THE INFLUENCE OE SNAKE-POISON.?BY J. EAYEER.
At 12-10.?Leg partially paralysed. 12-13.?Lying down, beak resting on the ground. 12-13-30.?Paralysed, beak resting its point on tlie ground.
EXPERIMENTS ON THE INFLUENCE OF SNAKEPOISON.
(Continued.) By J. Fayreb, M.D., Professor of Surgery, Medical College of Bengal.
12-14.? Convulsed ; dead in 5 minutes and 30 seconds.
Experiment No. 8. A third chicken was bitten
Cobra in the
at 12-17-30. At 12-18-30.?Fell over; rested the
of its beak
Dr. Eayrer and Mr. Sceva. Experiment No. 1.
15th October.?A fish
length, was bitten by a fresli Cobra, places, on the dorsal and ventral surfaces.
inches in two
11-22.?The fish turned
about ten at 11-20 a.m., in
its side in the water.
Dead in 20 minutes.
large snail (Acliatina Eulica) was bitten Cobra; it immediately withdrew itself within its
order to examine its condition, the shell was broken; it still continued to contract. 12.?No contraction ; nil irritability seems extinct. Dead. 11-45.?In
Experiment No. 3. Two snails of equal size?shells previously broken ; one was It immediately shrank and bitten by a Cobra at 12-28. contracted itself. The other snail was not bitten, and was kept
bitten snail much diminished.
much sooner than
8 p.m.?Not affected ; it lived.
large Dhaniin (Ptyas Mucosus) places by a Daboia. 11-47.?Is partially paralysed; the mouth is wide open; appears unable to move; respiration continues. 11-47.?Moving about slowly. 11-52.?Appears to be recovering. was
bitten in two
12.?More active. 20th October, 6 a.m.?Appears sluggish. 10 a.m.? On being roused, moves slowly; but is weak and stiff.
p.m.?No effect. Became sluggish, and died
at 10-40 p.m., 27tli October.
were the only invertebrate animals I could procure this occasion. The experiments, though not very satisfactory, leave no doubt that the molusc was affected by the poison.
Experimhnt No. 4. A
full-grown near the tail by
bitten in two
surface and the middle of the 12-50.?No effect. 1GM October, 8
the snake lived.
Experiment No. 6. A
half-grown chicken at
fresh Cobra in the
crouched; head drooping,
in 3 minutes and 10 seconds. Experiment No. 7.
A second chicken was bitten in the thigh.
and Mr. Sceva.
2Qtli October.?The following experiments were made with the view of again carefully examining the blood before and after The blood was very carefully examined on three occasions? 1 st, before the animal was bitten. 2nd, whilst it was under the influence of the poison.
3rd, after death. was
Experiment No. 5. Cobra
bitten at 11-40 a.m. in two Daboia Russelli. was
12-50.?No effect. 10th October, 8 p.m.?The snake but there was no marked effect, and A
lost but little of its power in three efforts. The Cobra used in these experiments was not full-grown, but it was very active and vicious.
llecovered subsequently. October 2Gith, 12-47-1.?Bitten
shew that the
Experiment No. 10.
Experiment No. 2.
The bitten snail seemed to lose its
rather smaller than the two
Experiment No. 9.
Bitten at 11-20.
comparison. 12-40.?Irritability of the
The above small Cobra was bitten at 12-35 in two places, on the middle of its body and on the ventral surface, by a large and fresh Cobra.
11-40.?Dead. Died at 11-40.
in the water.
being roused, plunges violently.
in 4 minutes and 30 seconds.
the same Cobra at 12-9-30
confirm his observations.
of any new corpuscle, nor was there any change appearance of importance in the condition of either the red or white globules of the blood. My impressions were in favour of the theory advocated by Professor Ilalford, and if any bias existed, it was certainly for rather than against the explanation he gives of the pathological changes in the blood. Nothing, however, that I have seen after the view in question ; and I am conmany observations supports strained to believe that the change in the blood is of a much
by the microscope. example where it occurs in from 30 to 40 seconds, it is impossible that such developmental changes could have taken place. The cause of death is evidentthe nerve centres through the medium ly an impression made on of the circulation ; but it is, I think, evident also that it is one of a dynamical nature, and not immediately dependent on any structural changes that may, if any do, occur in the vblood, and When death is protracted, can be seen with the microscope. subtle character than Moreover, in rapid death, more
THE INDIAN MEDICAL GAZETTE.
