Tetrahedron Letters xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

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Nickel-catalyzed reductive arylation of activated alkynes with aryl iodides Stephanie C. M. Dorn, Andrew K Olsen, Rachel E. Kelemen  , Ruja Shrestha à, Daniel J. Weix ⇑ Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, 120 Trustee Road, Rochester, NY 14627, USA

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history: Received 2 December 2014 Revised 20 February 2015 Accepted 24 February 2015 Available online xxxx Keywords: Reductive Arylation Alkyne Nickel Catalyzed

a b s t r a c t The direct, regioselective, and stereoselective arylation of activated alkynes with aryl iodides using a nickel catalyst and manganese reductant is described. The reaction conditions are mild (40 °C in MeOH, no acid or base) and an intermediate organomanganese reagent is unlikely. Functional groups tolerated include halides and pseudohalides, free and protected anilines, and a benzyl alcohol. Other activated alkynes including an amide and a ketone also reacted to form arylated products in good yields. Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tri-substituted alkenoates are important building blocks for the synthesis of natural products,1 and thus a variety of methods have been developed for their synthesis. These methods include olefination,2 cross-coupling,3,4 Heck reactions of alkenes,5 reductive Heck reactions of alkynes,6 C–H activation,7 and the addition of organometallic reagents across alkynes.8–10 Of these approaches, the Heck reaction and the addition of organometallic reagents across alkynes are the most well developed. Reductive arylation combines attractive elements of these two approaches, the use of organic halides and addition across simple alkynes, but a simple b-selective reaction is unknown. The reductive arylation of alkynes is less well developed than addition reactions to alkenes. Although palladium-catalyzed reactions tend to give products of multiple alkyne insertions11 and favor a-addition of alkynones and alkynoates,12 broadly useful approaches to vinyl arenes and heterocycles have been developed.6 Cheng has reported nickel-catalyzed annulations of alkynes to form lactones13 and quinolines,14 including a single example of b-selective arylation.15 Although it was unclear if stereochemical control and high chemical yield would be possible without a cyclization event, our own studies on reductive-Heck like reactions prompted us to investigate this process.16 ⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +1 585 276 0205. E-mail address: [email protected] (D.J. Weix). Present address: Chemistry Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA. à Present address: Rennovia, Inc., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.  

After some initial exploration of reactivity, we found that methyl octynoate could be coupled with iodobenzene in the presence of a nickel(II) source, a bidentate amine ligand, and manganese reductant. While reasonable yields could be obtained in a variety of solvents, the best results were obtained in methanol. In contrast to Cheng’s work, we found nitrogen donor ligands, especially phenanthroline (L1, entry 1), to be superior to dppe (L2, entry 8). Control reactions demonstrated that nickel and ligand were both necessary for the reaction (Table 1, entries 2 and 3). A variety of activated alkynes participated in the arylation reaction and provided primarily the products of syn addition across the alkyne, yielding the (E)-isomer 3, as well as minor amounts of the (Z)-isomer (Scheme 1). The exception was a reaction run with ethyl phenylpropiolate which formed a-aryl alkenoate 4ca and only a trace amount of the b-arylation product. In addition, product 4ca was found to be a methyl ester instead of an ethyl ester due to competitive transesterification. Transesterification was not observed in reactions with a tert-butyl ester and a dimethyl amide (see products 3ba and 3db). The chemistry tolerated aryl iodides with a wide range of functional groups (Scheme 2). The selective functionalization of the carbon–iodine bond over other carbon–halogen/pseudohalogen/ boron bonds was observed, providing products that could be further functionalized using a variety of methods. Aryl iodides with a variety of other functional groups, including anilines and a benzyl alcohol, as well as a vinyl iodide also provided trisubstituted alkenoates 3aj, 3ak, 3al, 3an, and 3ao in good yields.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2015.02.120 0040-4039/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Dorn, S. C. M.; et al. Tetrahedron Lett. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2015.02.120

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S. C. M. Dorn et al. / Tetrahedron Letters xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Table 1 Reductive arylation of methyl octynoate with iodobenzenea

2.5 mol% NiCl 2•2H 2O 2.5 mol% L 1 2 equiv Mn 0 MeOH, 40 °C

O OMe + PhI H11 C5 1a 1.0 equiv

O H11 C5 Ph

H

2a 1.0 equiv

3aa

L1 N

OMe

Ph 2P

L2

PPh 2

N

Entry

Deviation from entry 1

Yieldb

E/Z ratioc

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

None No nickel No phenanthroline (L1) 5 mol % NiCl22H2O 5 mol %L1 No Mn0 powder 1 mol % catalyst dppe (L2) instead of L1

92 6 0 95 72 0 56 1

8:1 5:1 NA 13:1 14:1 NA 10:1 NA

a Standard reaction conditions: 1a (0.50 mmol), 2a (0.50 mmol), 2 mL methanol, heated in a reaction block at 40 °C for 20–24 h. b Yield reported is corrected GC yield of combined isomers with respect to decane. c E/Z ratio determined by GC analysis.

