Global Market for Dairy Proteins Veronique Lagrange, Dacia Whitsett, and Cameron Burris
This review examines the global market for dairy ingredients by assessing the global demand for dairy products in relation to major dairy ingredient categories. Each broad category of dairy ingredients is reviewed including its definition, production and trade status, key applications, and future trends. Ingredient categories examined include whole and skim milk powders (WMPs, SMPs), whey protein concentrates (WPCs) and whey protein isolates (WPIs), milk protein concentrates (MPCs) and milk protein isolates (MPIs), caseins, and caseinates. Increases in world population and improvements in socioeconomic conditions will continue to drive the demand for dairy products and ingredients in the future. Dairy proteins are increasingly recognized to have nutritional and functional advantages compared to many protein sources, and the variety of ingredients with different protein concentrations, functionality, and flavor can meet the needs of the increasingly global dairy consumption. A thorough understanding of the variety of ingredients, how the ingredients are derived from milk, and how the demand from particular markets affects the supply situation are critical elements in understanding the current ingredient marketplace.
Introduction The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) projects that the world population will increase to 9.1 billion by 2050, more than a 33% increase from the current population (United Nations 2013). Food production will have to increase by 70% to meet the demand for adequate nutrition. The projections are that the rate of development in emerging economies will continue to rise, with a consequential increase in the size and wealth of an emerging middle class. This will drive a strong demand for dairy protein, similar to what has been experienced in China over the last 5 y. There is a strong positive relationship between the level of income and the consumption of animal protein, with the consumption of animal products, including dairy, increasing at the expense of staple foods. Urbanization is also a major driving force influencing global demand for animal protein. It stimulates improvements in infrastructure, including cold chains, which permit trade in perishable goods. In addition, a higher percentage of employed (away from home) mothers results in higher demand for infant and toddler formula products that are either whey or milk powder based. In recent years, there has been a remarkable increase in the consumption of animal products in countries such as Brazil and China (10% to 15% per annum range), although the levels are still well below the levels of consumption in North America and most other industrialized countries. For the majority of people in the world, particularly in developing countries (FAO 2012), dairy and MS 20141504 Submitted 9/5/2014, Accepted 12/4/2014. Authors are with U.S. Dairy Export Council, 2010 Wilson Blvd. Suite 400 Arlington, VA 22201. Direct inquiries to author Lagrange (E-mail: [email protected]). Author disclosures: Authors are employees and/or contractors of the U. S. R Dairy Export Council (USDEC), a nonprofit, independent membership organization that represents the global trade interests of U.S. dairy producers, proprietary processors and cooperatives, ingredient suppliers, and export traders. Dairy Management Inc.TM founded USDEC in 1995 and, through the dairy checkoff program, is the organization’s primary funder. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture’s (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) provides export activity support, and membership dues fund the Council’s trade policy.
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animal products remain a desired food for nutritional value and taste. In 2013, global milk production was estimated to total 466 million metric tons (mt).The largest producers were the European Union (EU), the United States, and India. Extensive production statistics and projection highlights are available from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization’s agricultural outlook and databases (OECD 2011). Considering an average of 3.4% protein content, this represents approximately 15.8 million mt of protein. International dairy trade absorbs only about 5% of globally produced cow milk. The trade is primarily in major manufactured dairy products—butter, cheese, and dry milk powders—with some trade in fluid milk products, ice cream, yogurt, and a variety of ingredients such as whey products, milk protein concentrates (MPCs), milk powders, and casein products (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2014a).
