paralysis had started with an attack six months earlier for which he had been admitted to hospital and which recovered spontaneously after two days with no diagnosis being made. Subsequently he had had several attacks. His mother was told to bring him as soon as the next attack began and the diagnosis of "pulled elbow" was immediately obvious. Other cases were those of young children with episodes of painful arm whose families were suspected of causing non-accidental injury. Altogether 30 children had symptoms for 12 hours or more before being treated. There was no indication that parents of children who had had previous episodes were quicker in coming for medical help than those whose children had not had an earlier attack. A girl of 5k years who had had at least five earlier episodes was not brought for 12 hours and a 4-year-old with two previous attacks arrived after 48 hours. The striking exceptions were the twin sisters who between them had had pulled elbows at least six times and who both came half an hour after the onset. Apart from these twin sisters there was no evidence that siblings of patients were at increased risk of pulled elbow. Even when symptoms had been present for up to four days the child obtained immediate and complete relief with the first manipulation. The exceptional child who needed six manipulations had had symptoms for only two hours before being seen. After the sixth manipulation the mother, when the child was seen a few minutes later, said, "I knew it was all right this time -she forgot about it straight away."


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Just as pain in the knee may be referred from a hip and vice versa, pain from an elbow may be referred to the wrist or shoulder; 15 children had pain only in the wrist, and a further six had pain predominantly in the shoulder. If this is not realized by doctors it may cause difficulty in diagnosis. The survey could not have been carried out without the helpful co-operation of Dr. Helen Wesley, Dr. Patricia Brennan, and the senior house officers of the paediatric accident and emergency department. I thank Mr. John Sharrard for his most valuable advice.

References 1

Blount, W. P., Fractures in Children, pp. 13, 15, 75. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1969. Sharrard, W. J. W., Paediatric Orthopaedics and Fractures, p. 976. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1971. 3 Pollen, A. G., Fractures and Dislocations in Children, p. 56. Edinburgh, Churchill Livinstone, 1973. 4Boyette, D. P., et al., Journal of Pediatrics, 1948, 32, 278. 5 Corrigan, A. B., Medical3Journal of Australia, 1965, 2, 187. 6 Hutchinson, J., Annals of Surgery, 1885, 2, 91. 7 Van Arsdale, W. W., Annals of Surgery, 1889, 9, 401. 8 Magill, H. K., and Aitken, A. P., Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 1954, 98, 753. 9 Green, J. T., and Gay, F. H., Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1954, 36A, 655. 2

General Practice Observed High Blood Pressure: Detection and Treatment by General Practitioners CHARLES HODES, PAULINE A. ROGERS, MICHAEL G. EVERITT British Medical3Journal, 1975, 2, 674-677

Summary A questionnaire was sent to a 10% random sample of general practitioners in England and Wales on their attitudes to the detection and treatment of hypertension; 62% responded and no further inquiry was made. Their views on detection and criteria for treatment and investigations performed were considered in relation to their background. More of the older general practitioners always measured blood pressure and 36% of all practitioners believed that hypertensive patients usually present with symptoms. Altogether 91% thought that strokes could be prevented by treating hypertension, and only 18% reported difficulty in keeping patients on treatment. Older practitioners preferred to measure the Chronic Disease Control Study Unit, Department of Community Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WClB 3EL CHARLES HODES, M.B., F.R.C.G.P., Director and General Practitioner, Borehamwood, Herts. PAULINE ROGERS, M.SC., Statistician MICHAEL EVERITT, B.SC., Systems Programmer

diastolic pressure using phase five, while the younger preferred phase four. Nearly all doctors were satisfied with their current sphygmomanometers.

Introduction The evidence favours the early treatment of moderate and severe hypertension,'-4 even in symptomless cases. The attitudes of general practitioners to the detection of high blood pressure and their criteria for treatment are therefore important. A questionnaire was sent to a 10% random sample of general practitioners in England and Wales to gauge their attitudes. The results may be valuable in the development of community control of hypertension. Method A 10% random sample of doctors in England and Wales providing general medical services was prepared with the approval of the General Medical Services Committee and the Statistics and Research Division of the Department of Health and Social Security. The updated Register as at October 1972, completed in May 1973, was used. A random sample of every 10th doctor was obtained; there were no appreciable differences between the sample and the total population of principal general practitioners in age, sex, area, list size, and year of registration. A total of 2067 doctors were available


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for study. A pilot study was carried out in November 1972 at a meeting of the General Practitioner Research Club and the questionnaire modified in the light of comments made by doctors there. The questionnaires were sent out in the last week of June 1973 and all replies received by 30 September 1973 were considered as responses. No "reminders" were sent, and there was no identification of the recipient on the questionnaire. There were 18 questions and adequate space for comment.5 Table I shows that female general practitioners tended to be younger than their male colleagues, though 89% of the whole sample were men. Tables II and III give the characteristics of the whole sample (2067 doctors) by list size, size of practice, and year of qualification. The proportions of general practitioners from each standard region were as follows: North 6-2%, Yorkshire and Humberside 9 7%, East Midlands 6-7%, East Anglia 3-8%, South-east 37-0%, South-west 7-6%, West Midlands 966%, North-west 13-3%, and Wales 5.9%. As expected, a high proportion lived in the South East; most had a list size between 2000 and 3000; most were in partnership; and few had qualified before 1935 or after 1964.

always measured the blood pressure of middle-aged patients, but another 87% said they did so sometimes. Older doctors and doctors in single or two-partner practices were the most likely to measure blood pressure always: 23% of those qualified in 1925-34 compared with 9% of those qualified after 1955 (P

High blood pressure. detection and treatment by general practitioners.

A questionnaire was sent to a 10% random sample of general practitioners in England and Wales on their attitudes to the detection and treatment of hyp...
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