Both sterics and electronics of the aryl iodide affected the selectivity of the arylation. Aryl iodides with ortho-substitution resulted in better selectivity for the (E) product (Scheme 2, 3ab vs 3ah), as did reactions with electron-rich aryl iodides (Scheme 2, 3ab and 3aj vs 3aa in Scheme 1). In contrast, p-withdrawing substituents on aryl iodides provided significant amounts of the a-addition products in addition to the major (E)-b-aryl alkenoate (Scheme 3). For some of the low-yielding substrates, byproducts including biaryl, hydrodehalogenation, and alkyne-dimer were observed. Specifically, with 2-iodotrifluorotoluene, there was an equal amount of hydrodehalogenated, hydroarylated, and bisarylated products, as well as a small amount of alkyne dimer observed. For ortho-iodotoluene, there was a significant amount of iodoarene O R2 R1

1

O 2.5 mol% NiCl 2•2H 2O R1 R2 2.5 mol% L 1 + 1.0 equiv ArI (2) Ar H 0 2 equiv Mn 3 MeOH, 40 °C (E)-β-aryl alkenoate O

O H11 C5

OMe

H11 C 5

Ph

Ar

74% yield 3aa E/Z = 8:1

Ar = 4-MeOC6H 4 48% yield 3ba E/Z = 11:1 O

H11 C 5

NMe 2

Ar Ar = 4-MeOC6H 4 49% yield 3dbc E/Z = 15:1

H 9C 4

I

I

Br 69% yield 3ac E/Z = 7:1

Cl 84% yield 3ad E/Z = 8:1

R2

R1

Ar 4 (E)-α-aryl alkenoate

H

OMe

Ph Ph from ethyl ester 58% yield 4c ab α/β = 75:1 O

2.5 mol% NiCl 2•2H 2O O O 2.5 mol% L 1 R OMe Ar OMe + OMe 1.0 equiv ArI (2) R Ar 3 H R 5 H 2 equiv Mn 0 1a R = C5H11 (E)-β-alkenoate (Z)-β-alkenoate MeOH, 40 °C O

O H

O OtBu

remaining, and some bisarylated product. Efforts to minimize bisarylated product using protic additives were not successful. Mechanistic experiments support a reductive Heck mechanism, as suggested by Cheng (Scheme 4).13,14 An organomanganese intermediate is not likely because (1) acidic functional groups are tolerated (benzyl alcohol, primary aniline), (2) the reaction is run in an alcohol solvent, and (3) stoichiometric reactions without added manganese produce product with similar yield and selectivity (Table 2). Additionally, the synthesis of arylmanganese reagents requires the use of additives (indium) or highly activated manganese.17 We also confirmed that the a-vinyl proton in the product is derived from the methanol solvent by running the reaction in deuterated methanol (see SI for details). Further evidence in support of a reductive Heck mechanism is the stoichiometric reaction of (phenanthroline)NiII(aryl)I complex 6 with an alkynoate to form the expected addition product 3ar (Table 2). Arylnickel 6 was synthesized in analogy to our published method18 and characterized by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. Stoichiometric reactions of 6 with alkynoate 1a formed expected product 3ar under a variety of conditions in less than one hour (entries 2–5). Intermediate reduction of 6 is not required to form product because reactions run both with and without added Mn0 provided similar yields of 3ar (entries 2–5). Finally, 6 was a competent precatalyst, with similar initial rates to a reaction with a preformed catalyst (entries 1 and 6), although the final yield with 6 was slightly lower. A proposed catalytic cycle, accounting for both product and byproduct formation, is shown in Scheme 4. The nickel(II) precatalyst is reduced to nickel(0) before sequential oxidative addition and migratory insertion. Protolysis liberates the product, completing the catalytic cycle. In conclusion, a simple, nickel-catalyzed method for the synthesis of b-aryl alkenoates from alkynoates and aryl iodides has been developed. This method has broad functional-group compatibility, does not use a large excess of either reagent, and reactions can be set up on the bench top with unpurified methanol.