Protein Quality A key factor in meeting the dietary needs of the world population is protein quality. According to the Intl. Dairy Federation: “With respect to the quality of proteins, this is dependent on their ability to adequately meet the human requirements for indispensable amino acids. Amino acid requirements vary for specific age groups and physiological conditions” (Moughan 2012). The consequences of inadequate protein intake to meet essential amino acid requirements are well known and include stunted growth, increased susceptibility to infection, suboptimal muscle capacity, and diminished mental performance ranging from retardation to apathy. A precise assessment of the ability of a dietary protein source to match the body’s needs for individual amino acids will allow better use of an increasingly scarce resource (FAO 2013). Several methods have been used to evaluate the protein quality of foods, but newer technologies and understanding of protein requirements have led to significantly better methods (Boye and others 2012). A recent FAO expert group suggested replacing the currently accepted Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid R C 2015 Institute of Food Technologists
doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12801 Further reproduction without permission is prohibited
Score (PDCAAS) with the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) for an improved assessment of the protein quality found in human foods and ingredients. According to this method, which may become a very valuable tool for food scientists and product developers over the next 15 to 20 y, the initial data are quite favorable for high-quality proteins such as dairy, providing a 10% to 30% “advantage” over other sources of proteins such as rice, soy, pea, and barley proteins. At this time, research on DIAAS is ongoing with development of a research model to obtain digestibility values. Upon establishment of a research model, a database of digestibility values can be created for use in calculating DIAAS values. This new method of measuring protein quality, and meeting specific amino acid needs throughout life to optimize health outcomes, as opposed to meeting minimum protein requirements, will be increasingly critical to meeting the needs of a growing world population (FAO 2013).
Milk Powders Definitions Milk powders are the original industrial dairy ingredient and constitute the major portion of international dairy trade to this day. Produced by drying fresh liquid milk with countless adjustments and standardizations to meet the needs of the marketplace, they represent a wide choice of products with differing levels of fat, protein, solubility, and other characteristics. A number of different standards exist, but 2 common references are the Codex Alimentarius (set by the FAO and World Health Organization to standardize world trade) and the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). One key difference between the 2 standards is that the Codex allows for the standardization of the protein content using “lactose, milk retentate and milk permeate” (Codex Stan 207–1999), while the CFR focuses on providing the “lactose, milk proteins, milk fat and milk minerals in the same relative proportions as the milk from which it was made” (21 CFR 131.147). Both standardized and “regular” whole milk powders (WMPs) are called the same thing (WMP); however, once the fat is removed, their names differ. Skim milk powder (SMP) is the Codex term for milk powder with the fat removed while nonfat dry milk is the CFR term. Nonfat dry milk tends to have higher protein contents than SMP (Table 1). Production and trade Milk powders are one of the oldest dairy ingredients used by the food industry. Spray-drying is now the common method used to manufacture dry milk powders, which are the largest single dairy ingredient category worldwide. WMP production increased from 3.723 million mt in 2009 to 4.545 million mt in 2013 (USDA FAS 2014b). Leading suppliers, who accounted for around 70% of world production, were New Zealand (1.3 million mt), China (1.2 million mt), and the EU (685000 mt) with a 30%, 27%, and 15% share of production, respectively. Of this production, only a fraction is traded internation-
Table 3–Skim milk powder production (1000 metric tons). Producer
European Union United States India New Zealand Australia Others Total
980 859 345 252 177 683 3296
1080 786 360 385 203 623 3437
1060 824 380 344 205 566 3379
1180 882 430 366 230 568 3656
1270 973 450 404 235 632 3964
1210 979 480 390 225 626 3910
ally, as some leading producers, such as China, consume most of their own production. In 2013, the leading exporters of WMP were New Zealand (1.291 million mt), the EU (374000 mt), and Argentina (182000 mt) with a 53%, 16%, and 8% share of exports, respectively. WMP trade has increased in recent years, from exports around 1.896 million mt in 2009 to 2.294 million mt in 2013, driven in large part by the growth of China’s market. China’s imports of WMP have grown from an estimated 43811 mt in 2008 to over 615000 mt (USDA 2014a), which reflects the increasing ability of its population to benefit from the consumption of dairy products. A large number of markets import WMP. Table 2 features the major importing countries in 2013. SMP production also has increased in recent years, from 3437000 million mt in 2009 to 3961000 million mt in 2013. Leading producers included the EU, the United States, and India (Table 3). Major exporters included the United States, New Zealand, and India, and the largest import markets were China, Indonesia, and Mexico. Global trade is estimated at 1665000 million mt (USDA FAS 2014).
