa, Beta. Chaerophyllum. Conium, Delpliinium, Dracunculus, Heraclnrm. Iris. Leptotaenia. Lilium, Mentha. Mercurialis. Nicotiana, Nuphar, Philadelphus. Sambucus, Sauromatium, Stapelea. Staphylca. Thalictrum. Veratrum. Viburnum

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Chemical

Methyl anthranilate

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S-Methyl-1-cysteine Methyl salicylate

Milloside Monocrotalic acid Monocrotaline


Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid)

Plant genera

or1 rat LD, 2,910 mg or1 mus LD,, , 3,900 mg or1 gpg LD,, , 2,780 mg ipr rnus LDLo, 500 mg or1 hmn LDLo, 170 mg or1 rat LD, D , 887 mg or1 mus LD,, , 1,110 mg or1 dog LD,, ,2,100 mg or1 rbt LD,,, 1,300 mg or1 gpg LD, 1,060 mg scu gpg LDLo, 1,500mg par rat TDLo, 1,500 mg (9-1 1 D preg T E R )

ivncat LD,,, 1.3mg ivnrat LD,,,581 mg ivn mus LD, o , 606 mg or1 rat LD, D , 66 mg scu rat LDLo, 60 mg ipr rat TDLo, 5 mg CAR ivii rat Ll15,8.92 mg ivn mus LD, D , 26 1 mg or1 mus LD,, ,745 mg ipr rnus LD,, ,480mg scu mus LD, ~,360 mg ivn mus LD,, , 199 mg scu rat LDLo, 420 mg or1 rat LD, 600 mg ivn mus LD,,,43 mg


or1 cat LDLo, 570 mg


or1 chd LDLo, 100 mg or1 rat LD, o , 1,780 mg ipr mus LDLo, 150 mg scu rat TDLo, 3,500mg TWA 150 4 9 8 DI NEO ipr rat LD, B , 750 mg

Narcotine Neogermitrine Neriin Niacin (nicotinic acid) Nicotinamide (vitamin B,) (vitamin PP) Nicotine

Nitrosodimethyl amine

ipr mus LD,, ,510 rg scu mus LDLo, 95 mg scu rat LDLo. 4,000 mg or1 mus LD,, ,5,000mg scu mus LDLo, 4,000 mg or1 rat LD, D , 3,500 mg scu rat LD,,, 1,680 mg scu mus LDLo, 1,800 mg or1 limn I DLo. I nip or1 rat LD, D , 53 mg or1 mus LD,, , 3 mg or1 dog LD, 9,200 rg or1 pgn LD, I , 75 mg or1 dck LD, o , 75 mg ihl rat TCLo, 37 mg CAR ipr rat TDLo, 30 mg NEO unk mus TDLo, 1 3 mg (preg TLR) or1 rat LD, D . 26 mg or1 dog LDLo, 20 mg

Cananga. Citrus, Jasminum. Kaempferia, Michelia. Polianthes A stragalus, Phaseolus Acacia. A Iphitonia, A lsodeiu, A Isfonia, Ardisia. A talanfia. Baccaurra. Barringtonia. Betula. Biponia, Bridelia, Calycanthus, Camellia, Cananga. Carallia, Ceanothus, Chenopodium, Chilocarpus, Clematis. Cocculus. Comesperma. Conocephalus, Cryptolepis, Cyclostemon, Dendrocalamus, Diospyros, Elaeocarpus, Erythroxylum, Eugenia. Ficus, Fragaria. Gamga, Gaulfhcria. Glycosmis, Homalium. Hunteria, Hydnocarpus, L indera. Linociera. Maba. Macaranga, Marsdenia, Meliosma, Metrosideros, Uonotropa, Murraya, Myristica, Nyctanthes. Nyctocalos. Paliuris, Parinari. Photinia, Platea, Polianthes. Polygala, Prunus. Ribes, Rubus, Ryparosa. Scolopia. Sideroxylon, Stiftia, Sfyphelea. Symplocos, Syzygium, Tabebuia, Taraktoxenos, Thunbcrgia, Turpinia. Vernonia, Viburnum, Vitis, Xanthophyllum Roupellina Crotalaria


A rxemone?, Eschscholrzia? , Humulus? ,Papaver

Calendula, Cinnamomum. Citrus, Cocos. Corylus, Croton, Cyperus. Elaeis. Erisma. Cuizofia, Helianthus, Irvingia, Levisticum, Macadamia, Moringa, Myrica, Uyristica. Myrrus, Phyllanthus, Pimpinella. Pycnanthus, Ruta, Salvadora, Virola Anethum, Carum, Cinnamomum, Levisticum, Myristica, Oenanthe, Orthodon, Pastinaca, Petroselinum, Peucedanum Iris. Oryza, Saussurea. Syzygium

Brassica. Citrus, 1-ycopersicon, Papaver, Rauwolfia. Solanum, Strvchnos Veratrum, Zigadenus Nerium Ubiquitous, Zinnia

Acacia. Aesculus. Asclepias. Cannabis. Cypliomandra. Dttboisia. Ecliowia. Eclipfa. Equiserum, Er.v fhro.v.rhmr. Hrrpcsris. .hr~lans. Mucuna. Pninus. Srmpcn*i~~irnt. Solaiiiim. Urrica. Witliania Solamiin

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Chemical

Critical Reviews in Toxicology 1977.5:189-237. Downloaded from by CDL-UC Davis on 12/29/14. For personal use only.

