PsychologicalReporh, 1990, 66, 819-822. @ Psychological Reports 1990
MMPIs OF HISPANIC, BLACK, AND WHITE DSM-I11 SCHIZOPHRENICS ' ROBERTO J. VELASQUEZ AND WENDELL J. CALLAHAN
San Diego Sbte University Summary.-The purpose of this study was to compare the MMPI performance of Hispanic, black, and white mencal patients who were matched on the psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that ethnic patient groups from a maximum security hospital would not differ sigruf~canrlyon any of the 13 MMPI scales as a result of being equated on psychiatric d~agnosis.A secondary purpose was to examine the most frequently occurring two-pomt hgh-point codes elicited by each of the ethnic groups. Significant multivariate differences were indicated among the MMPI scales and across ethtuc groups. Significant univariate differences were found among the three ethnic groups on six of the 13 MMPI scales. The most frequently occurring two-point high-point code for Hispanic and white groups was the "8-212-8" code, while for the black group it was the "6-818-6" code. Results were discussed with regard to ethnicity, psychiatric diagnosis, and MMPI performance of ethniclracial groups.
Despite the high volume of research on ethnicity and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (2, 71, there remains a paucity of research on the relationship between ethnicity, psychiatric diagnosis, and MMPI performance. The results of the few studies (4, 5 , 6, 8, 10) in which ethnic psychatric patients have been matched by diagnosis indicate that ethnic differences on the MMPI tend to be minimized. Pritchard and Rosenblatt (9) noted that unless ethnic groups are matched for level or type of psychopathology, any mean differences on the MMPI cannot be meaningfuLly interpreted. The purpose of t h s study then was to compare the MMPI performance of Hispanic, black, and white patients who were matched on the psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia. A secondary purpose was to examine the most frequently occurring two-point high-point codes elicited by each of these ethnic groups. It was hypothesized that ethnic patient groups would not differ significantly on any of the 13 MMPI scales as a result of being equated on psychiatric diagnosis.
METHOD Subjects were 168 male adult inpatients in a maximum security state hospital under the jurisdiction of the California Department of Mental Health. There were 32 Hispanic, 70 black, and 66 white subjects. The majority (80%) of the subjects in the Hispanic group were of Mexican origin. 'Portions of this investigation were presented at the 95th Annual Meeting of the American Psycholo ical Association, New York, NY. Preparation of this manuscript was partially funded by an ~ h i r m a t i v eAction Faculty Development Grant at San Diego State University. Requests for reprints should be sent to Dr. Roberto J. Velasquez, Department of Counselor Education, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-0162.
R. J. VELASQUEZ & W. J. CALLAHAN
All subjects were assigned a DSM-111 Axis I diagnos~sof "schizophrenia, chronic undifferentiated." Subjects with accompanying Axis I or I1 diagnoses were excluded from the study. The subjects were similar across most demographic var~ablesbut did differ on age and education. The white group was older than either of the other groups, averaging 34.3 yr. of age (SD= 8.9), as compared with 29.7 yr. (SD= 6.5) for the Hispanic and 31.2 (SD= 6.5) for the black groups. The Hispanic patients had an average of 10 yr. (SD= 2.2) education, the black group 10.6 yr. (SD= 2.9), and the white group 11.5 yr. (SD = 1.8). All subjects were administered the English-language version of the MMPI (Form R) following admission to the hospital, usually within 14 days, and prior to assignment to a treatment ward. AU profiles were deemed valid if the F scale was not greater than 801 Subjects' scores on the 13 MMPI scales, age, and years of formal education were analyzed using a one-way multivariate analysis of variance. In this procedure ethnic group was an independent variable, with three subgroups of Hispanic, black, and white patients. Individual MMPI scale scores, age, and years of education were dependent variables. Pos! hoc analysis included Tukey's tests calculated on those scales on which significant difference~were indicated to identdy the location of differences between ethnic groups. Descriptive statistics were used to generate two-point high-point codes for each ethnic group. Mean scale scores, mean age, mean years of education, and results of the multivariate analysis are presented in Tzble 1. Significant multivariate differences were indicated among the MMPI scales and across ethnic groups (Wilks X = .66; approximate ~ = 2 . 3 6p3 3.23* 7.65* 1,3>2 0.25 4.28* 3>2 1.85 1.70 3.26* 1>2 0.06 1.61 7.01f 1,3>2 8.20*1,3>2 10.03' 1,3>2 .42