Uses and applications Globally, the major uses for milk powders are nutrition products for children, recombined products, fortification of dairy products, and bakery and confectionery applications. The actual usage in any 1 market will depend on many factors, the major one being the available supply of fresh milk. In the United States, for example, the American Dairy Products Inst. (ADPI) reports a different profile, with the top end uses being: dairy (64%), confectionery (19%), baking (7%), nutritional products (3%), and prepared mixes (3%) (ADPI 2012). The supply of milk powders—and MPCs and milk protein isolates (MPIs)—will be significantly increased in at least 6 regions across Northern Europe that have the capability to significantly expand milk production. This will be most evident when production quotas are removed in 2015. There is the potential for substantial, incremental growth by companies in these locations and it is likely that in some of these countries, such as Ireland and Vol. 80, S1, 2015 r Journal of Food Science A17
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Table 1–Typical industry milk powder compositions (percent as-is basis).
Global market for dairy proteins . . .
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The Netherlands, the bulk of the incremental milk will be utilized 12 mo of age) and GUMs (for children 1 to 3 y of age, generally marketed as dry mixes). Whereas infant formula’s whey-to-casein for ingredient production. ratio mimics that of breast milk and the majority of products are Recombined milk whey-based, the formulations for older infants and toddlers are In markets where fresh milk availability is low, or where growth largely based on milk powders. These categories have exploded in demand is outstripping supply, both WMPs and SMPs are in recent years. For example, the GUM market has experienced widely used for the production of recombined milk. This is then rates of growth of 9% to 10% yearly from 2009 to 2012. Annual sold as liquid milk, or further processed into sweetened condensed average growth rates for FOF and GUM result in year-over-year milks or bases for the manufacture of yogurt and frozen desserts. In increases in absolute dairy protein demand of 3700 mt for FOF markets that lack well-developed cold storage and supply chains, and 18500 mt for GUM. In short, this is equivalent to an annual this also can take the form of dried milk in retail form for re- increase in demand of 65000 mt of milk powder or approximately constitution by consumers and foodservice establishments. In the 28000 mt of whey protein concentrate (WPC; U.S. Dairy Export United States, where there is a well-developed fresh milk supply, Council 2012b). sales of milk powders for recombined milk production would be low to nonexistent (ADPI 2014). Other uses Milk powders are a functional ingredient used in bakery prodGrowing-up milk (GUM), follow-on formula (FOF) ucts, snacks, and chocolate confectionery items around the world. Baby milk is generally defined by the industry and trade as those They also are part of blends used for powdered beverage mixes. In products designed for use by young children that nutritionally addition, a major, traditional application for milk powder is cheese simulate human milk either in whole or in part. It does not include milk and yogurt base fortification. In milk-producing regions, micow or other milks sold in the dairy case for general consumption, crofiltered milk or micellar-casein-type products are increasingly or other powdered or condensed products that are not specifically preferred for cheese milk formulations. labeled for use by children of specific ages. Because of the quality of their protein, milk powders are increasInfant formula, FOF, and GUM (sometimes known as tod- ingly incorporated into ready-to-use therapeutic foods and supdler milk; GUM) are distinct product categories. Infant formula plementary food. They also are used as a source of high-quality is defined internationally by Codex (Codex Stan 72–1981). The protein in the new Super Cereal Plus blends employed by the standard (amended 2011) is the main reference for the composi- World Food Program. These products are used internationally for tion of infant formulas and formulas for special medical purposes the management of severe and moderate malnutrition. Increased intended for infants. This standard refers only to formula for the awareness and growing scientific evidence supporting the benefits infant category (that is, 0 to 12 mo—so includes infant formula of dairy ingredients in these applications will support a growing and FOF) and contains important information about allowed ad- utilization in developing countries. ditives and contaminants, including those carried over from raw materials. Future trends In the United States, 2 chapters of the CFR are dedicated to Widely available, milk powders will remain the leading dairy Infant Nutrition (21 CFR 106 and 107) and Section 412 of the ingredient category in years to come. Demand is largely driven by Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act addresses Infant Nutrition. use in recombined products, fortification and nutritional applicaThis legislation largely relates to infant formula end product, the tions for toddlers, children, and vulnerable groups. Use in recomrequirement for GMPs and quality control procedures, composi- bined products will continue to grow in emerging economies. tional requirements, and premarketing notification requirements. These applications require high-quality products with tight miFollow-up formula is defined by Codex Standard 