Hepatitis and hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in dentists BARNET BERRIS, MS, MD, FRCP[C], FACP; S. VICTOR FEINMAN, B SC, MD, FRCP[C]; JONATHAN C. SINCLAIR, MD, FRCP[C]; DAMIANA WROBEL, MRCS, LRCP

Dentists were surveyed regarding a history of hepatitis and the presence in the blood of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB8Ag) and antibody (anti-HB,) to determine whether they were at high risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus. Of 288 Canadian dentists 5.20/c gave a history of hepatitis after graduation. This proportion is similar to that for 1462 Ontario dentists (6.30/c) and that for 3162 accountants (5.1 0/o) who had previously completed a mailed questionnaire. One dentist (0.30/o) was HB,Agpositive and 42 (14.60/o) were anti. HB,-positive. Of 210 healthy volunteer blood donors matched for age, sex and ethnic origin with the group of dentists none was HB.Ag-positive and 2.90/o, significantly fewer (P < 0.005), were anti-HB8-positive. Among Ontario blood donors 0.30/0 were HB.Ag-positive and 30/o were anti.HB,-positive. Thus, in Canada, dentists are not at increased risk of acquiring clinical hepatitis or becoming carriers, but they are more likely than other groups to have anti-HB, in the blood. Among dentists from outside Canada a higher proportion had a history of hepatitis (10.30/o) and were HB,Ag.positive (1 .60/o), but approximately the same proportion were anti-HB,-

aucun n'etait positif pour l'antigene HBAg et 2.90/c, significativement moms (P < 0.005), etaient positifs pour l'anticorps anti-HB.. Parmi les donneurs de sang de l'Ontario 0.30/o etaient positifs pour l'antigene HB.Ag et 30/c etaient positifs pour l'anticorps anti-HB,. Donc, au Canada, les dentistes ne sont pas davantage expos6s A contracter une h6patite clinique ou A devenir des porteurs sains, mais ils sont plus susceptibles que d'autres groupes de presenter des anticorps anti-HB, dans leur sang. Parmi les dentistes etrangers au Canada une proportion plus .onsiderable avait des antecedents d'hepatite (10.30/c) et etait positive pour l'antigene HB.Ag (1.60/c), mais A peu pres Ia mAine proportion Atait positive pour l'anticorps anti-HB. (15.90/c).

Acquiring hepatitis B virus infection is a hazard for health personnel, particularly those that work with blood, such as laboratory workers, surgeons, hematologists, phlebotomists, pathologists and renal dialysis personnel.'4 It is important to determine which professionals are at risk because taking precautions to avoid exposure positive (15.90/o). to the hepatitis B virus has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring Une enquAte a ete menee chez les infection."6 the ante. dentistes afin de deceler des Dentists might be suspected of cedents dhepatite et Ia presence dans at moderate risk of acquiring being le sang de l.antigene de surface de hepatitis B infection because it has l.hepatite B (HB,Ag) et de l.anticorps been shown that hepatitis B surface (anti.HB,) pour determiner s.ils pr6sentaient un risque eleve d.exposition antigen (HB.Ag) is present either au virus de l.hepatite B. Parmi 288 continuously or intermittently in the dentistes canadiens 5.20/c avaient des saliva of a large proportion of HB.Ag antecedents d.hepatite apres Ia carriers.7'8 In addition, dentists often graduation. Ce rapport est semblable work in a field contaminated with a celui retrouve chez 1462 dentistes blood, and most use gloves only when ontariens (6.30/o) et A celui de 3162 doing oral surgery.9 comptables (5.1 0/c) qui avaient The frequency of exposure to and questionnaire precedemment rempli un infection by hepatitis B virus during distribue par Ia poste. Un dentiste a professional career can be estimated (0.30/o) etait positif pour l.antigene by asking about a history of overt HB,Ag et 42 (14.60/o) etaient positifs pour l'anticorps anti-HB,. Chez 210 hepatitis and doing serologic tests for donneurs de sang volontaires et sains HB.Ag and the corresponding antiapparies pour I'Age, le sexe et l'origine body, anti-HB.. Several studies atethnique avec le groupe de dentistes tempting to determine the risk of hepatitis B infection in dentists by From the liver study unit, Mount Sinai these methods have yielded conflictHospital, Toronto ing results.9'4 The survey described Reprint requests to: Dr. Barnet Berris, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Ave., in this paper, which was based on a questlonnaire and blood tests for Ste. 429, Toronto, Ont. M5G 1X5 1040

CMA JOURNAL/NOVEMBER 4, 1978/VOL. 119

HB.Ag and anti-HB., was carried out at meetings of the International College of Dentistry and the Toronto Dental Academy in an attempt to resolve some of the conflicting data.

