Preface Pediatric Allergy
Corinne A. Keet, MD, PhD
Pamela A. Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, MD, PhD Editors
Robert A. Wood, MD
Allergic diseases are the most common chronic diseases of childhood, affecting at least one-fourth of US children. In recent years, we have seen great advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. However, despite major improvements in our understanding of the factors that may contribute to the development of allergic diseases, improved treatments are needed for many conditions, and prevention remains an elusive goal. In this issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, our goal is to provide updated reviews on key areas of pediatric allergy by authors who are true experts in the field, many of whom have generated some of the most interesting recent findings in their respective areas. Drs Wegienka, Zoratti, and Johnson start by reviewing the role of the environment in the development of allergic diseases, discussing controversies related to how the microbiome, diet, and other exposures may contribute to—or potentially prevent—the initiation of an allergic phenotype. Ms Ortiz and Dr Barnes then review what we have learned from genome-wide association studies of asthma and other allergic diseases and discuss how newer techniques, including sequencing and other “omics” methods, may help advance our understanding of these diseases. Food allergy is a topic of increasing clinical importance that has also seen tremendous growth from a research perspective in the past decade. Because of the central role food allergy now plays in the world of pediatric allergy, we devote three articles to advances in this area. Ms Johns and Dr Savage review the epidemiology of food allergy; Drs Kattan and Sicherer review the diagnosis of food allergy, and Drs Albin and Nowak-We˛grzyn present a state-of-the-art review of potential treatment approaches. This trio of reviews highlights both how much we have learned and how far we have to go to optimally care for food allergic patients. Pediatric asthma remains the third leading cause of hospitalization among children and particularly affects children living in the inner city. Drs Gergen and Togias review what is known about this major health disparity. Although both allergens and Immunol Allergy Clin N Am 35 (2015) xiii–xiv http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2014.09.015 immunology.theclinics.com 0889-8561/15/$ – see front matter Ó 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
respiratory viruses have long been associated with the development of asthma, how they interact to promote asthma is only now being elucidated, as discussed by Drs Rowe and Gill. In 2007, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/National Asthma Education and Prevention Program updated guidelines for asthma management, with an emphasis on asthma control. Drs Huffaker and Phipatanakul review these guidelines, discuss the potential role of biologics in the treatment of asthma, and outline how advances in the understanding of asthma subtypes may change the management of asthma. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinically challenging disease that appears to be increasing in prevalence. Dr Aceves reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of this emerging syndrome. Atopic dermatitis is an extremely common condition, affecting up to 20% of young children, with significant effects on quality of life. Drs Lyons, Milner, and Stone review exciting advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition and how these advances can be used to improve therapy. Finally, Drs Tharpe and Kemp provide a superb review of allergic rhinitis; Drs Willams and Sharma summarize the diagnosis and management of urticaria and anaphylaxis, and Dr Kelso provides an approach to drug and vaccine allergy that will be of value to all clinicians. Corinne A. Keet, MD, PhD Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Johns Hopkins School of Medicine CMSC 1102 600 N. Wolfe St. Baltimore, MD 21202, USA Pamela A. Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, MD, PhD Food Allergy Research Unit Laboratory of Allergic Diseases National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) 4 Memorial Drive Building 4, Room 228B MSC0425 Bethesda, MD 20892, USA Robert A. Wood, MD Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Johns Hopkins School of Medicine CMSC 1102 600 N. Wolfe St. Baltimore, MD 21202, USA E-mail addresses: [email protected]
(C.A. Keet) [email protected]
(P.A. Frischmeyer-Guerrerio) [email protected]