lias thus time to set up blood changes, as in the zymotic poisoning, I can well imagine that the blood, as such, becomes unfitted for the purposes of life, and that death results in consequence of these changes ; but I hare and the cnse
anything to confirm this view of the cause ot post-mortem appearances shew that it is due to asphyxia, from pulmonary congestion or embarrassment. I do not, however, positively assert that such is not the case. I merely record the fact that, up to the present time, I have been unable to discover the blood changes described by Professor Halford. Further investigation may lead me to a different opinion. as
Experiment No. 11. A
bitten in the hind
dog was bitten, and the corpuscles were apparently,
examined before the
The white appearance noted. to the red ones, rather 12.?Not affected.
12-23.?Bitten again in the right hind leg by another Cobra. The snake struck of his own accord. 12-48.?The dog is fully under the influence of the poison ; he is slightly convulsed, lying almost paralysed on the ground.
again examined; no change could be detected. dog died. Blood examined again after death, but no change could be detected. It coagulated firmly when removed from the body after death, which occurred in 63 minutes. The blood
Experiment No. 12. At 12-4
pariah dog was bitten on the right hind leg and by a Daboia. The blood had been previously examined ; there was nothing peculiar in its appearance. The wounds made by the snake's fangs bled freely. 12-18.?Yery much depressed ; staggering; almost paralysed in hind legs. 12-20.?Lying down, head resting on the ground. 12-21.?Cannot rise ; hind legs paralysed. 12-40.?Blood again examined under microscope. No change. on
Blood examined after death.
appearances not changed. this case death occurred in 44 minutes.
kept for 24 hours after death, and it did not coagulate. It is worthy of note that the blood of the dog in the last experiment, poisoned by a Cobra in 63 minutes did coagulate firmly. In neither case did the microscope reveal any structural change in the corpuscular elements of the blood. Experiment No. 13. A
ligature appathigh tightly rently to obstruct the circulation. The limb below the ligature was then bitten by a fresh Cobra at 12-31. 12-33.?Stretches out the leg, and is lame ; wings drooping; it seems to be feeling the effects of the poison. 12-35.?Crouching ; wings spread out; point of the beak resting on the ground. 12-37.?Fully under the influence of the poison, but can still was
be roused. 12-42.?Insensible and is convulsed.
12-47.?Again convulsed, and died. Death occurred in 16 This experiment shews that the pressure of the ligature, although it did not completely prevent the entrance of the poison into the circulation, so far prevented it that death was deferred for 16 minutes. In a fowl of the same size, bitten by a Cobra in the same place, had no ligature been applied, death would probably have occurred within one minute. minutes.
Fayrer and Mr. Sceva. following experiments were made with the view of testing the action of the poison of the Bungarus Fasciatus on animals, and the influence of other snake-poison 011 the Bungarus itself and other poisonous snakes. Present
Experiment No. 14.
full-grown Bungarus Fasciatus, said to dog in the thigh at 1-37 p.m. 1-34?Restless ; moves about, whining. 1-48.?Apparently not much affected. A
fresh, bit a
1-54.?Seems uneasy and restless.
1-58.?Dying down, and getting up in a restless manner. 2 p.m.?Apparently not much affected. 2-10.?Staggers a little ; is evidently uneasy. 2-20.?Seems sleepy ; when roused he moves about, quickly lies down again.
2-38-?Yery drowsy ; breathing hurried. Staggers when he walks ; vomits, and has general tremors. Bitten at 1-37 p.m. Died at 6-5?i.e., in 4 hours and 28 minutes. 6-5p.m.?The
Experiment No. 15. The same
fowl in the
at 1-35 p.m.
1-37.?Fowl runs about much excited. 1-38.?Does not now seem much affected.
1-40.?Apparently not affected. 1-45.?Begun to shew the effects of the poison ; staggers, runs with its beak almost resting on the ground. 1-50.?Paralysed; has fallen over.
