Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Medicinal species with gastroprotective activity found in the Brazilian Cerrado Jose L. R. Martins*, Oscar R. L. Rodrigues, Fabio B. de Sousa, James O. Fajemiroye, Pablinny M. Galdino, Iziara F. Florentino, Elson A. Costa Laboratory of Pharmacology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Goias, Samambaia Campus, 74001-970, 314 Goiania, GO, Brazil
Keywords Brazilian cerrado, gastric mucosa, medicinal plants
Received 9 July 2014; revised 22 January 2015; accepted 4 March 2015
*Correspondence and reprints: [email protected]
Peptic and/or duodenal ulcers are characterized by diverse acute and chronic ulcerative lesions that commonly arise in any portion of the gastric mucosa that is exposed to the aggressive action of gastric acid. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcers has been attributed to an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors. In Brazil, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat this ailment. A country with great biodiversity, Brazil is considered a rich source of therapeutic products. There have been popular and pharmacological reports on the medicinal relevance of the Brazilian cerrado plant species, including Ananas ananassoides, Celtis iguanaea, Encholirium spectabile, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Lafoensia pacari, Qualea grandiflora, Qualea parvifora, Mouriri pusa, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum, Serjania erecta, and Vochysia tucanorum, in the treatment of stomach disorders. The aim of the present review was to report on some of the Brazilian cerrado plants that are used in folk medicine because of their gastroprotective potential and to encourage novel studies in the search and preservation of plants with this therapeutic potential.
INTRODUCTION Reports on the use of plants as medicines by humans date to more than 60 000 years ago . For thousands of years, man has deepened his empirical knowledge to promote the healing of human diseases . Brazil is a country that has rich biodiversity and a territory consisting of four major biomes (the Amazon forest, rainforest, cerrado, and wetlands). Hence, it is a rich source of therapeutic products [3,4]. The Brazilian cerrado covers approximately two million square km and stretches across 13 states, representing 25% of the country’s biomes; this biome is recognized as the world’s richest, with more than 10 000 species of plants and 4400 endemic species (exclusive) [3,5]. However, the current form of agricultural expansion in Brazil has led to the neglect of these species , thereby reducing the original cover of this biome and compromising the conservation of its rich flora. te Francßaise de Pharmacologie et de The rapeutique ª 2015 Socie Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), between 65 and 80% of the population of developing countries rely primarily on plants for alleviating various diseases . However, only a minority of these plants (