Endourology and Stones Long-term Adverse Effects of Extracorporeal Shock-wave Lithotripsy for Nephrolithiasis and Ureterolithiasis: A Systematic Review dric Poyet, Thomas Hermanns, €hler, Ce Christian D. Fankhauser, Benedikt Kranzbu Tullio Sulser, and Johann Steurer This study presents a systematic review of the published literature on possible long-term adverse effects after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Although published disagreement exists, this review finds that previous evidence supporting an association between ESWL and long-term adverse effects is weak and that the majority of studies show no evidence for any increase in post-ESWL incidence of arterial hypertension (24 of 30 studies), diabetes mellitus (4 of 6 studies), kidney dysfunction (14 of 14 studies), or infertility (2 of 2 studies). Currently, no strong evidence exists to support the hypothesis that ESWL causes long-term adverse effects. UROLOGY 85: 991e1006, 2015.  2015 Elsevier Inc.

E

xtracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a noninvasive treatment option for nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis. Since its introduction in the 1980s, millions of patients have benefited, and ESWL quickly became the gold standard therapy for nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis. Known short-term side effects of ESWL are renal hematoma, infectious complications, “steinstrasse” (stone street) blockage caused by remaining stone fragments, renal colic, or regrowth of urinary calculi.1 However, long-term adverse effects (LAEs) have not been thoroughly evaluated to date, and several authors have reported contradictory results. Potential LAEs of ESWL include arterial hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and decreased fertility (FERT). Because no large prospective studies have been conducted to observe LAE after ESWL, we synthesize the published evidence

Christian D. Fankhauser had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Christian D. Fankhauser and Johann Steurer contributed to study concept and design. Christian D. Fankhauser and Benedikt Kranzb€uhler contributed to acquisition of data. Christian D. Fankhauser, Benedikt Kranzb€uhler, and Johann Steurer contributed to analysis and interpretation of data. Christian D. Fankhauser and Johann Steurer contributed to drafting of the article. Christian D. Fankhauser, Johann Steurer, Cedric Poyet, Thomas Hermanns, and Tullio Sulser contributed to critical revision of the article for important intellectual content. Johann Steurer supervised the study. None of the authors were involved in obtaining funding and administrative, technical, or material support for the study. Financial Disclosure: The authors declare that they have no relevant financial interests. From the Klinik f€ ur Urologie, Universit€atsSpital Z€urich, Z€urich, Switzerland Address correspondence to: Christian D. Fankhauser, Universit€atsSpital Z€urich, Klinik f€ ur Urologie, Frauenklinikstrasse 10, Z€urich CH-8091, Switzerland. E-mail: [email protected] Submitted: August 31, 2014, accepted (with revisions): December 5, 2014

ª 2015 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved

regarding the 4 most discussed LAE in this systematic review.

METHODS This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the recommendations of the PRISMA statement2 and a recent publication about reporting adverse events in systematic reviews.3

Literature Search We conducted a literature search on December 19, 2013, using the following databases: Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline, and Web of Science. For our literature research we used combinations of search terms related to “hypertension,” “diabetes mellitus,” “kidney function deterioration,” fertility,” and “adverse effects,” in various combinations with “long-term,” “nephro- and ureterolithiasis,” and “lithotripsy.” The detailed search strategy used to query the Medline database is shown in Appendix 1. In addition, the reference lists of all of the identified publications were searched manually to identify further relevant studies describing LAEs of ESWL.

Eligibility Criteria Peer-reviewed studies reporting at least 1 of the 4 adverse effects of interest (HTN, DM, CKD, FERT) were eligible for inclusion in this review. We excluded studies with age þ No change in the mean Post: reported by 100 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure physicians RR >95 mm Hg Not reported Not reported Hypertension did not occur in any patient during follow-up No evidence for an Pre: chart review RR >130/95 mm Hg for increase in the incidence Post: reported by physician women, >140/90 mm of arterial hypertension Hg for men younger than 45 y and >150/95 mm Hg older than 45 y Post: reported by Not reported New medical problem (.) patients which could be potentially been associated with their renal treatment was found 3% in the PNL, and in 2% in the ESWL group Pre: chart review RR >160/95 mm Hg No evidence for an Post: not reported increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension RR >160/95 mm Hg No evidence for an Pre: measured by increase in the incidence physician of arterial hypertension Post: measured by physician Pre: chart review Not reported No evidence for an Post: measured by increase in the incidence physician of arterial hypertension Diastolic RR >90 mm Hg No evidence for an Pre: measured by increase in the incidence physicians of arterial hypertension Post: measured by physicians Pre: chart review Post: patient reported