Noiianoic acid (pelargonic acid) Noidyl alcohol (1 -nonanol) Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

IMIornicotine L.lrlornicotine DL-Nornicotine Noipseudoephedrine (cathine) No:icapine Nunmeg oil (expressed) Nuimeg oil (volatile) Odwobioside K Odoroside K Oleic acid

Ori,gnum oil Orcinol (methyl rerorcinol) Ouiibain

0x:ilic acid

Ox yacanthine

Pachycarpine (Wsparteine)

or1 rat LD, o , 3,200 mg ivn mus LD,,, 224 mg or1 rat LDLo, 1,400 mg

Artemisia. Citrus. Cuphea, Eremacitrus, Iris, Lauandula. Litsea, Mentha. Pelargonium, Rhus Cinnamomum. Cirrus. Eremacitrus

ivnrat LD,,,O.IOmg or1 mus LD, p , 20 mg scu mus LD, , ,7,600 pg ivn mus LD, o , 3,700 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 750 pg ipr rat LDLo, 6 mg ipr rat LDLo, 23.5 mg ipr rat LDLo, 10.5 mg scu mus LDs,, 275 mg

Cirrus, Musa. Portulaca. Piunus, Solanum

L ycopersicon Myrisrica

orlrat LD,,,2,620rng


ivn cat LD, 2.3 nig ivn cat LD, o , 4.74 mg ivn mus LD, 230 mg ivn cat LDLo, 50 mg scu rbt TDLo, 3,120 mg 5 2 WI NEO or1 rat LD, o , 1,850 mg skn rbt LD,, , 3 2 0 mg or1 rat LD, o , 844 mg or1 mus LD,,, 772 mg or1 rbt LD,, ,2,400 mg orlgpg LD,,, 1,687 mg ivn rat LD, o , 14 mg ivn dog LDLo, 54 pg ivn cat LDLo, I20 pg ivn rbt LDLo, 100 pg ims gpg LDLo, 220 pg or1 hmn LDLo, 700 me or1 dog LDLo, 1,000 mg TWA 1 m d m '

Nerium Nerium Major component of oilseeds, Mvrica



ipr rat LDLo, 250 mg ivn mus LD, D , 26 mg

ivn mus LD, o, 5 7 mg

Pantothenic acid

ipr rat LD,,, 820 mg scu rat LD, D , 3,400 mg ipr mus LD, o , 920 mg ipr rat LD, o , 64 mg or1 mus LD, o , 350 mg scu mus LDLo, 160 mg ivn mus LD, o , 32 mg scu rat TDLo, 64 mg132 W CAR or1 rat TDLo, 90 mg/64 WC NEO ipr mus LD, o , 750 mg or1 rat LD, D , 3,960 mg ivncat LD,,, 710pg

(vitamin 6 , ) Papaverine

Parasorbic acid

Par!;ley oil Paulioside


Carha, Ephedra. Mqvrenus

ivn mus LD, ~,83 mg or1 rat LD, , 3,640 mg

Palmitic acid


Duboisia, Nicoriana. Solpiglossis. Zinnia

CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology


Leaf extracts of Ericaceae

Acokanrhera, Srrophanthrrs

A belmoschus. A Ilium, Anacardirtm, Ailanas, Benincasa. Beta. Brassica, Camellia. Capsicum. Chenopodium. Ciccr. Citrus.Colocasia. Coriandrum. Daunts, Eleusiitc. Ficus, Glvcine. Halogeton, lpomoea. Juniperus. Lactuca. Lens. Lolium. Lgcopcrsicoii, Mangifkra, Manihor. Medicap. Mentha, Momordica, Musa. Nicoriana. Urgra. U.cofis, Pasrinaca, Penniserrrrn, Phaseohis. Pisum, Pmnits, Raphanus. Rheum. Rumex, Solanum, Sorghum. Spiiiacia, Trichosanthes, Triticum, Vigna. Viris. Lea Berberis. Mahonia. Michelia Acoifirum, Ammodendron. Ammothamnrrs. Aiiapris. Baprisia. Chelidonium. Ci'riws, Gritisra. Hrvea. Leonrice, Leptorhabdos. Lupinus. Peumus, Sophora, Thermopsis Common in oilseeds, Acacia, Acoifitum. Apium. Daucus. Eyiriscrunt. Hydnocarpus. 1.ei~isticirm, Myrica, Pimenra. Ricii~us.Ruta, Sterculia. Veriveria Gossypium, Hordeum, Jlig/UnS. Larlignrs. Lens. Linum. Lolium, Lycbopersicon.Madhrtca, Malus. Medicago. Oryza. Passiflora. Persea. Sacchanmz Papaiwr. Rauwol/ia


I'rtroseliitu m R oupellina

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant genera


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Pelargonic acid (see Nonanoic acid) PeUetierine (punicine) Pellotine Pennyroyal oil Pentadecanoic acid Peppermint oil

