Volume 44, Number 6
omen's health and women's imaging are becoming well-established areas of medical practice and research. There is an organization within the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Health Ofﬁce of Research on Women's Health, which is concerned with research related to a variety of conditions that affect primarily or exclusively women. These conditions include breast cancer, heart disease in women, menopause, pregnancy, reproductive hazards, sexual problems in women, gynecologic diseases, osteoporosis, and others. In the United States, there are residencies in women's health and fellowships in women's imaging. They exist because there are medical conditions speciﬁc to women and because there are health problems that affect both men and women but affect them differently. Gender- and sex-biased conditions, once studied perhaps in a limited fashion in individual medical ﬁelds, are now being investigated additionally in an evolving ﬁeld of medicine focused on the gender- and sex-speciﬁc aspects of conditions or therapies. Results from this evolving ﬁeld have had, and will have, implications for research and clinical practice related to such conditions. Research in this evolving ﬁeld includes studies of genes, chromosomes, hormones, and gonads and of behavior—psychological and sociologic considerations of sex and gender. We may not yet understand why some diseases affect females more than males or the opposite (males more than females). But, we do know such biases exist. Research focused on the multiple aspects of the biases should provide knowledge that leads to better understanding of why some conditions are gender biased. Such research will also inﬂuence and modify, and already is doing so, medical care, particularly care of patients with gender- and sex-biased conditions. This issue of Seminars is dedicated to “nuclear medicine and women.” This issue addresses medical conditions for which nuclear medicine is part of the management and which exclusively or primarily affect women. This issue also addresses medical conditions that involve nuclear medicine studies that may be performed or interpreted differently based on gender or sex considerations. Conditions that are gender or sex biased in some aspect of their manifestation or are gender or sex biased in the manner of the conduction or interpretation of the nuclear medicine component of their management have been addressed. Conditions for which patient management should
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2014.06.008 0001-2998/& 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
likely be gender or sex biased and conditions for which research should include gender or sex targeted efforts have also been addressed. This issue addressed the following: cardiovascular diseases and nuclear medicine's effect on the workup of such diseases in women1; benign and malignant thyroid conditions and the roles of nuclear medicine in diagnosis and their therapy2; the role of FDG-PET/CT in the management of gynecologic diseases3; radiation dose considerations speciﬁc for women, including pregnant and breastfeeding women4; osteoporosis and the roles of bone density measurements in women5; human immunodeﬁciency virus infection and AIDS—their incidence in women, their complications for women, and the relevant roles of nuclear medicine in their management6; and the roles of nuclear medicine in the management of genderbiased conditions in the pediatric population.7 Not addressed in this issue is the association of breast cancer and nuclear medicine. A recent issue of Seminars was devoted entirely to this topic (Seminars in Nuclear Medicine Volume 43, Issue 4, July, 2013). Those interested in breast cancer and nuclear medicine are directed to that issue. We hope and anticipate that this issue of 7 individually excellent articles by talented and distinguished faculty, on nuclear medicine in women's health and gender- and sexbiased conditions will serve as a valuable reference for the topic. Naomi P. Alazraki, MD John N. Aarsvold, PhD E-mail address: [email protected]
1. Esteves Fabio, Travin MI: The role of nuclear cardiology in the diagnosis and risk stratiﬁcation of women with ischemic heart disease. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):423-438 2. Moncayo VM, Aarsvold JN, Alazraki NP: Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: Gender biases in disease. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):413-422 3. Grant P, Sakellis C, Jacine H: Gynecological oncologic imaging with PET/ CT. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):461-478 4. Stabin M: Radiation dose concerns for the pregnant or lactating patient. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):479-488 5. Nanes MS, Kallen CB: Osteoporosis. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):439-450 6. Sathekge M, Maes A, Van deWiele C, et al: Effect of AIDS on women who have sex-determined health issues. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):489-498 7. Alazraki AL, Braithwaite KA: Gender differences in pediatric nuclear medicine. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44(6):451-460