997

Continued

998

Table 1. Continued

First Author Simon

10

Study Design Retrospective cohort

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median)

Control Group

24

None

33 (Range 30-39)

None

12

Asymptomatic stone carriers

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Sarica11

Prospective cohort

Jewett12

RCT

Traxer13

Prospective cohort

Mean not reported (range 6-96)

None

Elves14

RCT

26 (Range 12-60)

Asymptomatic stone carriers

Strohmaier15

Prospective cohort

24

Only ureteral stones

Brinkmann16

Prospective cohort

45

None

Protogeru17

Prospective cohort

12

Distal ureteral stones treated with ESWL, or URS

Ramakrishnan18 Prospective cohort

90

None

Identification of Patients With Arterial Hypertension; Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL Pre: measured by physicians Post: telephone interview with patient or physician Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physician Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians Not reported Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physician Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians Pre: 24-hour RR measurement Post: 24-hour RR measurement Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians

Definition of Arterial Hypertension

Results/Conclusion

Not reported

No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension

Not reported

No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension

Diastolic RR >100 mm Hg No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension Not reported

No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension Systolic RR >160 mm Hg No evidence for an increase in the incidence or diastolic RR >90 mm of arterial hypertension Hg

Not reported

Not reported

“No difference between renal and urethral stones, or between the ESWL treatment and the other groups” No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension

Mean 24-hour RR value >125/80 mm Hg

“ESWL may be responsible for a drop in blood pressure”

Not reported

1 of 39 children developed arterial hypertension

Continued

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Table 1. Continued

First Author Eassa

19

Study Design Prospective cohort

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median) 43 (SD 13; range 18-57)

Control Group None

El-Assmy20

Retrospective cohort

Sato21

Retrospective cohort

204 (Range 132-264)

Ureteral stones treated with ESWL

Chew22

Retrospective cohort

240

Canadian community health survey

Krambeck23

Retrospective cohort

104 (Range 4-300)

Nonsurgically managed urolithiasis patients

El Nahas24

Retrospective 62 (SD 43; range 25-210) cohort

45 (SD 42; range 12-192)

None

None

Identification of Patients With Arterial Hypertension; Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL Pre: measured by physicians/reported by patients Post: measured by physicians/reported by patients Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians Patient reported

Post: reported by patients

Based on ICD entries of patients in database Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians

Definition of Arterial Hypertension

Results/Conclusion

No evidence for an RR >140/90 mm Hg or increase in the incidence prescribed of arterial hypertension antihypertensive therapy

Not reported

No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension

No evidence for an Diagnosis of arterial increase in the incidence hypertension and of arterial hypertension prescribed antihypertensive therapy No evidence for an Diagnosis of arterial increase in the incidence hypertension and of arterial hypertension prescribed antihypertensive therapy Not reported Failed to identify an association between ESWL and HTN Diastolic RR >95 centile No evidence for an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension

999

1000

Table 2. Studies suggesting an association between ESWL and an increase in the incidence of arterial hypertension

Follow-up Time in, mo, (Mean or Median)

Control Group

Identification of Patients with Arterial Hypertension; Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL

Definition of Arterial Hypertension

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

First Author

Study Design

Williams25

Retrospective cohort

17-21

None

Pre: chart review Post: reported by physicians

RR >150/95 mm Hg

Lingemann26

Retrospective cohort

96 (SD 9)

PNL, URS

Pre: chart review Post: reported by physicians

Prescribed antihypertensive therapy or diastolic RR >90 mm Hg

Knapp27

Prospective cohort

Mean not reported (range 17-23)

None

Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians

RR >145/95 mm Hg

Janetschek28

Prospective cohort

26 (Range 18-31)

None

Post: measured by physicians

Systolic RR >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic RR >90 mm Hg