PEN balsam oil Pstaline (chloridei Peucedanin Phellandrene

Phenethyl alcohol Phenethylamine Phenol

Phorbol Phthalic acid Physostigmine Picropodoph yllin Picrotoxin


Pimenta leaf oil Piperidine Piperonal (heliotropin) Plicatic acid Podophyllic acid Podophyllum

unk mus LDLo. 1,800 mg

Universal in higher plants?, Cephaelis. Cirrullus, Croron. Daucus. DiOSpJVOS. Feronia, Flacourtia, Fortunella, Fragaria, Hibiscus. Hordeum. Ipomoea, Juniperus. Lactuca. Lagenaria. Linum, Lupinus, Lycopersicon, Malus. Medicago. Moringa, Moms. Muse. Myrisrica. Opunria. Oryza. Papaver, Passiflora. Phaseolus. Physalis. Phyllanthus, Ribes. Tamarindus, Taraxacum. Taxus

ivn rbt LDLo, 40 mg

Punica. Sedum, Withania

scu rat LDLo. 90 mg or1 rat LD, o , 400 mg ivn mus LD, o , 54 mg orlrat LD,,,4,441 mg iprrat LD,,. 819 mg or1 rat LD, ,, 2,360 mg ivn mus LDLo, 3 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 16 mg or1 mus LD,,, 315 mg No toxicity data

Lophophora Mentha Calendula, Zanthoxylum Mentho

orlrat LD,,, 1.790mg or1 mus LD, o , 800 mg skn rbt LD,,. 790 rng or1 rat LDLo, 800 mg ipr rat LDLo, 100 mg ipr mus LD, o , 366 mg or1 hmn TDLo, 14 mg GIT skn mus TDLo, 4,000 rng/20 WI CAR or1 rbt LDLo, 420 mg or1 hmn LDLo, 140 mg TWA (skn) 5 ppm ipr mus TDLo, 400 mg 25 W CAR or1 rat LDLo, 4,600 mg ipr mus LD,,, 1.670 mg or1 mus LD, o , 4,500 pg scu mus LDLo, 750 pg scu rat LDLo, 2,192 pg ipr mus LD,,, 280 mg or1 mus LD, o , 15 mg ipr mus LD, o , 7 mg ivn rnus LD,, , 2,440 pg ipr rat LD, o , 5,600 pug ivn rat LD, o , 1,960 pg ims hmn TDLo, 140 rng CNS or1 rat LD, o , 91 1 mg ipr rnus LD,, ,500 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 175 mg or1 rat LD, o , 3,600 mg or1 rat LD, e , 400 mg ihl rat LCLo, 4,000 pprn/4 hr skn rbt LD,,, 320 mg or1 rat LD, o , 2,700 mg ipr rat LDLo, 1,500 mg ilil hmn TDLo, 2,500 glm' or1 mus LD, o , 899 mg scu mus LD, 700 mg scu rat LDLo, 18 rng or1 mus LD, o , 68 mg scu rnus LD, o , 58 mg

Myroxylon Leon tice Peucedanum Aegle. A nethum. An~rlica,Arremisia. Bosivellia. Buulermim. Burscra. Caesaluinia. Canarium. Ciiriumoiiruiii. C?/rris,C'iiriaiidriiiii,C i i i i r i i i i i i i ~ ,Curciiiiia. CymbopoRon. Euca1.vptus. Foeniculum. Haplopappus. Illicium, Latinis, Lavandula. I.edum. Magnolia. Mangifera. Melalcuca. Mentha. Monodora, Myro.vvlitm. Oenan thc, Pelargonium, Pimen to. Piper. Sassafras. Schinus. Skimmia. Zingiher cirrus Acacia. Phoradcndron A rtemisia. Camellia. Nicotiana, Rrscda. Ribrs.

Ruto. Salix

Croron Papaver Dioclea. Hippomane. Mucuna. Physosrima, Vicia Artefact? Anamirta, Cocculus. Tinomiscium


Pimenta Cannabis, Conium, Lupinus, Nicotiana. Petrosimonia, Piper. Psilocaulon Cinnamomum, Doryphora. Eryngium. Piper. Polianthes. Robinia, Spiraea. Vanilla, Viola Podophyllum Podophyllum

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera

Podophyllotoxin 1,2-Propanediamine 1-Propanethiol (propyl mercap tan) Propionaldehyde

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Propionic acid




scurat L D , , , 8 m g or1 mus LD, ,, 90 mg or1 rat LD, ,, 2.230 mg skn rbt LD, I , 500 mg orlrat LD,,, 1,790mg ihl rat LC, D , 7,300 ppm 4 hr iprratLD,.,515mg ihl mus LC,,, 4,010 ppm 4 hr or1 rat LDLo, 800 mg or1 mus LDLo. 800 mg orlrat LD,,, 1,SlOmg or1 mus LD,,. 1,370 mg or1 rbt LD,,, 1,900 mg or1 rat LDLo. 570 mg ihlrat LC,,,2,310ppni4 hr skn rbt LD,, ,560 mg ipr rat LDLo, 100 mg

or1 rat LD, o , 5 mg scu rat LD, ~,600 pg ipr mus LD,, , 3 7 0 pg 1vI1 11111\


Ptarophine Pulegone

Pyrethrin I Pyrethrin II Pyrethrum Pyridine


Pyrrolidine Quercitin

Quercitrin flavone)


Callitris, Diphylleia. Juniperus. Linum. Podophyllum Arum. Sauromatum


L ycopersicon Widespread, Cinnamomum. Lauandula. Pimpinella

Camphorosma A dlumia, Arctomecon. A rgemone, Eocconia. Chelidonium, Corydalis. Cysticapnos. Dactylicapnos. Dendromecon, Dicentra, Dicranostigma, Eschscholtzia, Fumaria. Glaucium, Hunnemannia. HJ’pCCOUm,Maclaeya. Meconella, Meconopsis, Nandina, Papaver. Platycapnos, Platystemon. Pteridophyllum. Roemeria, Romneya, Sanguinaria, Sarcocapnos. Stylophorum Verarnim