Methods Of dentists attending the 1977 annual meetings of the International College of Dentistry and the Toronto Dental Academy 414 agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 219 were from Ontario, 69 from the rest of Canada and 126 from outside Canada. Since subsequent analysis showed that the results for dentists from Ontario were the same as those for dentists from the rest of Canada, the two groups were pooled to form one group of 288 dentists from Canada. The geographic origin (region of current practice) of the dentists from outside Canada was as follows: the British Isles 31, Scandinavia 20, northern Europe 19, the United States 17, the Middle East 11, Australia and New Zealand 9, Africa 8, the Mediterranean countries 5, the Caribbean islands and South America 3 and the Philippines 3. A survey station was set up at each convention and volunteers filled in a questionnaire that asked their age, sex and ethnic origin, whether they used gloves, if they had a history of hepatitis or blood transfusions or both (and when), their alcoholic intake, their date of graduation, and the subspecialty they were practising. Blood was then drawn, separated and tested for HB.Ag and anti-HB. by radioimmunoassay (Ausria II and AusAB, respectively, Abbott Laboratories Limited, Montreal). The serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) concentration was measured by a modified kinetic spectrophotometric method. Analysis of the data from the two groups (Canadian and non-Canadian) was then carried out to determine the frequency of a history of hepatitis, of HB.Ag and anti-HR in the blood, and of hepatitis before graduation as compared with after graduation, the

proportion with detectable anti-HR among those with a history of hepatitis before or after graduation, the possible sources of hepatitis B infection in the dentists who were serologically positive, and the relation of a history of hepatitis and anti-HR positivity to the number of years in practice. As control data for a history of hepatitis, the results of a questionnaire previously mailed to accountants were used. Serving as controls for the HB.Ag and anti-HR studies were 210 healthy volunteer blood donors matched for age, sex and ethnic origin with the group of dentists. The dentists ranged in age from 25 to 81 years and the average age was 40.5 years. The average age of the control group was 40 years. In the group of 288 Canadian dentists there were 24 women, and in the control group there were 15 women. Most of the subjects in both groups were from Canada and a few were from northern Europe. All dentists were advised of their test results. Those who were HB.Agpositive were advised to see their physician. Results As can be seen from Table I, 5.2% of the dentists practising in Canada and 10.3% of those practising outside Canada had a history of hepatitis after graduation. The frequency of hepatitis after graduation in Canadian dentists corresponds very

closely to the rates determined in a previous study: 6.3% in 1462 dentists practising in Ontario and 5.1 % in 3162 accountants who completed a mailed questionnaire.9 Only one Canadian dentist was HRAg-positive, for a frequency of 0.3%, the same as in Ontario blood donors (D.M. Wrobel: unpublished data, 1977). Two (1.6%) of 126 dentists practising outside Canada were HB.Ag-positive; one was from Germany and one from the Philippines, an area where the proportion of inhabitants carrying hepatitis antigen is high. Of the 210 matched blood donors none was HB.Ag-positive. Thus, although the number studied was small, the frequency of HB.Ag positivity in Canadian dentists does not appear to be relatively high in comparison with that for other groups of Canadians. No conclusions can be drawn about the nonCanadian dentists because of the lack of a control group. Of the Canadian dentists 14.6% were anti-HR-positive, whereas of the non-Canadian dentists 15.9% were anti-Hb.-positive. Of 1000 Ontario blood donors 3% were antiHR-positive,'5 and of the 210 matched blood donors 2.9% were positive. Thus, the Canadian dentists had a significantly higher frequency (P < 0.005) of anti-HR positivity than the blood donors. Of the 15 Canadian dentists who had hepatitis after graduation 11 (73.3%) were anti-HR-positive,