Krambeck29

Retrospective cohort

228

Nonsurgically managed urolithiasis patients

Post: reported by patients

Diagnosis of arterial hypertension and prescribed antihypertensive therapy

Barbosa30

Retrospective cohort

72

Normal Population from NHANES database

Post: reported by patients

Diagnosis of arterial hypertension and prescribed antihypertensive therapy

Results/Conclusion by Authors Statistical increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure after ESWL “8% of patients developed hypertension” Statistically significant rise in diastolic blood pressure; but no evidence in the increase of the incidence of arterial hypertension Compared with normal prevalence of arterial hypertension in Austria (.) the risk of risk of hypertension is increased in older patients There is some evidence that in patients older than 60 y ESWL is associated with new onset of arterial hypertension New onset hypertension 36.4% in the ESWL compared to 27.4% in the control group ESWL is associated with the development of HTN The prevalence of arterial hypertension in the ESWL group increased from 26.7% before to 37.8% after ESWL compared to a matched control group 28% before and 32.5% after ESWL ESWL is associated with the development of HTN

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Table 3. Studies suggesting no association between ESWL and an increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus

First Author Sato

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median)

Design

21

Identification of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Pre ¼ Before ESWL Post ¼ After ESWL

Reference Group

Retrospective cohort

204 (Range 132-264)

Ureteral stones treated with ESWL

Reported by patients

Chew22

Retrospective cohort

240

Canadian community health survey

Reported by patients

Cogain31

Retrospective cohort

104 (Range 36-276)

Non-SWL urolithiasis patients

El-Nahas24

Retrospective cohort

62.4 (SD 43; range 25-210)

None

Post: disease codes from an epidemiological register Post: blood serum glucose levels

Results/Conclusion by Authors No evidence for an increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus No evidence for an increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus No evidence for an increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus No evidence for an increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus

Table 4. Studies suggesting an association between ESWL and an increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus

First Author Krambeck Kazemi32

29

Design

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median)

Reference Group

Identification of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus; Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL

Retrospective cohort

228

Nonsurgically managed urolithiasis patients

Post: Patient reported

Retrospective cohort

Median not reported (range 180-228)

None

Pre: medical chart review Post: Blood serum glucose levels, diagnosis of diabetes and prescribed antidiabetic therapy

Results/Conclusion by Authors New onset was noted in 16.8% in ESWL and 6.6% in the control group Evidence that ESWL might be associated with an increase in fasting blood sugar levels

1001

1002

Table 5. Studies suggesting no association between ESWL and an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease

First Author

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median)

Design

Reference Group

Identification of Patients With KFD; Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL

Definition of KFD Status

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Graff33

Prospective cohort

19 (Range 12-26)

None

Not reported

Not reported

Mays5

Prospective cohort

24

PNL

Post: Reported by patients

Not reported

Zanetti34

Prospective cohort

15 (Range 12-24)

None

Ultrasound and blood serum creatinine levels

Simon10

Retrospective cohort

24

None

Pre: Reported by physicians Post: Reported by physicians Post: Reported by physicians

Sarica11

Prospective cohort

33 (Range 30-39)

None

Post: Ultrasound and laboratory values

Kidney size and parenchymal thickness

Traxer13

Prospective cohort

Mean not reported (range 6-96)

None

Not reported

Blood serum creatinine and parenchymal damage

Perry35

Retrospective cohort

21

None

Not reported

Blood serum creatinine

Brinkmann16

Prospective cohort

45

None

El-Assmy36

Retrospective cohort

90 (SD 52)

None

Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians Not reported

Blood serum creatinine levels, kidney size measured by ultrasound Not reported

El-Assmy20

Retrospective cohort

46 (SD 42; range 12-192)

None

Post: measured by physicians

Blood serum creatinine

Blood serum creatinine

Results/Conclusion by Authors During follow-up complete restoration was observed. Serious complications during follow-up were no encountered. No evidence for an increase in the incidence of kidney function deterioration after ESWL compared to the PNL group No evidence for an increase in the incidence of kidney function deterioration after ESWL No evidence for an increase in the incidence of kidney function deterioration after ESWL “The long-term evaluation of our children proved the safety of this procedure” No parenchymal lesions were observed; values for serum creatinine levels were not reported. No evidence for an increase in the incidence of kidney function deterioration after ESWL No evidence for a damage to growing kidneys No evidence for an increase in the incidence of kidney function deterioration after ESWL No evidence for an increase in the incidence Continued