I . I I ~ 4x ~ , .#g

or1 nius LDLo, I16 mg scu rat LDLo, 650 mg scu rbt LDLo. 400 mg ivn mus LD,,, 58 mg iprmusLD,,, 150mg

or1 rat LD,,, 1,200 mg unk mam LD, o , 960 mg or1 rat LD, o , 1,200 mg

or1 rat LD, I , 200 mg or1 mam LD,, , 2 5 0 mg orlrat LD,,,891 mg ihl rat LC, ,4,000 ppm 4 hr or1 gpg LDLo, 4,000 mg ipr gpg LD1.o. 870 mg or1 rat LD, o , 3,890 mg scu rat LDLo, 300 mg or1 rbt LDLo. 1,000 mg or1 gpg LDLo, SSO mg unk man LDLo, 120 mg or1 rat LD, ~,787 mg or1 dog LDLo, 25 mg orlrbt LD,,, 1.600mg or1 rat LD, ~,300 mg ihl mus LC,,, 1,300 mg/m3/2 hr or1 rat LD,,. 161 mg or1 mus LD, D , 159 mg scu mus LD, o , 97 mg ivn rbt LD,,, 100 mg



Plant genera



ipr mus LDLo 200 mg

CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Ephedra. Rocmeria, Tawus Senecio Agastache. BJGtrOpOgOn.Cakamintha. Hedroma, Mentha. Micromcria. Origanum. Poliomintha. Pycnanthemum, Sarureja Chrysanthrmiim Chrysanthemum Chrvsanthemum A tropa?, Haplopappus

Allium. Ampelopsis, B d a , Betula. Cirrus, Eucalyptus, Fragaria. Garcinia. Paullinra. Platanus. Populus, Psidium. Psorospernrum. Raphanus

Daucus. Nicotiana Acacia. Arsculus. Allium. Arcrostaphylos, Aster. Bauhinia. Calluna. Capparis, Cornus. Cosmos, Crataegus. Crocus, Dryobalanops. Dipterocarpus. Erigeron. Euphoria. Euphorbia, Fatsia, Fragaria. Fuchsia, Cossypium, Helinis?, Hypericum, Illicium. Iris. Malus, Marsdenia, Moringa, Nolana, Podophyllum. Pol.v#onum. Prunus, Psidium, Quercus, Rhamnus, Ribrs. Rosa, Shorra. Solidano. Thespesia, Trifolium, Vaccinium. Viola, Vitis. Zea A esculus, Agimonia, Aleurites. Bouhinia. Camellia, Ceratostinma. Cercidiphyllum. Citrus, Craraeps. Crusea, Engelhardtia, Eripron. Eucalyptus. Kucryphia, Forsythia, Fraxinus. Houttuynia, Humulus. Illicium, Larhyrus, Leucaena. Lycopersicon. Malus. Neolitsea, Nicotiana, Plumhano. Pnmiis. Psittacanthus. Quercus, Rhododendron. Ribes. Rosa, Solidago, Stuarria. Thuja, Tilia. Vaccinium, Vicia, Vitis

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera

Quinaldinr Quinazoline Quinic acid


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Raton Red squiU Red thyme oil Rescinnamine Reserpine


Retinol (vitamin A) Retrorsine

Riboflavine (vitamin H, , vitamin G) Ricin Riclnoleic acid Riddclline Rotenone

Rubijervine Rutin hophorin) (vitamin P)

Plant genera



or1 rat LD,,, 1,230 mg skn rbt LD,,, 1,870 mg skn mus TDLo, 4.000 mgfYl NEO scu mus LD, o , 10.000 mg

or1 rat LD,,, 1,000 mg or1 mus LD, I , 594 mg ipr rat LDLo, 174 mg ipr mus LD,,, 190 mg or1 wmn TDLo, 20 mg (4-5 W preg) TER or1 rbt LDLo, 800 mg or1 gpg LDLo, 300 mg unk gpg TDLo, 200 mg preg TER or1 rat LD, ~,460 mg ipr mus LDLo, 64 mg skn rbt LD,,, 540mg scu rat TDLo. 31 gl6l WI NEO or1 rat LD, , ,200 mg or1 rat LD,,, 4,700 mg or1 mus LD,, , 1.420 mg or1 hmn TDLo, 14 pg PSY ims hmn TDLo, 357 pg PSY unk rat TDLo, 1,500 ug (9-10 D preg) TER ivnrat LD,,, 1,311 mg ivn mus LD,,, 634 mg

or1 rat TDLo. 5 5 mg I4 6 D prcg) I I K ipr mus TDLo, 180 mg (preg) TER or1 rat TDLo, 30 mg CAR ipr rat TDLo, 150 mgCAR ivn rat LD, ,, 38 mg ivnmusLD,,.59mg iprrat LD4,,560mg scu rat LD,, ,5,000 mg or1 hmn TDLo, 2 mg or1 rat LDLo, 100 mg scu rbt TDLo, 3,120 mg I52 W1 NEO unk rat TDLo, 209 mg/52 W NEO ivn mus LD, D , 105 mg or1 rat LD, o , 132 mg ipr rat LD, 2,800 pg ipr rat TDLo, 91 mg/42 DI NEO ipr mus LD,, , 2,800 pg TWA 5 mgfm' ivn mus LD, ,70 mg ivn mus LD, , 950 mg