whereas of the 11 who had hepatitis before graduation only 3 (27.3%) were anti-HR-positive (Table II). Among the non-Canadian dentists 7 of the 13 who had hepatitis after graduation were anti-HR-positive, whereas none of the 5 who had hepatitis before graduation was positive. The interval between hepatitis and testing was 27 years in the Canadian group and 25 years in the nonCanadian group for those who had hepatitis before graduation, compared with 13 and 12 years respectively for those who had hepatitis before graduation. Of the 42 dentists from Canada who were anti-HB.-positive 13 (31.0%) gave a history of hepatitis after graduation, 3 (7.1 %) a history of hepatitis before graduation and 3 a history of blood transfusions (Table III). Of the 20 non-Canadian dentists who were anti-HR-positive 9 (45%) had had hepatitis after graduation, none had had hepatitis before graduation and 2 (10%) had received blood transfusions. A history of hepatitis was found most frequently in the dentists who had practised for 20 to 49 years (in 11.0%), and anti-HR was found most frequently in the dentists who

CMA JOURNAL/NOVEMBER 4, 1978/VOL. 119 1041

In our study 15.9% of the dentists practising outside Canada were positive for anti-HB5, compared with 3% of 1000 volunteer blood donors and 2.9% of 210 volunteer blood donors matched for age, sex and ethnic origin. Mosley and colleagues12'13 found 12.7% of dentists to be positive for anti-HB5 by passive hemagglutination, compared with Discussion 4.2% of Red Cross volunteer blood In our previous study9 6.3% of donors in Washington and 6.7% of 1462 Canadian dentists reported hav- unpaid donors in New York City. ing had hepatitis during their pro- Similarly, the frequency of anti-HB. fessional career, compared with was determined to be 16% in health 5.1% of 3162 accountants; in our care workers at the National Insticurrent study 5.2% of 288 Canadian tutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland dentists reported such a history. and 8.7% in controls.16 In Denmark Hence in Canada there was definitely Neilsen'4 found no difference in the no difference between dentists and frequency of anti-HB8 positivity bea control group of other professionals tween dentists (8.2%) and controls (8.4%). Thus, in Canada and the regarding a history of hepatitis. In the United States the findings United States, but not in Denmark, have not been uniform: in one study the frequency of anti-HB. positivity there appeared to be a higher fre- appears to be relatively high in denquency of a history of hepatitis in tists. Of the dentists who had hepatitis dentists, and in another there appeared to be no such disparity. Mos- while practising in Canada 73.3% ley and colleagues11'13 studied two were anti-HB.-positive, whereas of groups of dentists, one in the Los the dentists who had hepatitis while Angeles area and one (1245 dentists) practising outside Canada 53.8% at an American Dental Association were anti-HR-positive. The higher convention. They found the fre- frequency of hepatitis after graduaquency of a history of hepatitis in tion (10.3% v. 5.2% to 6.3%) and the two groups to be 3.3% and 3.2% the lower frequency of anti-HB. posirespectively. Feldman and Schiff11 tivity in dentists from outside Canada in Miami found that 6.7% of dentists may reflect an increase in the proporreported a history of hepatitis, com- tion of cases of hepatitis of a type pared with 2.4% of a control group other than B in those areas. Of the of lawyers; the latter frequency is not dentists who had hepatitis before strikingly different from the frequen- graduation only 27.3% of those praccies calculated by Mosley and col- tising in Canada were anti-HB.-positive; the proportion for those pracleagues for dentists. Of the dentists in our current study tising outside Canada was 0%. Thus, 0.3% were found to carry HB8Ag in a dentist is much more likely to have the blood; among Ontario blood don- anti-HR if he or she contracted hepors the frequency was the same (D.M. atitis while in practice rather than Wrobel: unpublished data, 1977). before entering practice. This may In the United States Mosley and as- be because of the longer interval besociates13 calculated the frequency of tween the episode of hepatitis and the HB8Ag positivity to be 0.9% in den- testing for anti-HR in the dentists tists and 0.2% to 0.38% in Amer- who had hepatitis before entering ican Red Cross volunteer blood practice and the consequent loss of donors, while Feldman and Schiff11 detectable antibody, or it may be found the frequency to be 1.27% in because dentists are more likely to dentists and 1.05% in a control be exposed to hepatitis B after entergroup. In Denmark the frequency ing practice than before. Of the 42 anti-HB.-positive Canawas determined by Neilsen14 to be 0% in dentists and 0.1 % in volun- dian dentists 19 (45%) had had teer blood donors. Thus it appears either hepatitis or blood transfusions, that in Canada, the United States and and of the 20 anti-HR-positive nonDenmark the frequency of HB. anti- Canadian dentists 11(55%) had had genemia is not relatively high in either hepatitis or blood transfusions. Thus, factors that may account for dentists.

