Combining Silver Catalysis and Organocatalysis: A Sequential Michael Addition/Hydroalkoxylation One-Pot Approach to Annulated Coumarins Daniel Hack, Pankaj Chauhan, Kristina Deckers, Gary N. Hermann, Lucas Mertens, Gerhard Raabe, and Dieter Enders* Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany S Supporting Information *
ABSTRACT: A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure for the synthesis of ﬁve-membered annulated hydroxycoumarins has been developed. By merging primary amine catalysis with silver catalysis, a series of functionalized coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yields (up to 91%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via a Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction. Depending on the substituents on the enynone, the synthesis of annulated sixmembered rings is also feasible.
synthesis of valuable chiral entities, especially in the context of sequential catalysis.5 However, most reported procedures mainly rely on expensive metal complexes, such as gold, palladium, and iridium. Silver is a comparably cheaper metal and can be employed as an alternative to facilitate these sequential transformations. Silver salts of chiral organic molecules have been used as binary catalytic systems in many asymmetric transformations, but the sequential catalysis employing silver and organocatalysts is less explored. 6,7 Owing to the wide applicability of coumarin derivatives and knowing the potential of sequential catalysis,8 we envisaged the combination of silver salts with chiral primary amines for the one-pot sequential Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation of 4-hydroxycoumarins 1 with enynones 2 (Scheme 1). Most of the organocatalytic asymmetric transformations involving 4-hydroxycoumarins focus on Michael additions to common electrophiles, such as simple enones, which undergo electrophilic activation in the presence of primary amines.9,10 In contrast, enynones 2 have not been used in this context so far.
econdary metabolites from phytobiochemical pathways fulﬁll various life-sustaining roles in plants. For example, coumarins, which originate from the shikimic acid pathway, are vital for the regulation of oxidative stress, hormonal regulation, and plant protection (Figure 1).1 Interestingly, biological activity is not limited to plants only, as shown by warfarin and phenprocoumon, which belong to the class of vitamin K antagonists. Both inhibit the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase, thus preventing blood clotting in humans and animals.2 As a result, these anticoagulants have found wide application as pharmaceuticals or rodenticides over the years.
Scheme 1. Intended Strategy Figure 1. Bioactive coumarin derivatives.
Although the unprotected 4-hydroxyl group is necessary for anticoagulant activity, other biologically active natural products have been discovered in which the oxygen is embedded in an annulated ring structure, as found in coumestrol and frutinone A.3,4 The former interacts with estrogen receptors ERα and -β in humans, while the latter is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2. Recently, the combination of transition metals with organocatalysts has emerged as a versatile one-pot strategy for the © XXXX American Chemical Society
Received: August 29, 2014
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enantiomeric excess for the majority of chiral additives with comparable yields (entries 8−12). With (S)-N- Boc-alanine in hand as the best additive, we focused on the inﬂuence of the temperature on the reaction. Naturally, a higher temperature resulted in a faster but less selective reaction (entry 13), while at 4 °C a negligible increase in reaction time and yield was observed, albeit with better enantiomeric excess (entry 14). However, a lower temperature had a deleterious eﬀect, leading to longer reaction times and lower enantioselectivities (entry 15). A similar impact was observed when the catalyst loading was decreased to 10 mol %; thus, 20 mol % had to be used (entry 16). With the optimized conditions for the Michael addition in hand, we shifted our focus to the cycloisomerization reaction (Table 2). We envisioned that phosphine Au(I) catalysts, which
These enynones are challenging Michael acceptors because both the β- and δ-position are prone to nucleophilic addition after electrophilic activation. To achieve our goal, we started the investigation by optimizing the organocatalytic Michael addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin 1a to enynone 2a using cinchona-derived primary amines.11 The reaction of 1a with 2a in CH2Cl2 at room temperature in the presence of 20 mol % 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine A and 40 mol % TFA aﬀorded the desired product 3a within 16 h in 63% yield and 68% ee (Table 1, entry 1). To circumvent this low Table 1. Optimization Studies on the Michael Additiona
Table 2. Optimization of the Cycloisomerization of 4aa
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13d 14e 15f 16e,g
A B C D A A A A A A A A A A A A
TFA TFA TFA TFA TFA TFA TFA (S)-mandelic acid (S)-N-Boc-ala (S)-N-Boc-phe (S)-N-Boc-leu (S)-N-Boc-val (S)-N-Boc-ala (S)-N-Boc-ala (S)-N-Boc-ala (S)-N-Boc-ala
DCM DCM DCM DCM CHCl3 THF MTBE THF THF THF THF THF THF THF THF THF
16 20 19 21 24 16 16 16 24 24 24 24 4 26 96 72
63 74 61 81 84 85 82 85 95 65 94 48 94 95 88 88
68 59 −68 −60 72 78 66 78 82 81 80 80 76 86 57 75
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12d
PPh3AuCl/AgNTf2 AgNTf2 AgNTf2 AgNO3 Ag2CO3 AgOAc AgOTf AgSbF6 CuI PtCl2 Ag2CO3 Ag2CO3
toluene toluene THF toluene toluene toluene toluene toluene toluene toluene toluene/THF 4:1 toluene
60 30 >240 40 40 40 50 30 >1 d >1 d 4h 40
−c 79 −c 91 97 94 91 91 traces traces 94 97
Reaction conditions: 0.13 mmol of 3a, 10 mol % of catalyst, 1.3 mL solvent, rt. bYield of isolated 4a after ﬂash column chromatography. c Complicated mixture of products which could not be separated. dIn the presence of 20 mol % A and 40 mol % (S)-N-Boc alanine.