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Table 5. Continued

First Author

Eassa19 Sato21

El-Nahas24 Yoo37

Design

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median)

Prospective cohort Retrospective cohort

Mean 44 (SD 14; range 18-57) 204 (Range 132-264)

Retrospective cohort Retrospective cohort

Reference Group

None

Identification of Patients With KFD; Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL

Definition of KFD Status

Blood serum creatinine

Ureteral stones treated with ESWL

Post: measured by physicians Pre: reported by patients Post: reported by patients

62 (SD 43; range 25-210)

None

measured by physicians

Not reported

20 (SD 13)

Non-ESWLetreated urolithiasis patients

Pre: measured by physicians Post: measured by physicians

Blood serum creatinine

Reporting hemodialysis

Results/Conclusion by Authors of kidney function deterioration after ESWL “Safe in the long run” No significant long-term effects on renal function No evidence for an increase in the incidence of kidney function deterioration after ESWL no evidence for retardation of renal growth ESWL is associated with delayed deterioration of renal function in patients with a preexisting decrease in kidney function

Table 6. Studies suggesting no association between ESWL and an increase in the incidence of infertility

First Author Vieweg38 Erturk39

Design Retrospective cohort Prospective cohort

Follow-up Time, mo, (Mean or Median)

Reference Group

Identification of Patients With Fertility Status Pre ¼ Before ESWL; Post ¼ After ESWL

38 (Range 9-68) Not reported

None None

Patient reported Patient reported

Results/Conclusion by Authors No evidence for an increase in the incidence of infertility No evidence for an increase in the incidence of infertility

1003

1004

APPENDIX 3 Table 1. Study quality determined using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology checklist for cohort studies

Author

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Barbosa30 Brinkmann16 Carlson8 Chew22 Claro9 Cogain31 Eassa19 El-Assmy36 El-Assmy20 El-Nahas24 Erturk39 Graff33 Janetschek28 Kazemi32 Knapp27 Krambeck29 Krambeck23 Lingeman26 Liedl1 Mays5 Montgomery2 Nijman3 Perry35 Puppo4 Protogerou17 Ramakrishnan18 Sarica11 Sato21 Simon10 Strohmaier15 Traxer13 Vieweg38 Williams25 Yokoyama6 Yoo37 Zanetti34 Zanetti7

Bias/ External Missing Comp. Outcome Validity and Number of Confounder Confidence Confounding Effect Targeted Blinding Lost to Definition of Blind Study Comparable Accural at Time of Overall Is real? Groups? Intervals Question Groups Rate Enrollment Dropouts Follow-up Outcomes Assessment Addressed Reliability Reliability Assessments Analysis Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

N NA N N Y Y NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Y Y Y N N NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Y NA Y NA NA NA NA Y NA NA

NA NA NA N N NA N N N N N N N Y N Y NA Y N NA NA N N N N N N Y NA N N NA NA N Y N N

N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y NA N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y

73% 16% 45% 42.7% 16% NA 16% 47% 31% 30% 44% 43% 25% 78% 0% 41% NA 27% 35.4% 45% 22% 0% 54% 0% 0% 0% 0% 70% 5% 0% 0% 20% 39% 0% 0% 28% 0%

NA N N NA N NA N NA N N N N N N NA Y NA N N N N N N NA N N N N N N N N N N N N NA

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N N Y Y N Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA N NA NA NA NA N NA NA NA NA N NA NA NA NA N NA NA

NA Y NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA N NA NA NA NA N NA NA NA NA N NA NA NA NA N NA NA

NA Y NA N Y NA Y Y Y N N N Y Y Y Y NA Y N Y N N N N Y N Y N N Y N N Y Y Y Y N

N N N N Y NA NA N N N N N N Y Y N NA Y Y N N N N N Y N N N N Y N N N N Y Y N

N N N N Y N N N N N N N N N N N N Y N Y N N N N Y N N N N Y N N N N N N Y

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y N Y N N N N Y N N N N Y N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y N N Y N N N N N N Y N N N N N N N N N

    þ þ þ        þ þ þ þ       þþ   þ  þ       

N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N Y Y N Y N Y N N N N Y Y N