Me Me

Ph 71% yield 3ea E/Z = 5:1

Scheme 1. Alkyne scope. Reactions conducted as in Table 1, footnote a. Yields reported are of isolated yields of E olefin (major isomer). E/Z and a/b ratios determined by GC analysis. Ar = Ph unless noted. bAlkynoate used was ethyl 3phenylpropiolate. cReaction was run at 60 °C.

B O

I

I

I Me

H 2N

Me 69% yield 3am E/Z = 8:1

I TsHN

72% yield 3aj E/Z = 59:1 I

I OMe 59% yield 3ah E/Z = 42:1

MeO 73% yield 3ab E/Z = 14:1

70% yield 3ag E/Z = 10:1

55% yield 3ai E/Z = 11:1 F

TfO 54% yield 3af E/Z = 5:1

F 70% yield 3ae E/Z = 10:1

I O

I

I

AcHN

67% yield 3ak E/Z = 9:1

HO 88% yield 3an E/Z = 15:1

I

94% yield 3al E/Z = 19:1

I C 4H 9

I

54% yield 3ao + 5aob E/Z = 2:1

Scheme 2. Aryl halide scope. Reactions conducted as in Table 1, footnote a. Yields reported are of isolated yields of E olefin 3 (major isomer). E/Z ratio determined by GC analysis. bYield reported is of combined E and Z isomers.

Please cite this article in press as: Dorn, S. C. M.; et al. Tetrahedron Lett. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2015.02.120

S. C. M. Dorn et al. / Tetrahedron Letters xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

2.5 mol% NiCl 2•2H 2O O O 2.5 mol% L 1 R OMe + H OMe OMe 1.0 equiv ArI (2) R Ar H R Ar 2 equiv Mn 0 1 3 4 MeOH, 40 °C R = C5H11 (E)-β-aryl (E)-α-aryl alkenoate alkenoate O

O

O I

I

MeO

Me

57% yield 3ap β/α = 3:1

50% yield 3aq β/α = 2:1

Scheme 3. Aryl iodides that yielded a-arylation product 4. Reactions conducted as in Table 1, footnote a. Yields reported are of isolated yields. ba ratio determined by GC analysis.

NiIICl2 •2H2 O L1 MnI(OMe)

Mn

I

Ar

(L1)Ni 0

Observed side products Ar Ar I

I

(L1)NiII

OMe

5

Ar Ar

H O

Ar

OMe

R 3

H

O I

NiII(L1)

OMe

R

O

Ar

MeOH

1

OMe

R

O

MeO Ar

H

O

Ar

O

Ar

OMe

R

R

Observed side products

OMe

Scheme 4. Proposed catalytic cycle.

Table 2 Stoichiometric studies of an arylnickel(II) complexa

O N

I Ni

iPr

C5H11

1a

1 2 3 4 5 6c a

OMe

exclusively 3ar formed

1.0 equiv 6

c

H11 C5

MeOH

N

Entry

O

OMe

Equiv ArI

Equiv Mn0

Catalytic reaction with NiCl22H2O 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 40 80

Equiv alkyne and L1 1.0 1.0 50 50 40

Yieldb 78 83 68 62 81 63

Reactions conducted as in Table 1, footnote a. Yield reported is corrected GC yield calculated with respect to an internal standard. c ArI remaining after 24 h. b

Acknowledgments This work was supported by the NIH (R01 GM097243). We are grateful for summer research support from the University of Rochester (REK and AKO Research and Innovation Grant) and the NSF REU Program (REK and AKO, CHE-1156340 and CHE0849892). We thank Adam Lee (University of Rochester) for the synthesis of aryliodides and Jill Caputo (University of Rochester) for the synthesis of NiCl2(dme). Supplementary data Supplementary data (detailed experimental procedures, data on optimization and deuteration experiments, product characterization, and copies of NMR spectra) associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. tetlet.2015.02.120. References and notes

2

0

(L1)NiII

3

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Please cite this article in press as: Dorn, S. C. M.; et al. Tetrahedron Lett. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2015.02.120

Nickel-catalyzed reductive arylation of activated alkynes with aryl iodides.

The direct, regioselective, and stereoselective arylation of activated alkynes with aryl iodides using a nickel catalyst and manganese reductant is de...
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