Reaction conditions: 0.5 mmol of 1a, 0.6 mmol of 2a, 20 mol % of catalyst, 40 mol % additive, 1.0 mL solvent, rt. bYield of isolated 3a after ﬂash column chromatography. cEnantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC analysis on a chiral stationary phase of the Oacetylated derivative 3a′. dReaction was carried out at 50 °C. eReaction was carried out at 4 °C. fReaction was carried out at −16 °C. g Reaction was carried out with 0.1 mol % of A and 20 mol % (S)-NBoc alanine.
are known to activate internal alkynes, would be an optimal choice for this reaction. However, the initial reaction conditions gave rise to a complex mixture of diﬀerent products, most likely 6-endo-, 5-exo-, and other unidentiﬁed products (entry 1). In contrast, a number of Ag(I) salts gave the 5-exo product in excellent yields within 1 h in the absence of gold catalysts (entries 2−9). Ag2CO3 turned out to be the best catalyst, giving the desired product 4a in 97% yield within 40 min. In addition, we also tested other metal sources which act as carbophilic Lewis acids, but the reaction seemed to be limited to silver salts only (entries 9−10). Regrettably, further studies revealed that THF, which is used during the Michael addition, is inappropriate for the subsequent cyclization because, similar to the initial reaction conditions, a mixture of products was obtained (entry 3). Thus, the reaction must be performed either in a mixture of toluene and THF (entry 11) or with the solvents changed prior to the addition of Ag2CO3. To compensate for this inconvenience, there seemed to be no notable deactivation of the silver catalyst in the presence of the amine catalyst (entry 12), as there was no notable decrease in yield or increase in reaction time when the reaction was performed in the presence of amine catalyst A and (S)-N-Boc
asymmetric induction, we replaced the catalyst A with primary amines derived from cinchonidine B, quinidine C, and cinchonine D, but no beneﬁcial eﬀect was observed (entries 2−4). In contrast, the choice of solvent had a noticeable eﬀect on the yield and enantiomeric excess, revealing THF as the most suitable solvent (entry 6). We questioned whether the enantiomeric excess could be increased if chiral acidic additives, especially Boc-protected amino acids, were employed instead of TFA, as shown in a seminal publication by Melchiorre et al.12 This would change the mechanism of activation and stereoinduction from pure iminium activation to a mixed activation mode in which the chiral protonated iminium ion is coordinated by a chiral anion, a concept known as asymmetric counteranion directed catalysis (ACDC).13 As anticipated, we observed a slight increase in B
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enynones with aliphatic substituents led to the formation of 6endo-products with comparable ee values but lower yields due to a less selective ring formation (5b−c). In the case of a terminal alkyne the 5-exo-product was obtained exclusively, albeit with slightly lower enantioselectivity values (4t). Interestingly, we did not observe isomerization of the 5-exo-products to furans under the applied reaction conditions. The proposed structure of the products, including the absolute conﬁguration, could be assigned by X-ray crystal structure analysis of (S)-4g (Figure 2).15 To further demonstrate the
alanine. This is a decisive advantage compared to gold-catalyzed reactions, in which the presence of free amines or basic moieties deactivate the gold catalyst, and strong acidic additives such as TFA or harsher reaction conditions have to be employed to retrieve the active gold species.14 With these optimized conditions in hand, we tested the substrate scope of the one-pot Michael addition/cycloisomerization (Table 3). In the case of aryl-substituted enynones good Table 3. Substrate Scope for the Sequential Catalysisa
4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 4g 4h 4i 4j 4k 4l 4m 4n 4o 4p 4q 4r 4s 4t 5b 5c
H H H H H H H H H H H H 6-Me 6,7-CH2OCH27-MeO 6-Cl 6-Cl 7-MeO 6,7-CH2OCH2H H H
Ph 4-F-C6H4 4-Br-C6H4 4-F3C-C6H4 2,3-CH2OCH2-C6H3 3-Me-C6H4 3-MeO-C6H4 2-naphthyl 2-Cl-C6H4 1-naphthyl 2-furanyl 2-thienyl 4-Br-C6H4 4-F-C6H4 1-naphthyl 3-MeO-C6H4 Ph Ph Ph H butyl cyclopentyl
84  76  76  75 67  80  82 79 81 75 78 76  54 56 74 60 91 58 72 84 52 32
88  89  85  93 81  89  93 92 94 80 99 77  92 94 94 98 73 93 83 70 90 89
Figure 2. X-ray crystal structure of (S)-4g.