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y þþ þþ NA NA N N 12% 0% Y Y Y Y Y Y NA NA N N CS CS Y Y Elves14 Jewett12

Similar Treatment Treatment Standard, Valid Intention Risk of Overall Effect Applicable Research Adequate and Control Is Only and Reliable to Treat Multicenter Bias or Is Due to the to the Patient Question Assignment Is Concealment Outcomes Dropouts Analysis Analysis Confounding Study Intervention Group Adequate Randomized Method Blinding Groups Difference

Table 2. Study quality was determined using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology checklist for randomized controlled trials

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Suggested Reading 1. Liedl B, Jocham D, Lunz C, et al. Five-year follow-up of urinary stone patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In: Lingeman J, Newman D, eds. Shock Wave Lithotripsy. US: Springer; 1988:153-158. 2. Montgomery BS, Cole RS, Palfrey EL, et al. Does extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy cause hypertension? Br J Urol. 1989;64: 567-571. 3. Nijman RJ, Ackaert K, Scholtmeijer RJ, et al. Long-term results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in children. J Urol. 1989;142: 609-611; discussion 619. 4. P P. Hypertension after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a false alarm. J Endourol. 1989. 5. Mays N, Petruckevitch A, Burney PG. Results of one and two year follow-up in a clinical comparison of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of renal calculi. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1992;26:43-49. 6. Yokoyama M, Shoji F, Yanagizawa R, et al. Blood pressure changes following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis. J Urol. 1992;147:553-557; discussion 557-558. 7. Zanetti G, Montanari E, Trinchieri A, et al. Long-term follow-up of blood-pressure after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. J Endourol. 1992;6:195-197. 8. Carlson KJ, Dretler SP, Roth RA, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy for urinary calculi: comparison of immediate and long-term effects. J Stone Dis. 1993;5: 8-18. 9. Claro Jde A, Lima ML, Ferreira U, et al. Blood pressure changes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in normotensive patients. J Urol. 1993;150:1765-1767. 10. Simon P, Mignard JP, Ang KS, et al. Short and long term complications of lithotripsy on renal function. Nephrologie. 1993;14: 305-307. 11. Sarica K, Kupei S, Sarica N, et al. Long-term follow-up of renal morphology and function in children after lithotripsy. Urol Int. 1995;54:95-98. 12. Jewett MA, Bombardier C, Logan AG, et al. A randomized controlled trial to assess the incidence of new onset hypertension in patients after shock wave lithotripsy for asymptomatic renal calculi. J Urol. 1998;160:1241-1243. 13. Traxer O, Lottmann H, Archambaud F, et al. Extracorporeal lithotripsy in children. Study of its efficacy and evaluation of renal parenchymal damage by DMSA-Tc 99m scintigraphy: a series of 39 children. Arch Pediatr. 1999;6:251-258. 14. Elves AW, Tilling K, Menezes P, et al. Early observations of the effect of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on blood pressure: a prospective randomized control clinical trial. BJU Int. 2000;85:611-615. 15. Strohmaier WL, Carl AM, Wilbert DM, et al. Effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on plasma concentrations of endothelin and renin in humans. J Urol. 1996;155:48-51. 16. Brinkmann OA, Griehl A, Kuwertz-Broking E, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in children. Efficacy, complications and long-term follow-up. Eur Urol. 2001;39:591-597. 17. Protogerou V, Deliveliotis C, Protogerou A, et al. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for kidney stones reduces blood pressure: use of 24-hour ambulatory monitoring for study of blood-pressure changes induced by SWL. J Endourol. 2004;18:17-22. 18. Ramakrishnan PA, Medhat M, Al-Bulushi YH, et al. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in infants. Can J Urol. 2007;14:3684-3691. 19. Eassa WA, Sheir KZ, Gad HM, et al. Prospective study of the longterm effects of shock wave lithotripsy on renal function and blood pressure. J Urol. 2008;179:964-969. 20. el-Assmy A, el-Nahas AR, Hekal IA, et al. Long-term effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on renal function: our experience with 156 patients with solitary kidney. J Urol. 2008;179: 2229-2232. 21. Sato Y, Tanda H, Kato S, et al. Shock wave lithotripsy of renal stone is not associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Urology. 2008;71:591-592.

