Austria.?' Included among

is the givwork for which the pay is does not exist.' from industrial labour does

disciplinary punishments

ing of disagreeable and difficult work,

very small. "

Penal labour per



Belgium.?' Penal as distinguished not exist in the prisons of Belgium.'

" Denmark.?'No distinction is made between penal and industrial labour.' " France.?' Penal labour, properly so called, does not exist in the prisons of France. The penal system is no longer founded as What is desired at present formerly on suffering and terror is to punish the criminal, what is sought as the end of that punishment is his reformation. Therefore industrial labour alone is found in the prisons, obligatory in the case of those under sentence, permitted in the case of the arrested and accused.' " Germany.-?' Penal labour, properly so called, does not exist. The question relating thereto cannot, therefore, be answered.' " Prussia.?' Penal labour merely does not exist.' " Italy.?'We seek to give the industrial education of our prisoners the turn which appears fitted for them, and which is most easily mastered. In our penitentiary system there is no labour exclusively bearing a penal character: with us labour has no other aim than to overcome the natural propensity to idleness in the criminal, to accustom him to a life of activity and hardship, and to give him the means of obtaining an honourable livelihood, when the absence of such means had caused him to become guilty.' " Mexico.?' In Mexico there is no penal labour, neither does the Commission think it desirable that there should be any, because

this does not contribute to the moral improvement of the prisoner, and because, to render this kind of punishment effective, it would be necessary to use actual violence, which humiliates and degrades those who suffer it.' " Netherlands.?' The distinction between penal and industrial labour does not exist in this country. Penal labour is unknown.'

Norway.?' In the strafar heidarsanstatts no other labour is performed than that which is given to the prisoners as part of their punishment. This labour is chiefly of an industrial character, but not quite the same in all prisons.' "

" Russia.?' Penal labour alone cannot have a beneficial influence. This is nowhere more clearly proved than in Siberia, where the number of escapes may be counted by thousands. Most intense hatred of authority and the desire of vengeance exist where penal is not conjoined with industrial labour, which is the only means of reformation.'

"Sweden.?' No distinction is made between penal and industrial labour. Penal labour has not had a sufficiently deterrent effort to reduce the number of recidivists.' "Switzerland.?'Nowhere is there found in Switzerland a penal labour of the character of the tread-mill. Hard ignominious public labour, such as still exists in some cantons, is not unfavourable to physical health, but has a bad moral effect.' " United States.?' The tread-mill, the crank, the shot drill, and other forms of penal labour have no place in the prisons of the United States, but there is scarcely any kind of industrial labour which does not find a space there.'


that, with reference

to the


condition of native prisoners in Bengal, Mr. Campbell lately wrote:?"With the rates of mortality we have had, and even with

have, this probability of dying in jail is undoubtedly very great deterrent. If we succeeded in making our jails be driven to make them more disagreevery healthy, we should able in other ways." Major-General Stewart, the Governor of our penal settlement in the Andamans, is evidently disposed to develope these ideas. In his annual report for the year 1871-72, he remarks, as regards the sanitary condition of the settlement, that it is so good as to " create the suspicion that the convicts cannot be subjected to sufficiently severe labour." The Englishman asks, if the damage to the health of our prisoners i3 to bo the measure of efficiency in our jail discipline ? With reference to this subject, we republish an extract from the Hindoo Patriot of the 7th April 1873 : One of the questions to which answers were requested by each of the Governments represented at the International Penitentiary Congress in London in July last was as follows:?'Is there a distinction made in your prisons between penal and industrial labour?' The following extracts from the replies will show the prevailing opinions of civilized nations on the subject: those we a


" England.?' Penal servitude in England does not mean unproductive penal labour. In it the prisoner has to pass the first nine months of his time alone in his cell, working at some employment of an industrial or remunerative character, excepting the period " allotted to prayers and exercise.'

Notes on Sanitation.

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