practicability of our new protocol, we carried out a larger scale synthesis of 4g on a 4 mmol scale. We obtained the same yield (82%, 1.24 g) and a better stereoselectivity of 96% ee. A plausible mechanism for the reported sequential catalysis is depicted in Scheme 2. Upon condensation with the primary amine A and interactions of two molecules of (S)-N-Boc alanine, the enynone 2 forms a LUMO-activated chiral iminium ion. Similar to recent DFT calculations by Melchiorre et al., the two Scheme 2. Proposed Catalytic Mechanism
Reaction conditions: 0.8 mmol of enynone, 0.5 mmol of hydroxycoumarin, 20 mol % of catalyst, 40 mol % (S)-N-Boc alanine, 1.0 mL of THF, 4 °C, 24−48 h; after completion, removal of THF, addition of 5.0 mL of toluene, 10 mol % Ag2CO3, rt, 1−24 h. bYield of isolated 4 or 5 after ﬂash column chromatography. cIn brackets, yield after one recrystallization from n-pentane/ethyl acetate. dEnantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC analysis on a chiral stationary phase. e In brackets, enantiomeric excess after one recrystallization from npentane/ethyl acetate.
yields (54−91%) and excellent enantioselectivities were obtained (73−99% ee) irrespective of electronic and steric eﬀects (4a−s), though bulky substituents normally resulted with an increased reaction time in the cyclization step. Hydroxycoumarins bearing diﬀerent substituents were also tolerated (4m−s). In all cases with aryl substituents on the enynone the 5exo-products were obtained, which can be veriﬁed by 4J-coupling of the oleﬁnic proton (around −2 Hz) compared to the 3Jcoupling of the endo-product (around 4 Hz). In contrast, C
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Park, E.; Kim, B.; Sohn, E. J.; Oh, B.; Lee, E.-O.; Lee, H.-J.; Kim, S.-H. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014, 24, 2560. (4) Di Paolo, E. R.; Hamburger, M. O.; Stoeckli-Evans, H.; Rogers, C.; Hostettmann, K. Helv. Chim. Acta 1989, 72, 1455. (b) Thelingwani, R. S.; Dhansay, K.; Smith, P.; Chiballe, K.; Masimirembwa, C. M. Xenobiotica 2012, 42, 989. (5) For selected reviews on combinations of transition metals with organocatalysts, see: (a) Shao, Z.; Zhang, H. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2009, 38, 2745. (b) Zhong, C.; Shi, X. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2010, 2999. (c) Loh, C. C. J.; Enders, D. Chem.Eur. J. 2012, 18, 10212. (d) Du, Z.; Shao, Z. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013, 42, 1337. (6) For an overview on silver organic chemistry, see: (a) Naodovic, M.; Yamamoto, H. Chem. Rev. 2008, 108, 3132. (b) Belmont, P.; Parker, E. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 6075. (c) Harmata, M. Silver in Organic Chemistry; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, 2010. (d) Abbiati, G.; Rossi, E. Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2014, 10, 481. (7) For recent examples on organocatalysis and silver catalysis: Ding, Q.; Wu, J. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 4959. (b) Arróniz, C.; Gil-González, A.; Semak, V.; Escolano, C.; Bosch, J.; Amat, M. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 3755. (c) Zhang, Q.-W.; Xiang, K.; Tu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, S.-Y.; Zhang, X.M.; Zhao, Y.-M.; Zhang, T.-C. Chem.Asian J. 2012, 7, 894. (d) Ortín, I.; Dixon, D. J. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 3462. (8) For recent examples of organocatalytic sequential one-pot reactions, see: (a) Jiang, K.; Jia, Z.-J.; Chen, S.; Wu, L.; Chen, Y.-C. Chem.Eur. J. 2010, 16, 2852. (b) Enders, D.; Urbanietz, G.; CassensSasse, E.; Keeß, S.; Raabe, G. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2012, 354, 1481. (c) Hong, B.-C.; Dange, N. S.; Ding, C.-F.; Liao, J.-H. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 448. (d) Dange, N. S.; Hong, B.-C.; Lee, C.-C.; Lee, G.-H. Org. Lett. 2013, 15, 3914. (e) Li, X.; Yang, L.; Peng, C.; Xie, X.; Leng, H.-J.; Wang, B.; Tang, Z.-W.; He, G.; Ouyang, L.; Huang, W.; Han, B. Chem. Commun. 2013, 8692. (f) Chauhan, P.; Mahajan, S.; Loh, C. C. J.; Raabe, G.; Enders, D. Org. Lett. 2014, 16, 2954. (9) (a) Rueping, M.; Merino, E.; Sugiono, E. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2008, 350, 2127. (b) Xu, D.-Q.; Wang, Y.-F.; Zhang, W.; Luo, S.-P.; Zhong, A.G.; Xia, A.-B.; Xu, Z.-Y. Chem.Eur. J. 2010, 16, 4177. (c) Wang, J.; Lao, J.; Hu, Z.; Lu, R.-J.; Nie, S.; Du, Q.; Yan, M. ARKIVOC 2010, 9, 229. (d) Mei, R.-Q.; Xu, X.-Y.; Peng, L.; Wang, F.; Tian, F.; Wang, L.-X. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2013, 11, 1286. (e) Chang, X.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Song, H.; Zhou, Z.; Tang, C. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2013, 2164. (f) Suh, C. W.; Han, T. H.; Kim, D. Y. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, 34, 1623. (10) For selected examples of asymmetric conjugate additions to enones, see: (a) Halland, N.; Hansen, T.; Jørgensen, K. A. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 4955. (b) Kim, H.; Yen, C.; Preston, P.; Chin, J. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 5239. (c) Xie, J.-W.; Yue, L.; Chen, W.; Du, W.; Zhu, J.; Deng, J.-G.; Chen, Y.-C. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 413. (d) Dong, Z.; Wang, L.; Chen, X.; Liu, X.; Lin, L.; Feng, X. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 5192. (e) Kristensen, T. E.; Vestli, K.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, T. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 5185. (f) Zhu, X.; Lin, A.; Shi, Y.; Guo, J.; Zhu, C.; Cheng, Y. Org. Lett. 2011, 13, 4382. (11) (a) Melchiorre, P. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 9748. (b) Moran, A.; Hamilton, A.; Bo, C.; Melchiorre, P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 9091. (c) Cassani, C.; Martín-Rapún, R.; Arceo, E.; Bravo, F.; Melchiorre, P. Nat. Protoc. 2013, 8, 325. (12) Bartoli, G.; Bosco, M.; Carlone, A.; Pesciaioli, F.; Sambri, L.; Melchiorre, P. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 1403. (13) Mahlau, M.; List, B. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 518. (14) Young, P. C.; Green, S. L. J.; Rosair, G. M.; Lee, A.-L. Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 9645. (15) CCDC 1021374 (for 4g) contains the supplementary crystallographic data for this paper. These data can be obtained free of charge from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre via www.ccdc.cam. ac.uk/data_request/cif. (16) Moran, A.; Hamilton, A.; Bo, C.; Melchiorre, P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 9091.
molecules of (S)-N-Boc alanine should play a pivotal role in the reactivity and selectivity of this supramolecular catalytic assembly.16 One of the counteranions will interact with the protonated quinuclidine moiety of the primary amine catalyst by hydrogen bonding, thus shielding the Si-face of the iminium ion. This represents the stereochemical deﬁning element responsible for π-facial discrimination. The second counteranion acts as a mediator in a network of hydrogen bonds between the iminium proton and 4-hydroxy-coumarin. Thereby the nucleophile becomes activated while being set up to the Re-face for the subsequent attack on the iminium ion. The nucleophilic attack will yield intermediate 3 after hydrolysis, which will then enter the second catalytic cycle. This cycle is initiated by coordination of Ag(I) to the alkyne moiety and electrophilic activation that allows for the hydroalkoxylation of the triple bond by attack of the nucleophilic hydroxy group. Similar to Au(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerizations, the trans-speciﬁc addition should follow Markovnikov’s rule and electronic factors. Thus, depending on the substituent on the alkyne, 5-exo-dig and 6-endo-dig ring formations are observed (see Supporting Information for a more detailed explanation). The products are obtained after regeneration of the silver catalyst and proton transfer. In conclusion, we have developed a convenient one-pot sequential Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation by merging silver catalysis with primary amine catalysts. The combination gives rise to pharmaceutically interesting annulated coumarins in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Further investigations on the application of sequential catalysis by silver catalysis and organocatalysis are in progress in our laboratories.
S Supporting Information *
Chemical synthesis, analytical data, and NMR spectra. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs. acs.org.
*E-mail: [email protected]
The authors declare no competing ﬁnancial interest.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS D.H. thanks the DFG (International Research Training Group “Selectivity in Chemo- and Biocatalysis”-Seleca) and D.E. thanks the European Research Council (ERC Advanced Grant 320493 “DOMINOCAT”) for ﬁnancial support. Dedicated to Professor Johann Mulzer on occasion of his 70th birthday.
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