156–1987. crobiological specifications, including low levels of thermophilic It is a food intended for use as a liquid part of a weaning diet spores, long shelf-life under adverse conditions, good heat stability, from the 6th month on and for young children (up to 36 mo). and very low levels of potential contaminants, such as nitrates and It sets forth nutritional content ranges and lists permitted food heavy metals. Technological developments that support producadditives, as well as labeling guidelines. GUM includes all “milk- tion of such high-quality ingredients will facilitate supply to meet like” products targeted at young children. It is a loosely defined global demand. category with no international standard. There are no specific international or national regulations that Whey Proteins control the specification of ingredients that are used to manufacture milk formula products. Rather these regulations refer to the Definitions end formula’s nutritional composition. For this reason, a wide vaThe history of whey proteins, from a by-product of cheese riety of dairy ingredients can be used in the family of products, as production, used for feed or fertilizer, to the highly valued suplong as the final product meets nutritional standards. The Codex plement, used by body builders and athletes, is well known and is part of the FAO and World Health Organization of the United documented elsewhere (Macgibbon 2014). Nations. The guidelines and standards for foods set by Codex are The widespread adoption of ultrafiltration membranes and other not mandatory, but provide an internationally recognized starting technologies allowed for the development of a diversified portfolio point for national regulation (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2012a). of protein products, which offers differences in both functional Infant formula is defined by Codex Standard 72 (Codex and nutritional performance. Today, innovative research focused Alimentarius 1981) as a product to be used as breast milk re- on further protein fractionation and ever-improved functionality placement, and most countries recommend that cow milk should is a cornerstone of the growth of the whey utilization industry. be introduced only after 12 mo of age. In many countries and Whey is commonly obtained from 2 major sources, either as regions around the world, such as China, Southeast Asia, and the a coproduct of cheese production (sweet whey), or during the Middle East, domestic milk production is insufficient and demand production of acidified products, such as cottage cheese, some is largely met through the consumption of FOF (for children 6 to yogurt, or casein (acid whey). Two relatively new and growing A18 Journal of Food Science r Vol. 80, S1, 2015
Global market for dairy proteins . . .
Ingredient Whey, dry Whey, dry, animal feed Whey, lactose Whey, protein concentrate, 25% to 49.9% Whey, protein concentrate, 50% to 89.9% Whey, protein concentrate, animal feed Whey, protein isolate, 90% Whey, reduced lactose & mineral, animal feed
Production 435911 16725 471365 117669 108060 4127 39501 28219
sources are whey obtained from the microfiltration of skim milk (“native whey”) and whey produced during the straining and separation process used for the traditional production of Greek yogurt (“Greek whey”). Dried sweet whey powder contains an average of 12.5% protein. It is defined by the Codex (Codex Stan 289–1995a) and by the U.S. CFR as “the liquid substance obtained by separating the coagulum from milk, cream or skim milk in cheesemaking . . . sweet whey has a maximum titratable acidity of 0.16%, calculated as lactic acid” (21 CFR 184.1979). WPCs have increasing levels of protein (and fat), as the lactose is removed to concentrate the protein up to a maximum of 80% protein. The legal minimum amount of protein is 25% as per the CFR (21 CFR 184.1979). Whey protein isolates (WPIs) undergo additional processing to remove the fat in order to further concentrate the protein, resulting in a product with more than 90% protein (FDA GRAS Notice No. 37).
Infant formula Infant formula regulations (Codex Stan72–1981) specify the amino acid profile needed to closely mimic the amino acid ratios found in human breast milk. Manufacturers adjust the whey:casein ratio of cow milk from 20:80 to match that of human milk at 60:40 by adding whey protein to the milk base (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2012b).
Performance and health nutrition The performance nutrition market, also known as sports nutrition, has grown from a niche business, primarily in North America catering to the bodybuilding community, into a global market catering to a much broader category, including elite athletes, recreational athletes, and casual exercisers. Research continues to validate the beneficial effects of whey protein on muscle development, sarcopenia, exercise recovery, and body composition (Baer and others 2011; Urbina and others 2011; Coker and others 2012; Miller and others 2014). As this research continues to expand, new markets will continue to progress, including weight management, muscle maintenance for the aging, and supplements for medical use, particularly for the high-protein WPCs (up to 80%) and WPIs, which, in turn, will help drive continued strong demand. Whey proteins are highly functional with attributes that benefit many food systems. Their strong emulsification, heat stability, pleasant flavor, and structure are used in a variety of food systems to provide improved functionality and clean-label, cost-effective food systems (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2004a, 2004b).
