Trop Anim Health Prod DOI 10.1007/s11250-014-0623-4
Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria Jane M. Chah & Mebel U. Dimelu & Stella U. Ukwuani
Accepted: 27 May 2014 # Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014
Abstract A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity. Keywords Pig . Management practices . Smallholder producers
Introduction Nigeria’s per capita daily protein intake is estimated to be 45– 46 g, which is below the minimum value of 53.8 g recommended by FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization 2002). J. M. Chah (*) : M. U. Dimelu : S. U. Ukwuani Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria e-mail: [email protected]
M. U. Dimelu e-mail: [email protected]
S. U. Ukwuani e-mail: [email protected]
The International Conference on Nutrition reports that lowincome rural and semi-urban adult dwellers in Nigeria consume less than 40 % of protein (World Bank 2008). Thus, there is a need to increase the production of domestic animals, which are conventional sources of animal protein. These include cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry, fish, and game animals. Of all these species, pig production represents one of the fastest ways of increasing animal protein, since pigs are highly prolific, have short gestation period (114 days), and grow at a faster rate than cattle, sheep, and goats (Enem et al. 2010). Nigeria has the highest pig population in Africa (Ajala et al. 2006, pp. 43–48). However, over the years, productivity has been on the decline (Ladokun et al. 2006, pp. 3–6). Although efforts have been directed towards productivity improvement through adequate nutrition, health and management, and breed development, productivity is still low and some pig farms are closing down due to high mortality rates. There is an increasing interest in small-scale pig production in Enugu State; however, there is no corresponding and distinctive evidence of a significant increase in stock size and in pork products for consumption. Overall, the performance of smallholder pig producers in Enugu State is not satisfactory. It is therefore suitable to determine the characteristics of smallholder pig production in this state.
Methodology The study was conducted in Enugu State, Nigeria. This state is located at latitude 5° 50′ N–7° 06′ N and longitude 6° 53′ E–7° 55′ E. The study population was constituted by all small-scale pig producers in Enugu State. The multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents. Using the simple random sampling technique, Awgu and Udi agricultural zones were randomly selected from the six agricultural zones in the state. Out of the six blocks in the two zones, two
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blocks (one from each zone) were randomly selected. Four circles were randomly selected from each block, giving a total of eight circles for this study. Ten smallholder pig producers were randomly selected from each circle which resulted in 80 smallholder pig producers for the study. Data were collected by using structured interview schedules. To determine the management practices used by producers in their farms, respondents reacted to a list of possible routine management practices on a 3-point Likert-type scale (never=1, sometimes = 2, and always = 3). The mean score (M; 3+2+1=6/3=2) was determined, and responses with M< 2 were considered as the management practices that have never been used by the producers, while M≥2 were considered as those management practices that were always used by the producers.
Results and discussion Institutional characteristics of smallholder pig producers Twenty percent of the smallholder pig producers had access to credit (Table 1). Also, 81.2 % indicated being member of one form of social organization or another. Producers’ access to credit and membership of social organization are a veritable source of empowerment. For instance, being a member of a social organization is an advantage to the producers as it facilitates increased awareness, access to extension services, training, interaction, and sharing of experiences in pig production. Table 1 Institutional characteristics of smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria Institutional characteristics
Access to credit Yes
No Member of social organization Yes No Training in pig farming Yes No Extension services Yes No Frequency of visit by extension agent (n=5) Once in 3 months Once in 6 months Once in a year Not specified
80.0 81.2 18.8 30.4 69.6 6.3 93.7 33.3 16.7 33.3 16.7
The proportion of respondents that had access to training (30.4 %) and to extension services (6.3 %) was very low. Formal training and extension services are crucial factors and sometimes complementary to enhanced production. On the other hand, limited access to both could induce poor technical knowledge, poor skills, and inadequate information necessary for a rewarding and sustainable performance of production. Scholars have emphasized the fact that agricultural education is very important in farm productivity (Alene and Manyong 2007, pp. 41–59; Atreya 2007). Production characteristics of smallholder pig producers The number of pigs owned by the smallholder producers ranged from 3 to 96 with a mean of 18. The majority (90 %) of the pig producers practiced small-scale intensive management system (Table 2). In the intensive system, small-scale producers with a unit of approximately 50 pigs provide feed, water, housing, and veterinary care for the pigs, while in the semi-intensive system, pigs are partly provided with feed, housing, and veterinary care but are also allowed to scavenge within the neighborhood on domestic and agricultural wastes (Payne 1990, pp. 666–672). The lack of access to credit facilities could be responsible for the small-scale nature of the production recorded