had practised for 20 to 29 years (in 21.8%) (Table IV). The three dentists who had mildly elevated SGPT values (57, 71 and 82 IU/L) gave a history of hepatitis 5, 10 and 17 years previously. All three were anti-HB.-positive and two drank roughly 110 to 170 mL of alcohol per day.

1042 CMA JOURNAL/NOVEMBER 4, 1978/VOL. 119

anti-HB5 positivity existed in about half the dentists tested. It appears that a history of hepatitis is most frequent among dentists who have practised for 20 to 49 years, and anti-HR positivity is most frequent among dentists who have practised for 20 to 29 years. Prolonged exposure or increased susceptibility to infection with increasing age may be responsible. Some studies have lacked carefully matched controls; most serologic investigations have used volunteer blood donors as controls. The evidence suggests that, compared with other groups, dentists may have a higher frequency of hepatitis in the United States, but not in Canada or Denmark. The proportion with HB.Ag positivity is probably no higher in dentists than in other groups in these three countries, but the proportion with anti-HR positivity is higher in dentists in the United States and Canada, but not in Denmark. Thus, among dentists tested in the United States and Canada there was evidence of increased exposure to hepatitis B infection, while in Denmark there was no such evidence. Differences from country to country in frequency of hepatitis and in immunologic response may be due to differences in frequency of hepatitis B and the hepatitis B carrier state in the people dentists treat, or to differences in technique or resistance to infection in dentists of different countries. Because we have demonstrated increased exposure to hepatitis B infection among dentists in Canada, we believe that studies to determine whether changes in technique (e.g., wearing gloves) that would reduce the risk of exposure to this infection are indicated. This study was supported by a grant from Mount Sinai Institute. References 1. SUTNICK Al, LONDON WT, MILLMAN

I, et al: Ergaseric hepatitis: endemic hepatitis associated with Australia antigen in a research laboratory. Ann Intern Med 75: 35, 1971 2. ROSENBERG JL, JONES DP, Li.irz LR, et al: Viral hepatitis: an occupational

hazard to surgeons. JAMA 223: 395, 1973 3. WANDS JR, WALKER JA, DAVIS TT,

et al: Hepatitis B in an oncology unit. N Engi J Med 291: 1371, 1974

LudiomilĀ® . 4. BIsHAI FR, MACMILLAN 5, DEMPSTER G, et al: Frequency of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HB.) in various Canadian populations as measured by modified solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Can J Microbiol 23: 92, 1977 5. Reports of the Advisory Group on Hepatitis and the Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure, Department of Health and Social Security, London, 1970 and 1972 6. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis in dialysis units associated with prevention programme. Br Med J 4: 751, 1974 7. WARD R, BORCHERT P, WRIGHT A, et

al: Hepatitis B antigen in saliva and mouth washings. L.ncet 2: 726, 1972 *8. FEINMAN SV, KRASSNITSKI 0, SINCLAIR

JC, et al: Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva of HB,Ag carriers. J Lab Clin Med 85: 1042, 1975 9. BERRIS B, FEINMAN SY, SINCLAIR JC, et al: Frequency of hepatitis in dentists in Ontario (C). Ann Intern Med 81:

699, 1974 10. JONES DM, ToBIN JO, TURNER EP: Australia antigen and antibodies to Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and rubella virus in dental personnel. Br Dent J 132: 489, 1972 11. FELDMAN RE, SCHIFF ER: Hepatitis in dental professionals. JAMA 232;

1228, 1975 12. MOSLEY JW, WHrrE E: Viral hepatitis as an occupational hazard of dentists.

J Am Dent Assoc 90: 992, 1975 13. MOSLEY JW, EDWARDS VM, CASEY

G, et al: Hepatitis B virus infection in dentists. N Engi J Med 293: 729,

1975 14. NIELSEN JO: What shall we do with the HB,Ag carrier? Scand J Gastro-

enterol 11: 641, 1976 15. SINCLAIR JC, FEINMAN SV, WROBEL

DM, et al: Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in asymptomatic blood

donors. JAMA 235: 1014, 1976 16. LEWIS TL, ALTER HJ, CHALMERS TC,

et al: A comparison of the frequency of hepatitis-B antigen and antibody in hospital and nonhospital personnel.