Production and trade Fluid whey is commonly processed through ultrafiltration to obtain a variety of WPC, ranging from 34% to 80%. Further purification processes, such as microfiltration or ion exchange technology, yield WPI. Differentiated products, such as demineralized whey, are also widely used ingredients. A coproduct of WPC and WPI, whey permeate, contains only small quantities of protein. Global fluid whey production can be inferred from cheese or casein production data; however, some fluid whey is not further processed but used “as is” in animal feed products, for example. Only a select number of countries publish dry whey production data; therefore, global production can only be estimated. Detailed production data of the various types of whey products are only available publicly from the United States (Table 4). Global trade in whey ingredients has increased significantly over the last 10 y. The growth of the infant formula market, notably in China and other East Asian economies, and the development of the “performance nutrition” market has led to significant export growth, particularly in higher protein concentrates and isolates. In 2013, global exports of whey ingredients (all types combined) were estimated at 1.5 million mt. Leading exporters were the EU, the United States, and Belarus, with 530,772 mt, 494,157 mt, and 115,451 mt, respectively. Major importing countries were China, Indonesia, and Malaysia. U.S. exports totaled 237,069 mt of sweet whey, 115,240 mt of WPC, and 21,928 mt of WPI (Global Trade Atlas 2014).
Future trends The ongoing emergence of improved, more cost-efficient technologies to separate and purify whey proteins and development of new sources will continue to drive the sector. Already, high-value fractions such as alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide (GMP), and lactoferrin have well-established markets (Barton 2013). As noted earlier, 2 new sources of whey are emerging: Whey produced from the microfiltration of cheese milk prior to the cheese-making process (commonly described as “native whey”) and whey produced as a result of Greek yogurt production. “Native whey” production may not significantly add to the existing whey pool, and will have limited effect on the market. The significant development and growth of the Greek yogurt market in the United States over the last 5 y has added a new whey source for processors, currently estimated to be 440,000 mt of Greek whey (liquid). However, a different composition to sweet whey (lower protein and higher mineral) has made it challenging to develop economical processes to produce dry whey ingredients from “Greek whey.” Uses are for energy (biodigesters), animal feed, and fertilizer. Whey proteins are recognized as much more than a “cocktail” of amino acids and cannot be replaced by man-made amino acid mixtures. It is clear that many of the lesser known, or yet to be discovered, components of whey proteins are key to this ingredient’s wide range of nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits, from growth and management of stunting, to strengthening seniors, improving body composition, and immune status (Korhonen and Uses and applications Pihlanto 2007). Globally, it is likely that the nutritional benefits of whey proWPCs are a key ingredient in infant formula products, performance (sports) beverages, and nutritional supplements. Today, the tein will continue to drive increased demand for whey proteins, body of evidence that documents their benefits in body composi- while growth of the industry will be fueled by more cost-efficient, sustainable production technologies. tion and sarcopenia is growing and creating a new demand. Vol. 80, S1, 2015 r Journal of Food Science A19
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Table 4–U.S. production of whey-based ingredients in 2013 (metric tons).
Global market for dairy proteins . . .
Milk Protein Concentrates
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Definitions MPC and MPI are ingredients obtained by the partial removal of nonprotein constituents (lactose and minerals) from skim milk such that the finished dry product contains 40% or more protein by weight (MPC) or 90% or more protein by weight (MPI). Several different MPC and MPI products are commercially available, each of which is identified by a number that represents the protein content of the product; for example, MPC42 contains 42% protein by weight. MPC and MPI can be produced by filtration (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and diafiltration), dialysis, or by any other safe and suitable process in which all or part of the lactose is removed (FDA GRAS Notice Nr. 504). Concentrated milk proteins contain casein and whey proteins in the proportions in which they are found in milk. The concentrated milk proteins are made available for commercial purposes as a free-flowing, off-white- to light-tan–colored powder. The use of microfiltration allows for the selective retention of casein, yielding fractions with an adjusted casein ratio profile. This allows for customization of nutritional and functional profiles of these ingredients (Food and Drug Administration [FDA] 2012).
beverages, sport nutrition beverages and powders, and medical nutrition products. In performance nutrition applications, the slower digestion of the high casein content is often promoted along with the low lactose content. Overall, the low lactose content, pleasant dairy flavor, and high solubility are combined with an excellent nutritional profile to provide a cost-effective, functional ingredient for many nutritional applications.