, ,

Galipea Dichroa? Aconirum. Angelica, A rcroslaphylos, Cinchona. Doucus, Eucalyptus, Illicium. Linum. Malus. Medicap. Nicoriana, Pislacia. h n u s , R o w . Terminalia. Vaccinium Cinchona, Courarea, Enanria, RemQia. Srrychnos

Cinchona, Cornus, Coufarea, Enan ria. Ladenbergla. Picmlemma. Remijia. Srrychnos

Cirrus Gliricidia Scilla Thymus Rauwolfia, Tonduzia A lsronia. A spidospemta, Bleekeria. Excavalia, Ochrosia. Rauwolfia, Tonduzia. Vallesia, Vinca. Voacanga

U suaUy combined. A msinckia. Brachyglorris. Croralaria. Hibiscus. Hippopliar. Hydrafwa. fIyosc.vamrrs. 1. iarris. Leonrmrs. 1.eptadenia. 1. i~ricadendri~ir, Limonirrm. I.ithospenfllim. I.Itcoprrsicim. Mu.t'no/ia. Marsdinia. Mcnyanrhcs. Nardi~sniia.Nrriiim.

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Plant gencra

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Safrole (shikimol)

Sai:e oil Sali Salicin (salicylamide)


orlrat L D , , . 7 5 0 m g or1 mus LD,,, 550 mg or1 dog LD, ,, 150 mg or1 rbt LD, o , 650 mg or1 gpg LD, 2,500 mg orlrat LD,,, 1,950mg or1 rat TDLo. 180 g/2 YC CAR or1 mus LD, ,, 2,350 mg or1 mus TDLo, 132 g/8l WIC CAR or1 rbt LDLo, 1,000 mg or1 rat LD, o , 2,600 mg 8cu rat TDLo, 31 g/6l WI NEO or1 rat LD, ,, 1,890 mg or1 mu8 LD,, , 1,400 mg or1 rbt LDLo. 3,000 mg unk mky TDLo. 1,500mgi18-26 preg TER scu rat LDLo, 1,000 mg

Salicylic acid

or1 rat LD, o , 891 mg or1 dog LDLo. 450 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 1,300 mg


ipr rat LD, o , 18 mg

L-Santonin Saponin

scu mus LDLo, 250 mg


or1 mus LDLo, 3,000 mg scu mus LDLo, BOO mg ivn mus LDLo. 1,000 mg ivn cat LDLo, 46 mg ivn rbt LDLo. 40 mg

CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicolofl

Nicotiana. Oenanthe. Osvris. Paliunrs. Prrstinaca, Phaseolus, Phoenix, Photinia, Phrygilanthus, Ph.vtolacca. Platanus. Polygonum. Protea. Prunus, Pyrus. Rhamnus, Rheum, Rhododendron, Rivea. Ruta, Salix. Sambucus, Senecio. Solanum, solidago, Sophora. Tephrosia, [email protected] Tussilago. Viola, Vinca Ryania

Awtum, Beilsmiedia. Cananga. Chenopodium. Cinnamomum, Doryphora, Eremophila. Heterotropa. fllicium, Maria. Magnolia,Myrisfica, Nectandra. Nemuaron. Ocimum, Ocotea. Piper, Protium. Sassafras, Schinus. Zieria Salvia Heliotropium Populus. Salix, Spiraea, Viburnum

Ceanothus, Cinnamomum. Cordia. Filipendula. Homalium. Nicotiana. Prunus. Rau wolfio A rcrostaphvlos. Betula, Calendula. Cananga. Cinnamomum. Cucurhita, Caultheria. Jasminum. Matricaria. Mentha. Ophthalmohlapton. Polvgala. Populus. Primula. Quercus. Ruta. Salix. Spiraea. Viola Ammodendron. A rgemone. Bocconia. Chelidonium. Corydalis, Dicen tra. Dicranosti&ma. Eschscholtria, Glauciiim. Hunnemannia, Hvlomecon. Hvpecoum, Maclcaya. Meconopsis, Popover. Platystemon. Rohinia. Romneya. Sanguinaria. Sapindus. Scabiosa. St.vlomecon. St.vlophonrm A rtemisia Very widespread. A brus. Acacia. Acliras. Achyranthcs, Acorur. Actacrr. A eficcras, A egle, A csculus. Agave. Agrostetnma. A ke hia. Albiria. Aleurites. Alliiim. Alntrs, Alsronia, Amaranthris, Anahasis. Anagallis. Anemone. Aporusa. Aralia. Artocarpiis, A sparagus. Aster. Astragahis. A triplex. A sena. Bacopa, Balanites. Barringtonia. Bassia, Beta. Bixa. Blighia, Butyrospermrtm, Calendula, Camellia. Canarium. Carsocar, Cassia. Castanospermum. CalophI4lum, Celastrus, Centella. Cephaelis, Cestnim, Chenopodium. Clir.vsophyllum. Cicer, Cimic(/iqa. Cinchona. Citrullus. Cirnrs. Clrmatis. Corchonrs. Cornus. Coronilla. Cuarmis. Ciicrirhita. Cydonia, Dictamnus, Digitalis. Diosrorca. Diospyros, Echalliirm, Echinocystis. Entada. Eugenia. Eriobolrya, E r y i i ~ u mEucalyptus, , Eiiphorhia. Euphoria, Fagus, Ficus. Furcraea. Glinus, Glycitie, G!iqwhiro. Gratiolo. Guaiacum, Hedera, Helionthus. Hepatica. Hibiscus, Hypericum. flex. Impatiens. Jacqriinia. Kochia, Lagenaria, f.athyrus, Lens. f.eontice. Lippia, Liquidamhar. Lotus. Lufjr,, Lupinus, Maclura. Madhiica. Manihot. Manilkara. Macriraria. Medicago, Melaleirco, Menvanthes. Micromeria. Mimrisops. Mollugo. Momordica. Mora. Morus, Nephelium, Nicotiana. Ni&la. Ocimrim, Otea. Ononis. Pochyrhirirs. Panor. Po’ariieur.Phasroliis. Phyllonthus, f’h I,tolacca. Pisuni, I ’ i r h ~ z c ~ l l ~ i b i i r n , Plantago. Platamis. Plumeria. P d y ~ a l a . Polvscias. Primula. Prunella, Randia, Raphanus.