N Engi J Med 289: 647, 1973

BOOKS continued from page 1039 THE BATTERED CHILD SYNDROME. Selwyn M. Smith. 292 pp. Illust. Butterworths & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., Reading, Massachusetts, 1975. $17.50. ISBN 0-40700046-1 BIOLOGY OF BRAIN TUMORS. A Series of Workshops on the Biology of Human Cancer. Report no 5. UICC Technical Report Series - vol 30. Edited by OD. Laerum, D.D. Bigner and M.F. Rajewsky. 209 pp. lIlust. International Union Against Cancer, Geneva, 1978. Price not stated. ISBN 92-9018-030-7 continued on page 1065

Brief Prescribing Information. Indications Endogenous depressive illness, including the depressed phase of manic-depressive illness (bipolar depression) and involutional melancholia. Selected patients suffering severe depressive neurosis. Contraindicatlons Ludiomil (maprotiline) should not be used concomitantly with monoamine oxidase inhibitors; at least fourteen days should elapse between discontinuing one of the interacting drugs and replacing it with the other. Ludiomil is contraindicated in patients with existing severe hepatic or renal damage, a history of severe blood dyscrasias, narrow angle glaucoma, convulsive disorders and during the acute recovery phase following myocardial infarction. Not recommended for use in children. Use in Pregnancy Safe use of Ludiomil during pregnancy and lactation has not been estabfore, it should not be administered to women of childbearing potential or nursing mothers unless the benefits outweigh the possible hazards. Wamings Extreme caution should be used when Ludiomil (maprotiline) is given to patients with known cardiovascular disease including a history of myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and/or ischemic heart disease. Use with caution in hyperthyroid patients or those on thyroid medication, and in patients with a history of urinary retention, particularly in the presence of prostatic hypertrophy. Close supervision and careful adjustment of dosa9e is required when administering Ludiomil with anticholinergic or sympathomimetic drugs. Patients requiring concomitant treatment for hypertension should not be given antihypertensives of the adrenergic-neurone inhibitor type, such as guanethidine. Activation of psychosis in schizophrenic patients, hypomanic or manic episodes in patients with cyclic disorders have occurred with tricyclic antidepressants. The use of an antipsychotic drug in these latter two conditions is recommended should they occur in the course of Ludiomil administration. Precautions Seriously depressed patients must be carefully supervised due to the possibility of suicide. Patients should be warned that their responses to alcoholic beverages or other ONS depressants may be exaggerated. Patients should also be cautioned against performing potentially dangerous tasks that require mental alertness and good physical coordination. Periodic blood cell counts and liver function tests are recommended with prolonged therapy. Prior to elective surgery, Ludiomil should be discontinued for as long a period as clinically feasible. Adverse reactions The following adverse reactions have been reported either with Ludiomil or the tricyclic antidepressant drugs: Neurological: numbness, tingling, paresthesias of extremities, incoordination, ataxia, tremors, peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, seizures, alteration in EEG patterns, tinnitus. Behavioral: confusional states (especially in the elderly) with hallucinations, disorientation, delusions; anxiety, restlessness, agitation, insomnia and nightmares, hypomania, mania, exacerbation of psychosis, decrease in memory, feelings of unreality, weakness and fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, urinary frequency. Autonomic: dry mouth and, rarely, associated sublingual adenitis; blurred vision, disturbances of accommodation, mydriasis; constipation; paralytic ileus; urinary retention, delayed micturition, dilation of the urinary tract, perspiration, flushing. Cardiovascular: hypotension, hypertension, congestive heart failure, tachycardia, palpitation, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, heart block, stroke and syncope. Hematologic: bone marrow depression including agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, purpura and thrombocytopenia may occur as an idiosyncratic response. Leukocyte and differential counts should be performed in any patient who develops fever and sore throat during the therapy; the drug should be discontinued if there is evidence of pathological neutrophil depression. Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting, anorexia, epigastric distress, diarrhea, bitter taste, stomatitis, abdominal cramps, black tongue, dysphagia, increased salivation, altered liver function. Endocrine: gynecomastia in the male, breast enlargement and galactorrhea in the female, increased or decreased libido, impotence, testicular swelling, elevation or depression of blood sugar levels, weight gain or loss. Allergic or toxic: skin rash, petechiae, urticaria, itching, photosensitization (avoid excessive exposure to sunlight); edema (9eneral or of face and tongue); drug fever, obstructive jaundice, nasal congestion. Dosage Adults Outpatients: Initially 25 mg t.i.d., may be increased in increments of 25-50 m. to a maximum of 50 mg qid. Hospital patients: initially 50 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., may be increased in increments of 25-50 mg to a maximum of 300 mg daily. Elderly patients: generally 25 mg tid. or q.i.d. Maintenance: dosage may be gradually reduced to 75 mg daily or less. A single daily dose of 75 mg to 150 mg at bedtime can be given by virtue of the long half-life of Ludiomil. This would ensure better patient compliance and may obviate the need for hypnotics. Supplied Tablets containing maprotiline hydrochloride, film coated, slightly biconvex: 25 mg, light orange marked CIBA one side and DP on other; 50 mg, orange marked CIBA on one side and ER on other; 75 mg, coral, scored, marked CIBA on one side and FS on other. Bottles of 50 and 500 tablets. Product Monograph supplied on request. References 1. Trick, K.L.K.: Double-Blind Comparison of Maprotiline (Ludiomil5) with Amitriptyline in the Treatment of Depressive Illness. J. Int. Med. Research, Vol. 3, Suppl. 2,1975. Edited by J.E. Murphy, Cambridge Medical Publications Ltd., England. pp. 67-70 2. Mathur, G.N.: A Double-Blind Co m parat lye Clinical Trial of Maprotiline (Ludiomil5) and Amitriptyline. J. mt. Med. Research, Vol. 3, Suppl. 2,1975. Edited by J.E. Murphy, Cambridge Medical Publications Ltd., England. pp. 71-74 3. Singh, A.N., Saxena, B.: Maprotiline (Ludiomil,0 CIBA 34,276-BA) and Imipramine in Depressed Outpatients: A Double-Blind Clinical Study. Current Therapeutic Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, April, 1976.4. Product Monograph-Ludiomil0