Future trends More than 10 y ago, the MPC industry was largely driven by the availability of a tariff allowing imports of milk solids into the United States at a preferential rate. Today, production of MPC is driven by both intrinsic demand for milk proteins and derived demand for milk protein permeate, an ingredient used for milk powder protein standardization. Over the past decade, there has been a substantial increase in the use of milk permeate by the dairy industry for such standardization. Expert forecasters have predicted that as the production of milk powders continues to grow in the key producing regions of the world, demand for milk permeate will continue to grow, generating further volumes of MPC (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2012a). At least 6 regions across northern Europe have the capability to significantly expand milk production. This will be most evident when production quotas are removed in 2015. There is the potential for substantial, incremental growth by companies in these locations and it is likely that in some of these countries, such as The Netherlands and Ireland, the bulk of the incremental milk will be utilized for ingredient production. This is an opportunity for the development of integrated manufacturing strategies that include MPC (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2014a). Projections indicate output of MPC might grow by more than 40000 mt by 2020. Switzerland, the United States, and countries in Oceania also will continue to increase milk production, generating additional milk that will be further fractioned and refined (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2012a). MPC production yields milk permeate and is perceived as more “sustainable” and environmentally friendly than casein production, making it likely that MPC will continue to expand and displace some casein in specific applications.
Production and trade MPC is not defined by the Codex or the U.S. CFR. In the past, blends of whey and casein were traded as MPC. Today, the term largely refers to products obtained by ultrafiltration of milk. MPC ranges in concentration from 40% to 42% up to 85%. Further processing (diafiltration) yields products containing 90% protein, traded as MPI. Microfiltration of milk allows the production of adjusted casein ratio products: a whey-rich fraction and micellar casein. The United States is the only producing country with official production data (Table 4), and U.S. production has developed rapidly since 2003. MPC can be traded under 2 major Harmonized System (HS) codes, depending on protein content. Customs classification varies among markets, allowing only estimation of the trade. The U.S. market size is estimated at 50000 to 55000 mt for MPC42 and MPC56, and 17000 to 18000 mt for MPC70, MPC85, and MPI (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2012a). Casein and Caseinates Uses and applications In the United States, the ADPI reports (ADPI 2012) the following industries to be leading users of MPCs (all types combined): dairy sector (44.2%), mainstream nutrition products (21.6%), sports beverages (17.2%), and sports powders (13.1%). No reporting exists on international uses. Processed cheese Globally, processed cheese is the major use for lower protein/lower value MPC. Formulators have gradually substituted cheese solids with MPC over the last 10 y (up to levels allowed by in-country standards), and most have optimized their formulations. Also, in some countries, MPC is used in yogurt, dairy desserts, salad dressings, sauces, and other applications. MPC40 and MPC42 are often seen as alternatives to milk powder in basic applications (FDA 2012). Performance and health nutrition Significant quantities of higher concentration MPC (more than 80% protein) and MPI are used in meal replacement and satiety A20 Journal of Food Science r Vol. 80, S1, 2015
Definitions Casein can be broadly defined as the ingredient derived from “separating, washing and drying the coagulum of skim milk and/or other products derived from milk” (Codex Stan 290–1995b). Two distinct products are produced depending on the method of coagulating the protein: Rennet casein is precipitated from milk using the rennet enzyme, and acid casein is precipitated from milk by the development or addition of acid. When used in food products, casein is often further processed into different forms of caseinate, accomplished by raising the pH to within the neutral zone by adding one or more alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, or ammonium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is the most commonly used alkaline additive to produce sodium caseinate. Casein and caseinderived ingredients have long been considered Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA 1979 SCOGS Report 96). Micellar casein is currently undefined by the GTA and the FDA. It is, essentially, an MPC or MPI that has an increased casein-to-whey protein ratio. It might not meet the current guidelines for casein, due to the very different production process
Global market for dairy proteins . . . dairy products from local fresh milk production. The whey industry has developed from being an environmental liability to a key contributor to the dairy industry, and it has taken an innovative and progressive approach to developing products that meet the needs of nutritional and functional applications. MPC is evolving from being a surplus milk production vehicle to a value-add ingredient with specific advantages and applications. Casein will continue to be valuable for a number of specialized applications. Understanding the full array of dairy ingredients and the supply and demand dynamics will help to better plan and control the supply of ingredients in the future.