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera Chemical


Snponin Icontinued)

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Serwentoside A Sennutoside Sceleratine Scillaren Sclllaren A SciienE Scillarenin ScUluoside Scopolamine

Sebacic acid Senetionhe Seneciphylline


Serpentine Shikimic acid

Solanine Sorbic acid Sorsaka Sparteine (lupinidine)

Sprintillatnine Sprintillin Squill Stearic acid (octadecanoic acid ) Stearyl alcohol Stroboside

ivncat LD,,, 1 0 O ~ g ivncat LD,,,0.48 mg ivn mus LD,, , 139 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 900 pg scu rbt LDLo, 700 pg scu rat LDLo, 10 mg ivncat LD,,, 170pg ivn cat LDLo, 140 pg ivn cat LDLo, 0.16 mg or1 rat LD, 430 p g or1 hmn TDLo, 14 #g CNS scu hmn TDLo, 2 pg CNS scu mus LD,, ,1,700 mg ivn mus LD, o , 163 mg ipr mus LD, o , 500 mg ivn mus LD, o , 64 mg ivn ham LDs,.61 mg ivn rat LDLo, 60 mg ivn mus LDLo, 50 mg ivn gpg LDLo, 50 mg iprratLD,,,117mg scutat LD,,, 117 mg ipr mus LD, D , 868 mg ipl mus TDLo, 400 mg NEO or1 mus TDLo, 4,000 mg NEO ipr mus TDLo, 4 0 mg NEO iprmusLD,,, 1,000mg

ipr mus LDs,, 32 mg ipr rbt LDLo, 20 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 20 mg unk hmn LDLo, 5,000 mg scu rat TDLo, 2,600 mgI65 W CAR scu rat TDLo, 31 g/6l W I NEO scu mus LDLo. 120 mg scu rbt LDLo, 100 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 30 mp

scu mus LDLo, 1 mg ivn rbl LDLo, 5 mg par frg LDLo, 6’mg scu mus LDLo, I mg orlrat LD,,, 125 mg ivn rat LD,,. 22 mg ivn mus LD,,, 23 mg ivn cat LDLo, 5 mg ivn cat LDLo, 0.25 mg

Plant genera Ricinus, Rosa. Salvia. Sanicula, Sansevieria. Sapindus, Saponaria, Schinus, Seshania, Solidago. Sophora. Spartium, Spermlaria, Strophanthus. Stryphnodendron, Swarrzia, Telfairia, Terminalia. Tetragonia, 77zymus. Trifolium, Trillium, Vaccinium. Vangueria, Viburnum. Viscum, Vitis. Zizyphus Strophanthus Strophanthus Senccio Urginra Urginea Urginea Urginca Urzinea A tropa. Darura. Duhoisia, Hvoscyamus. Loranrhtrs, Mandragora. Physochlaina, Scopolia. Utricularia

Ipomoea Erach.vrlotris. Crotoloria. Fmilia, L’rcchriti’S. Petasites, Senecio. Tussilago Crotalaria. E‘recrires, Senerio A nanas. Carica, I..vropersicon, Musa. Persea. Pnrnits. Sdanirni

Catharanthus. Raid wolJia, Vinca Ubiquitous? Accr. Aesciilus. A k h i a . Anoycisnrs, A runcus. Aucuha. Cac3salpinia.Carpintis. Ccrcidipli,vllirm, Cinnamomtrm. Clcyera, Corvlus. Cit-lobalanopsis, C)doiiia, Duhlio. Distylium. I:lc~artiirs.1:rkihcirrw. l~.iicalvprus.K u o i i w i i i s , Euptelra, Gardenia. (;cv-anium. H d r r a , Heliunrhus. Houttiiiia. Hypcricuni, Illicium. Kadsura, 1,agcnaria. Lespede:a. I.iflistrunt. Liqttidamhar. Liriodcndron. Lithocarpus, I.ithraea. Lolium. L.veopersicon. Macleaya, Marnolia, Mahonia. Malus. Mammca. Medicago. Michelia, Myrica. Patrinia, Phlox. Pieris, Pisracia, Plaranus. Plarycarya, Pteridium. Pvnrs. (+lucrcus. Ribes. Rtrhia, Ruhus. Salix. Sapindus. Sarcandra. SaxiJraga. Schinia, Schinus. Solanum. Svringa, Tcrminalia. Temstroemia. Thalictnim. Viburnum. Vicia. Vitex, Vitis. Weigela Capsicum. Lycopersicon. Physoehlaina. Solanum