1-57.?Still convulsed. 1-59.?The same. 2-1 p.m.?Dead. Bitten at 1-35. Died at 2-1?i.e., in 26 minutes. Experiment No. 16. Another fowl bitten
at 1-40 p.m.
1-44.?Staggers ; fell 1-45.?Is paralysed ;
with its head on the
cannot rise or move.
1-55.?Agiiin convulsed slightly. 1-57.?Dead?i.e., in 17 minutes. Death was more rapid in this case snake had bitten before. The fowl as the one previously bitten, and its attributed to
than the was
more rapid death may be rapid absorption of the poison, which was by the snake's fangs having entered a vein.
Experiment No. 17. A fowl
slightly by another Bungarus, at 1-50, thigh. At 2-10.?Slightly affected. 2-25.?Sleepy, but can be roused. 2-30.?Very drowsy ; resting the beak on the ground. was
2-45.?Still alive ; it died at 3-45 p.m. These experiments prove that the action of the poison of this snake is not so vigorous as that of the Cobra or Daboia. The nature of its action is probably much the same, but the quan^ tity injected is probably much less, as the poison fang of the
Bungarus is so much smaller than that of the Cobra. The Bungarus Fasciatus, (Bengalee name Sankni), is a black and yellow-banded colubrine snake, and it derives its name from a vernacular name Bungaruni, used in some parts of the
CHOLERA.?BY C. MACNAMARA.
poison, and after death, I failed to detect any structural changes, dangerous, but tlie fang such as are described by Professor Halford. so short that the wound inflicted is superficial. Tliey are I may here note, in anticipation of future experiments on the shy and attempt to escape, but defend themselves fiercely when efficacy of the so-called antidotes, that the application of a attacked, says Guntlier; they lie coiled up, and, when irritated, to the thigh of a fowl bitten by a Cobra manifestly ligature dart in a peculiar manner sideways, uncoiling themselves retarded the entry of the poison into the circulation, and as This is with a the the of though spring. largest species warded off for a time its fatal effects. genus Bungarus ; it attains to a length of five feet or more. It I hope ere long to commence a series of experiments for the has a wide range?Java, the Malayan Peninsula, Burmah, China, purpose of testing the value of various remedies, antidotes, Bengal, and tlie Coromandel Coast. There are several species: prophylactics, &c., proposed from a variety of sources for 1. Bungarus Fasciatus (synonyms). snake-poisoning. This will be the natural sequel to the experiCoast of Coromandel.
Their bite is
ments that have been
Pseudoboa Candidus Boa Krait* Lineata
species of the peninsula of India, I
genus; but believe.
and other the
not found in
Experiment No. 18. A
severely bitten three times, about by a powerful and fresh Cobra, at
8 inches from the head, 1-55 p.m.
either at the time, soon after, alive and well two days later. It died a day or two after, but its thorax and lungs were found filled with blood. The Cobra fang had probably penetrated No
was severely bitten by a fresh Cobra places at 2-10 p.m. No present or subsequent effect was produced. remained quite well.
Experiment No. 20. Another Daboia
foot from the tail at 2-22 p.m. snake remained perfectly well. a
fresh Cobra about
Experiment No. 21.
vigorous Cobras were made to bite each otlier places at 2-35 to 2-37 p.m. No evil result followed ; botli remained quite well. The result of these experiments has been to demonstrate that tlie invertebrata and licematocryal vertebrata are, like the lioematothermal vertebrata, subject to the deadly influence of snake-poison. The molusca, fish, and innocuous colubrine snakes rapidly succumb when bitten by either the viper or the elapida;. The weight of evidence, however, tends to shew that the poisonous snakes have little, if any, power to injure each other, for in none of these last series of experiments was the bite of a Two fresh and
snake fatal to any other venomous snake. The that died after being bitten by a Cobra, probably died from intern&.l ha;morrhage, and not from the poison. In repeated careful microscopical examinations of the blood Of animals before they were bitten, during the action of the venomous
This is the Krait of
living specimen. but not in Ceylon. a
I have not yet succeeded in obtaining found in Bengal, Southern India, and in Assam,
hitherto made with
gating the effect of the poison pathological changes produced.
view of investi-