Production and trade Casein production is estimated at 274000 mt, down from 350000 mt in 2004 (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2010). The largest producers are the EU and New Zealand. Auxiliary suppliers are Belarus, India, China, Ukraine, and Argentina. Casein exports totaled 110675 mt in 2013, with the largest markets being the United States, the EU, and Mexico. New Zealand Author Contributions and Europe have a 34% and 22% share of the world exports, Veronique Lagrange drafted and reviewed the manuscript. respectively (U.S. Dairy Export Council 2014b). Both acid casein and rennet casein are widely used in food products, with the 2nd form largely reserved for the manufacture of cheese References ADPI. 2012. Dairy products utilization and production trends. American Dairy Products Inst. analogs. Elmhurst, Illinois. 88 p. Production of caseinate is often done in-country, from imported ADPI. 2014. 2013 Dairy products utilization and product trends. American Dairy Products Inst. Elmhurst, Illinois. 111 p. caseins, to meet the needs of the local food manufacturing sector. Baer DJ, Stote HS, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV, Clevidence BA. 2011. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight Sodium caseinate has the widest range of applications (from bakand obese adults. J Nutr 141(8):1489–94. ery products to coffee whiteners), while calcium caseinate, with Barton, CL. 2013. Whey protein market opportunities. Datamonitor Consumer. London, United Kingdom 66 p. its intense, opaque, and milky appearance, is preferred in other J, Wijesinha-Bettoni R, Burlingame B. 2012. Protein quality evaluation twenty years after nutritional beverages. In the United States, estimated demand for Boye the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method. Brit J Nutr 108(2):S183–211. casein is 41000 mt and 60000 mt for caseinate.
Uses and Applications Cheese products All casein ingredients are used in process cheese products, although rennet casein is more commonly identified with this category. Performance and health nutrition Caseins have been a major nutritional component in meal replacement beverages, nutritional mixes, nutrition bars, and confectionery products, although replacement by MPC and MPI is occurring in this category due to their superior organoleptic properties. In addition, specialty caseinates continue to have a developing role, due to their nutritional profile and processing characteristics. Functional applications Sodium caseinate, an excellent fat emulsifier, is used widely in food systems that need stabilization of oil/water systems. These include coffee whiteners and creamers, whipped toppings, processed meat products (for binding and emulsification), cultured products, and desserts. Future trends The production and trade of casein products is declining in many developed markets. This is due to the replacement by MPC and MPI, which are easier to produce and generally have better flavor and solubility characteristics for many applications. The market for caseinate continues to develop, though, due to its unique combination of nutrition and functionality characteristics.