Pyrus. Sorhus Annona Aconitum. Adenocarpus. Ammodendron, Ammorhamnus, A nagyris, Baptisia. Chelidonium. Cvrisus. Gsnirra. Hovra. Leptorhabdos. Lupinas. I’cumus. Piptanrhus. Sarothamnus, Solanum. Sophora, Spartium, Tempkronia. Thermopsis Hellehorus Hellehorus Urfltiea Citrus. Croron. Mvrica Ambrosia. Piper Roupellina

November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity end Distribution in Plant Genera Tosicity3*h

Chemical Strophanthidin

ivn cat LDLo, 280 Irg ivn rbt LDLo. 110 Irg


ivn cat LDLo, 160 pg ivn rbt LDLo. 200 rg or1 hmn LDLo, 30 mg or1 rat LD, o , 16 mg or1 dog LDLO, 1,100 pg or1 cat LDLo, 750 ug ihl hmn LCLo, 10.000 ppm 30 nlin ihl hmn TCLo, 376 ppm CNS or1 rat LD, o , 5,000 mg or1 mus LD,,, 316 mg TWA 100 ppm scu frg LDLo, 2,000 mg


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Succinic acid

Tanghiniferin Tanghinin Tannic acid

ivncat L D J , , 0 . 9 m g ivn cat LD,,, 352 Irg or1 nius LDLo, 2,000 mp. scu mus LDLo, 75 mg scu rat TDLo, 4,450 mg/17 WI CAR

Tartaric acid

or1 dog LDLo. 5,000 mg

Tecomine Terpineol

or1 mu6 LD,, , 300 mg or1 rat LD, o , 4,300 mg

Th(:baine Theobromine


scu mus LD,, , 117 mg or1 hmn TDLo, 26 mg CNS or1 cat LD, D , 200 mg unk frg LDLo, 5 mg or1 hmn TDLo, 9 mg CNS scu rat TDLo, 100 mg/17 D preg TER or1 mus LD, 600 mg or1 dog LDLo, 290 mg or1 cat LDLo. 100 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 350 mg ivn cat LDLo, 1,240 pg scu mus LD,,. 301 mg or1 mus TDLo, 310 g/74 WC NEO or1 rbt LDLo, 3,700 mg ipr rat LDLo, 120 mg

Thyme oil Thymol

or1 rat LD, or1 rat LD,


Thwetin Thiamine Thiouracil

Thymoquinone Tomatine

2 10

2,840 mg o , 980 mg o r l m u s L D , , , 1,800mg or1 gpg LD,, ,880 mg skn mus TDLo, 50 mg/DI NEO or1 rat LDLo, 800 mg o,

CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicologv

Plant genera

Adonis, A n Iiaris, A p m y n u m , Casfilla, Cheiranthus. Convallaria. Corchorus. Erysimum, Mansonia, Orflithogufum,Fachycafipus, Peripfoca, Strophanthus, Syrenia Srrophanthus

Liquidambar, Xanthorrhea

General? Artemisio. A t r o p . Erodium. Cossypium, Helianrhus, Phaseolus, Pyrus, Sacrhorum. Sedum. Viris Tanghinia Tanghinia Widespread. Acacia. Acorns, Agrimonia. Alnus. A ralia, Arcrium, Arcrostaphylos, Aralia. Areca, Arnica, A rtemisia. Asperula. Eerberis, Berula, Camcllia. Castanea, Carharanthus, Cephaelis. Cinnamomum, Coffea, Corchorus. Coriandrum, Cornus. Cuminurn. Cydonia, Diospyros, Drimys, Euca1,vptus. Eugenia. Eupatorium, Euphoria. Ficus. Frogaria, Galium. Carcinia, Geum, G1,ycyrrhiza. Helianthirs. Hibiscus, Humulus. Hydnocarpus. Hyssopus. Ilex. Ipomoca, Lavandula. Lawsonia. Lrspedcza. I.cireaena, Litchi, Lycopus, Madhuca. Majorana. Malus. Mangifera. Marruhium, Melia. Moms. Mma. Mvrica, Uyrisrica. Nephclium, PapaversPassiJlora. Peltophorum, Pimpinella, Phyllanrhus, Phytolacca. Polyxonum. Prunus. Pttnica, Rheum. Rosmarinus. Rubus. Rumcx. Ruta. Salvia. Sassafras, Schinopsis. Sclerocarya, Svmphyrum, S.vzygium. Tanacerum, Taraklogenos. Tcrminalia, Tussilago, Vcronicasrrum. Viris Cichorium, Hclianrhus. Hibiscus, Musa. Persea. Rumcx. Tamarindus. Viris Tc.loiiia Acacia. Artcmisia, Asarum. Burscra. Cinnamomum, Citrus, Cumiflum. Cymbopoxon. Dryohalanops, Elerraria. Hypericiim. Illicium, Jasminum. Lourus. Levisticum, Lippia, Melaleuca, Orixanum, Pclarxonium, Peumus Papaver. Rau wolfla?, Srrychnus Camellia, Coffea. Cola. Guazuma, Herrank. Itex, Paullinia. Stcrculia. Theobroma