in this study. The majority (80 %) of producers reared crossbred pigs, 8.8 % reared exotic and crossbreeds, 5.0 % reared local breeds, and 5.0 % of producers kept exotic breeds. The results largely confirm the findings of Machebe et al. (2009) that exotic, crossbred, and indigenous pigs are the main breeds reared in Enugu State. The choice of breeds by producers may depend on the availability and access to breeds, the resource base, and the returns to investment. The housing type used by majority (97.6 %) of the producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheet and concrete floor. This is contrary to the report of Ajala et al. (2007) who found that the majority of pig producers in Southern Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria, used mud-brick walls with thatched roof, while the minority used cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheet. The housing type used has both economic and health implications. Hence, the use of cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheet and concrete floor may be due to the durability and the high level of hygiene experienced in the adoption of such housing system. Smallholder pig farms highly depended on family labor (68.7 %). This is in line with the study of Takane (2008) in Malawi, who found that the highest percentage of farm labor is from family members. The use of family labor in this study may not be unconnected to the small-scale nature of the production system. Though family members provide cheaper labor, the dependence on it often results in the use of technically poor-quality labor and reduced specialization in production. The fact that 70.0 % of the pig farms were located close
Trop Anim Health Prod Table 2 Production characteristics of smallholder pig farms in Enugu State, Nigeria Production characteristics
Number of pigs owned 1–10 11–20 Above 21 Breed type Exotic Crossbreed Local breed Exotic and crossbreed Crossbreed and local Management system Intensive Semi-intensive Extensive Housing type Cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheet and concrete floor Raised concrete floor and aluminum roofing sheet Ground concrete floor and aluminum roofing sheet Labor source Family labor Temporary hired labor Permanent hired labor Family and temporary hired labor Farm location Close to human residence Away from human residence Source of replacement stocka Pig market Own stock Farms with good veterinary records Pig market and own stock a
11.8 40.0 48.2 5.0 80.0 5.0 8.8 1.2 90.0 8.8 1.2 97.6 1.2 1.2 68.7 12.5 8.8 10.0 70.0 30.0 14.5 50.0 37.5 8.8
to human residences could predispose humans to health hazards. Fifty percent of the pig producers relied on their own stock as the source of their replacement stock (Table 2). The continuous use of own stock for replacement stock could undermine the production goal of any livestock enterprise because of the breeds’ decreasing potential and survival; which gives rise to inbreeding (Ajala et al. 2007, pp. 182–188). Management practices Fourteen (50 %) of 28 routine management practices (with M > 2.0) were always performed by the pig producers
(Table 3). Important management practices such as trimming of needle teeth to prevent biting of the udder, ear notching for identification, castration of male piglets for proper management of sexually matured pigs, and application of iodine to navel of piglet to prevent inflammation and tetanus were neglected by the producers. This neglect could have severe adverse affects on production outcome.
Conclusion Producers lacked sufficient access to training and extension education. Consequently, a significant proportion of the Table 3 Mean scores on management practices used Management practices
Feeding desirable energy feed Feeding desirable protein feed Providing minerals/vitamins to pigs in the right amount and quality Providing sufficient clean water all the time Washing feed and water troughs regularly Introduction of creep feeding after 7 days of birth Castration of male piglets that will not be used for breeding Vaccinating against diseases Deworming of piglets Iron injection during the first 3–4 days of life Foster mothering of young pigs Removing after birth when farrowing is completed Ensuring proper suckling by piglets after farrowing Providing laxatives during farrowing
2.85a 2.74a 1.78
0.53 0.44 0.78
2.51a 2.68a 1.51 1.27
0.69 0.61 0.68 0.47
2.39a 2.46a 2.71a 1.44 1.40 2.85a 1.95
0.52 0.50 0.53 0.61 0.72 0.36 0.75
Hand feeding sows and gilts during gestation Cutting the needle teeth Creep feed ad libitum for at least 2 weeks after weaning Deworming pregnant sows before they farrow Culling and marketing unproductive or old stocks Separation of sows/gilts from boars after crossing Synchronization of estrus Sprinkling water on pigs at high ambient temperature Cleaning and disinfecting the quarter 5–7 days before a new group of sows is brought to the farrowing quarter Providing additional warmth during cold weather
1.22 1.05 1.76 2.29a 2.85a 2.17a 2.17a 1.51 2.54a
0.47 0.27 0.77 0.75 0.39 0.77 0.29 0.71 0.57
Ear notching Weaning at 5–6 weeks of age Spraying/dipping piglets with/in external acaricides Immersion of naval cord in a dilute solution of iodine within 12 h after birth
1.10 2.40a 1.46 1.09
0.38 0.65 0.69 0.36
Management practices that were always used by the producers
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management practices were not employed in the farms. This study recommends that the government redirects interventions and research efforts to this sector in order to improve producers’ access to improved foundation stocks and to credit. Extension needs to intensify efforts in order to provide the information necessary to improve this sector.
Conflict of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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