Conclusion Milk powders make up the majority of international trade in dairy proteins, due to their ability to balance the supply of fresh
Codex Alimentarius. 1981. Codex standard for infant formula and formulas for special medical purposes intended for infants. Codex Standard 72–1981. Codex Alimentarius. 1987. Codex standard for follow-up formula. Codex Standard 156– 1987. Codex Alimentarius. 1995a. Codex standard for whey powders. Codex Standard 289–1995. Codex Alimentarius. 1995b. Codex standard for edible casein products. Codex Standard 290– 1995. Codex Alimentarius. 1999. Codex standard for milk powders and cream powder. Codex Standard 207–1999. Coker RH, Miller S, Schutlzer S, Deutz N, Wolfe RR. 2012. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals. Nutr J 11:105– 111. FAO. 2012. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO. 2013. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food and Drug Administration. 2012. GRAS Notice (GRN) No. 444. Silver Spring, Maryland. Food and Drug Administration. 2013a. Code of Federal Regulations: milk and cream. Silver Spring, Maryland Title 21(2): Section 131.125. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2013b. Code of Federal Regulations: whey. Silver Spring, Maryland Title 21(3): Section 184.1979. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2014a. GRAS Notice Inventory, GRN No 37. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/fcnDetailNavigation.cfm?rpt= graslisting&id=37. Accessed 2011 August 29. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2014b. GRAS Notice Inventory, GRN No 504. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ucm/groups/fdagov-public/@fdagov-foods-gen/ documents/document/ucm400536.pdf. Accessed 2014 November 21. Food and Drug Administration GRAS Notice 1979 SCOGS Report Nr.: 96 Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm261247.htm. Accessed 2014 August 29. Global Trade Atlas Database, Global Trade Information Systems. Accessed 2014 September 5. Korhonen H, Pihlanto A. 2007. Technological options for the production of health-promoting proteins and peptides derived from milk and colostrum. Curr Pharm Des 13(8):829–43. Macgibbon J. 2014. Whey to go. New Zealand, Ngaio Press. Miller PE, Alexander PD, Perez V. 2014. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr 33(2): 163–75. Moughan, P. 2012. Dietaryprotein quality: new perspectives. Paper Presented at IDF World Dairy Summit. November 6, Cape Town, South Africa. OECD. 2011. OECD-FAO agricultural outlook 2011–2020. Organzization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/site/oecd-fao agriculturaloutlook/48184340.pdf. Accessed 2014 December 2. United Nations. 2013. World population prospects: The 2012 revision (DVD-ROM)Comprehensive Dataset in Excel. New York, New York. Urbina SL, White A, Shaw J, Wilborn C, Brabham B. 2011. The effects of post-exercise whey vs. casein protein ingestion on muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition in older women (50–70 years of age). J Int Soc Nutr 8(Suppl. 1):27. U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2004a. Reference manual for U.S. whey and lactose products. U.S. Dairy Export Council. Arlington, Virginia. 226 p. U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2004b. Whey proteins and immunity. U.S. Dairy Export Council. Arlington, Virginia. 12 p. U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2010. Casein & caseinates. U.S. Dairy Export Council. Arlington, Virginia. 94 p.
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(no precipitation), but is being sold primarily in the performance nutrition market. There is no official reporting of production in any country, and it’s likely to be traded under the same customs code as casein, making any differentiation impossible.
Global market for dairy proteins . . . U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2012a. Global follow-on formula, growing-up milk. Arlington, Virginia. U.S. Dairy Export Council. 64 p. U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2012b. MPC market 2012: production, markets & manufacturers. Arlington, Virginia U.S. Dairy Export Council. 90 p. U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2014a. Dairy ingredients: production & global trade. U.S. Dairy Export Council. Arlington, Virginia. 58 p.
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U.S. Dairy Export Council. 2014b. European Union: the impact of the removal of milk quota in 2015. U.S. Dairy Export Council. Arlington, Virginia. 334 p. USDA. 2014a. Dairy: world markets and trade. Foreign Agricultural Service. 30 p. USDA. 2014b. Production, supply, and distribution online. Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. Available at: http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdhome.aspx. Accessed 2014 September 9.
Intakes of dairy produce show enormous diversity between regions, cultures, and individuals around the world. At the geographic level, intake maps closely onto the distribution of lactase persistence (LP), a genetic trait that allows milk to be consu
Protein content of any source is classically determined through the analysis of its nitrogen content done for more 100 years by the Kjeldahl method, and the obtained result is multiplied by a number named nitrogen conversion factor (NCF). The value o
Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep a
Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain. Given the global import
أحرزت البرازيل والاتحاد الروسي والهند والصين وجنوب أفريقيا – البلدان المعروفة بتجمع "بريك" (BRICS) – تقدماً كبيراً في إنتاج اللقاحات وتنظيمها واستحداثها على مدار العشرين سنة المنصرمة. وفي عام 1993، كانت جميع البلدان الخمس تنتج اللقاحات ولكن العمليات