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22. Chew BH, Zavaglia B, Sutton C, et al. Twenty-year prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in patients receiving shock-wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis. BJU Int. 2012;109:444-449. 23. Krambeck AE, Rule AD, Li X, et al. Shock wave lithotripsy is not predictive of hypertension among community stone formers at longterm followup; [Erratum appears in J Urol. 2011 Mar;185(3):1161]. J Urol. 2011;185:164-169. 24. El-Nahas AR, Awad BA, El-Assmy AM, et al. Are there long-term effects of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in paediatric patients? BJU Int. 2013;111:666-671. 25. Williams CM, Kaude JV, Newman RC, et al. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: long-term complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150:311-315. 26. Lingeman JE, Woods JR, Toth PD. Blood pressure changes following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and other forms of treatment for nephrolithiasis. JAMA. 1990;263:1789-1794. 27. Knapp R, Frauscher F, Helweg G, et al. Blood pressure changes after extracorporeal shock wave nephrolithotripsy: prediction by intrarenal resistive index. Eur Radiol. 1996;6:665-669. 28. Janetschek G, Frauscher F, Knapp R, et al. New onset hypertension after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: age related incidence and prediction by intrarenal resistive index. J Urol. 1997;158: 346-351. 29. Krambeck AE, Gettman MT, Rohlinger AL, et al. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension associated with shock wave lithotripsy of renal and proximal ureteral stones at 19 years of followup. J Urol. 2006; 175:1742-1747. 30. Barbosa PV, Makhlouf AA, Thorner D, et al. Shock wave lithotripsy associated with greater prevalence of hypertension. Urology. 2011;78:22-25.

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31. de Cogain M, Krambeck AE, Rule AD, et al. Shock wave lithotripsy and diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study. Urology. 2012;79:298-302. 32. Kazemi Rashed F, Rash Ahmadi N, Amjadi M, et al. Does extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy predispose patients to diabetes mellitus? Prevalence of diabetes mellitus after ESWL in 15 years follow-up. Life Sci J. 2013;10:152-155. 33. Graff J, Diederichs W, Schulze H. Long-term followup in 1,003 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy patients. J Urol. 1988;140: 479-483. 34. Zanetti GR, Montanari E, Guarneri A, et al. Long-term followup after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones in solitary kidneys. J Urol. 1992;148:1011-1014. 35. Perry KT, Smith ND, Weiser AC, et al. The efficacy and safety of synchronous bilateral extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J Urol. 2000;164:644-647. 36. El-Assmy A, El-Nahas AR, Madbouly K, et al. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy monotherapy of partial staghorn calculi. Prognostic factors and long-term results. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006; 40:320-325. 37. Yoo DE, Han SH, Oh HJ, et al. Removal of kidney stones by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is associated with delayed progression of chronic kidney disease. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53: 708-714. 38. Vieweg J, Weber HM, Miller K, et al. Female fertility following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of distal ureteral calculi. J Urol. 1992;148:1007-1010. 39. Erturk E, Ptak AM, Monaghan J. Fertility measures in women after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of distal ureteral stones. J Endourol. 1997;11:315-317.

UROLOGY 85 (5), 2015

Long-term Adverse Effects of Extracorporeal Shock-wave Lithotripsy for Nephrolithiasis and Ureterolithiasis: A Systematic Review.

This study presents a systematic review of the published literature on possible long-term adverse effects after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy ...
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The optimal treatment of patients with lower pole renal stones continues to be a dilemma for urologists. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) all constitute viable t

Adverse effects of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) for acute respiratory failure: a systematic review protocol.
The extracorporeal membrane carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) system is primarily designed for the purpose of removing CO2 from the body for patients with potentially reversible severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure or being considered for lung

Impact of ureteric stent on outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: A propensity score analysis.
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is one of the most frequently performed procedures in patients with urolithiasis. For ureter-localized stones, SWL is often preceded by a double J stent insertion. However, fear of serious complications, inc

Does lithotripsy increase stone recurrence? A comparative study between extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and non-fragmenting percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
To investigate the effect of stone fragmentation on late stone recurrence by comparing the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and non-fragmenting percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and to investigate factors contributing to recu