For the Optimum Management of Iron Deficiency

slow-Fe

(ferrous sulfate) hematinic INDICATIONS: The management of iron deficiency states and anemia. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Iron therapy is contraindicated in the of hemochromatosis, .emosiderosls and hemolytic anemia. WARNING: Keep out of reach of children. ADVERSE REACTIONS: Gastro-intestinal side effects such as nausea and gastro-intestinal irritation are rare. Other side effects which have been rarely reported are: vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain and skin rash. PRECAUTIONS: Slow-Fe, like all oral iron preparations, may aggravate existing peptic ulcer, regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis. Iron when given with tetracyclines, binds in equimolecular ratio thus lowering the absorption of tetracyclines. DOSAGE: Pro p hylaxis: One tablet daily is sufficient to maintain an adequate iron intake during pregnancy and in patients with simple iron deficiency. Iron Deficiency: Depending on the severity, one or two tablets of Slow-Fe daily, usually in one dose. In mild anemias, one tablet daily will usually suffice. For moderate or severe anemias, two tablets daily should be given until hemoglobin levels return to normal.* In severe cases, up to a maximum of 4 tablets daily may be given. In the case of children, one tablet of Slow-Fe daily is a suitable dose for children able to swallow a small tablet. *This physiological process may require a period of up to eight weeks. Once the desired hemoglobin level is attained, the dose can then be reduced to one tablet daily for maintenance to build up the iron reserves over a further 12 to 16 weeks. of white, film-coated Slow-Fe tablet contains 160 mg of dried ferrous sulfate (=50 mg elemental iron) in a specially formulated matrix. Packaged in push-through packs containing 30 tablets per sheet and are available in units of 30, 120 and 4,800. References: 1. Product Monograph. Full information available on request.

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Hepatitis and hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in dentists.

Hepatitis and hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in dentists BARNET BERRIS, MS, MD, FRCP[C], FACP; S. VICTOR FEINMAN, B SC, MD, FRCP[C]; JONATHA...
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