Camrllia. Ilcx, Paullinia

Thevrria Widespread Brassica Arremisia. 1.avandula. Lippia. Salvia. Tanacctum, Thrija Thymus Carum. Lavandula. Monarda. Nepeta. Ocimum, Oriflnum. Sarurcia, Thymus Callirris, Monarda L ycopersicon

TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera

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Tonka absolute Tridecanoic acid Tridecanol Trigonelline

or1 rat LD, ,, 1,380 ivn mus LD,. , 130 mg or1 rat LDLo, 4,750 mg scu rat LDLo, 5,000 mg


ipr mus LDLo. 75 me ivn mus LD, 90 nip scu mus LDLo, 1,000 mg scu rbt LDLo, 800 mg ivn rbt LDLo, 400 mg scu frg LDLO, 2,000 mg


ivn rat LDLo, 20 mg ivn cat LDLo, 18 mg scu rbt LDLo. 400 mg ipr gpg LDLo, 170 my or1 rat TDLo, 1,100 m d D C NEO



scu mus LD,, ,560 pg ipr mus LD, 500 pg ivn mus LP, o I 180 p g ivn rbt LD, o , 200 pg or1 rat LD, o , 65 mg ivn rat LD,, , 3 2 mg or1 mus LD, o , 50 mg ivn mus LD, o , 42 mg ipr mus LDLo, 800 mg scu mus LDLo, 225 mg ivn mus LD,, , 2 6 0 mg unk mus LDLo, 2,200 mg scu cat LDLo, 30 mg ivn rbl LD,,,. 300 nip ivn mus LD,,, 140 mg or1 rat LD, o , 2,500 mg or1 mus LD,, ,2,300 mg ipr mus LD, d , 960 mg or1 rat LD, o , 3,200 mg

Plant genera

Dipreryx Cocos, Iris Musa Acacia, Asrragalus, A wena?Canavalia, Cannabis, Coffea. Cucurbita. Dahlia. Dichapetalum. Dicramnus, Glycine, Ilex. Lupinus. Medicago, Mirabilis, Morus,Oryza, Pisum, Sambucus, Scorzonera, Solanum. Stachys, Srrophan thus, Trigonella Acorns. Amorphophallus, Arisrolochia. Arnica. Beta, Chenopodium, Chaerophyllum, Chrysosplenium. Clematis, Cornus, Coryledon, Craraefls, Dracunculus. Fagus. Gossypium, Heracleum. Maerua, Menyanrbes, Mercurialis. Nicoriana. Prunus. Pvrus, Rhagodia, Sauromatium. Sorbaria, Sorbus, Sparhiphyllum, Spiraea, Taraxacum, Viburnum Ery rhroxylum

Elmsine. Fagopyrum, Clycine. Helianrhus. Ipomoea. Juglatis. Linum, Luffa. Lupinus, Lycopersicon, Manihot. Medicago, Moringa, Murraya. Musa, Nicoriana. Nigella. Panicum. Papaver, Paspalum, Peltophorum. Pennisetum Chondrodendron

o I



Undecanoic acid Undecylenic acid Valeraldehyde Valeric acid

ivn mus LD, o , 1,290 mg or1 mus LD, ,, 500 mg scu mus LD,, ,3,590mg


or1 rat LD, o , 1,580 mg or1 rbt LDLo, 3,000 mg or1 gpg LD, I ) , 1,400 mg ivnmusLDS,.13mg ivn cat LDLo, 2 mg ipr rat LD, (1,3,500p g ipr mus LD,, , 1,350 rg ivn mus LD,, ,420 p g or1 rat LDLo, 25 mg or1 rat LD, o , 4,000 mg ipr mus LD, (I,1.5 mg ivn mus LD, o , 420 pg ipr mus LDLo, 125 mg ipr mus LDLo, 250 mg or1 rat LD,,, 12 mg ipr rat LU, o , 1,690 yrg or1 mus LD, 4,500 p g or1 rbt LD, o , 18 mg

Veatchin (HCI) Veratridine


Verbenol Verbenone Veriloid

Ficus, Tylophora

Acacia, Capsella. Carduus, Citrus, Crinum, Cytiws. Erodium. Lophophora, Phoradendron, Psirracanrhus, Silybum. Viscum

A rremisia, Cocos, Iris, Thymus

Carpinus, Eucalyptus, Lavandula, Melaleuca, Ocotea, Quercus, Syzygium Ananas. Angelica, Andropogon, A tracrylis, Boronia, Cananga, Carthamus. Croron, Eryrhraea, Ferula. Humulus. Laurus, Lavandula, Mentha. Sambucus, Valeriana, Viburnum Cymbopogon, Gossypium, Ilex. Liquidambar, Myroxylon. Nigrirella, Ru ta, Sryrax, Syzygium Garrya Veratrum Sarracenia. Schoenocaulon

Boswellia Bosiuellia. L ippia Veratnim


November 1977


TABLE 1 (continued) Toxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant Genera ('licniiul


Vincamine Vincristine (see Leurocristine) Visnadin

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Xylenol Yohimbine 1


Phytotoxin tables.

PHYTOTOXIN TABLES Author: James A. Duke Herbal Vineyard Fulton, Maryland Referee: M. Coburn Williams Critical Reviews in Toxicology 1977.5:189-23...
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