and hurried

12-10.?Very sluggish, deep



Can hardly stand; gradually became paralysed. 12-18.?In convulsions. 12-20.?Purged, dying. 12-22.?Dead?in 28 minutes. This experiment proved that the cobra poison was active, and not injured by dilution with water. The other experiment proves that it is not neutralised when mixed with Liquor Potas. Experiment No. 3.?A solution of the same cobra poison with equal parts of water. Two drops of this solution injected into a fowl's thigh at 11-55. 11-58.?Fowl drooping, point of beak resting on the ground. 12-2.?Nearly dead. 12-7?Dead? in 12 minutes. Experiment No. 4.?One drop of poison from the 6ame cobra, 3 drops of Liquor Potas : injected into a fowl's thigh at 12-18^ In less than thirty seconds the fowl fell over in convulsions ;

remained in




convulsive movements of the in six minutes.



with occasional

until 12-24. Death occurred

In this case the fowl was of the same size as in Experiment No. 3, about two-thirds grown. Death occurred more rapidly after inoculation of the poison mixed with Liquor Potas : than after that of poison mixed with water. The blood of the bird was examined at 12-40, 16 minutes after death; it coagulated firmly when removed from the body. Experiment No. 5.?One-half drop of cobra poison and two drops of Liquor Potas : injected at 12-20 into a fowl's thigh.



the usual


of the

beak resting on ground. 12-30.?Dying apparently. 12-31.? Convulsed. 12-38.?Dead?in 18 minutes. Pody examined : blood formed a firm coagulum. The dose of poison was very small, it was barely half a drop> with two full

drops of Liquor Potas. Experiment No. 6.?A fowl had about 40 drops of the solution of Liquor Potas : one part, water two parts, injected into the thigh at 12-45. The legs almost immediately became paralysed, or rather rigidly extended. It lay on the ground with a scared look; breathing very much hurried; beak open, feathers ruffled. It remained in this state for several hours, and gradually recovered on the 5th May at 8 a.m. It was alive and well, and nearly regained the use of its legs. Experiment No. 7.?The same quantity of the Liquor Potas: solution injected into a fowl's pectoral muscles at 12-47. T^10 bird


(Continued from page 121J May 5th, 1870.?Poison removed from a largo Gokurrah (spectacled cobra,) and mixed with Liquor Potas : two parts of each: of this solution, about ten drops were injected into a dog's thigh at 11-58 a.m. 12-10.?Kestless. 12-11.?Quite lively, but staggers on the hind legs. 12-13.?Does not seem more affected. 12-21.?Sluggish. Another injection of one drop of poison mixed with three of Liquor Potas: injected into the thigh. Is sluggish, staggers in his gait. 12-29.?Thirty drops of a solution of equal parts of water and Liquor Potas : injected into the thigh. 12-30.?Convulsed. 12-34.?Purged, unable to move, is paralysed. 2-37.?Convulsed. 12-40.?Dead?in 42 minutes. The body was opened about half an hour after death. Tho blood was fluid, but coagulatcd after removal; not as rapidly though, I think, as usual. A syringeful of the blood was injected into a fowl's thigh; the result of this experiment will be noted.* Experiment No. 2.?Equal parts of poison from the same cobra, and water were mixed, and about 10 drops injected into a full-grown dog's thigh at 11-54 a.m. 12-1.?Not affected. *

The fowl did not



assumed the


scared aspect, the feathers

staring, the eye wild, and the beak wide open, with very hurried respiration. It remained in this way for some time, and io about 20 minutes 20 drops of the blood of the dog that died from the mixture of cobra poison and Liquor Potas : were injected into its thigh. It remained in the same condition for some time, but gradually recovered, and on the morning of the 5th May was quite well* Tho object of these two experiments was to test the effect of the Liquor Potas : when injected. Tho symptoms were very well marked, and seemed to cause great distress, though no fatal consequence resulted. So far tho results of tho trial of Liquor Potas : have been unfavourable; the fact of tho poison mingled with the Liquor ^ Potas : before inoculation proving fatal, seems all but conclusive against it as an antidote. Present: Drs. Fayrer and Ewart, and Mr. Sceva.? 14th



Through tho kindness of a friend, I have received a phial of dark-colored, strongly ammoniacal smelling fluid, sent by Dr' Gunston of H.M.S., who says:?" I send the Cape antidote f?r snake bites ; it may have deteriorated* in quality, as I bought it in the Cape in 18G4. I never had occasion to use it, but the

rule is, I




the wound and rub


of tho mi*"

Tho bottle was so carefully stoppered and sealed, and tho annnon'aca^ odour was so strong when opened, that I should think it could not bo?o deteriorated by keeping. *

July 1,




and also to swallow two or three drops. I am not certain of the quantity in either cases, but experiment would decide that. I know for certain that bites from the Cape

ture into



black cobras have been cured by it, and there, every one carries it about when out shooting ; it is firmly believed in." " One of the experiments was to test this anti-



dote." The fluid




small phial

carefully covered with


leather; it was hermetically sealed, and when the stopper was removed a dark-colored, clear, and very strongly ammoniacal fluid



Experiment its




feathers removed from No. 1.?A fowl had the by a Gokurrah (spectacled cobra) with 3'25 p.m. The single in the right thigh at deeply scarified, and some drops

and Was bitten


P'incture was immediately of the fluid well rubbed into the wound. A drop of the fluid diluted with a few drops of water was then poured down the bird's throat. But at 3-26 the fowl was already paralysed. At 3-28, it was quite dead. The blood of this fowl, on being removed from the heart a few minutes after death, coagulated


2.?A half-grown pariah dog was bitten In this case the thigh by the same cobra at 3-30 p.m. Eau de Luce was again tried. Half a drachm sufficiently at 3-33 p.m. 3-34. The dog shows diluted with "water Experiment No.

in the


symptoms of poisoning, he is restless and uneasy. Lies down ; rises again; breathing hurried. Tries to walk ; staggers; hangs his head ; frothing at the mouth. 3-38. Another half drachm of the Eau de Luce administered. 3-40. lias lain down, and is unable to dying. 3-42. Heart still beats,



hut has ceased to breathe. 3-43.?Dead in nine minutes. The blood of this dog coagulated firmly after death. The so-called antidote obviously had not the least effect. Experiment No. 3.?A fowl was bitten in the thigh by the same cobra at 3-46 p.m. The wound was immediately scarified, and Two




Cape remedy immediately administered by the

well rubbed in.

of the

well diluted were

convulsed almost immediately, and was The blood of the fowl exposed in a watch glass, after death, became of a very florid color, and coagulated very imperfectly, after 15 or 20 minutes. There was mouth.

The fowl

dead, in less than




glass having had ammonia in it thoroughly washed. Experiment No. 4.?A fowl was bitten by a cobra, with one fang, in the thigh, at 4-5 p.m. 4-5-30.?Legs paralysed feathers ruffled. 4-7-?Dying, convulsed. 4-8.?Dead. doubt about the watch


but the attendant declares it


Blood drawn into three vessels:





the second

the third a flat glass vessel (top of a of the Cape antidote drops jar); (ammoniacal) three drops of Eau de Luce put into the watch glass. Two or third nothing. At put into the measure glass. Into the 4-49, the unmixed biood was firmly coagulated. The blood mingled an ounce measure


two or three

with Eau de Luce coagulated much sooner, and became very The blood mixed with the Cape antidote remained bright


red, and did not coagulate. Experiment No. 5.?A fowl same

cobra, now


was bitten in the thigh by the exhausted, at 4-44 p.m. 4-45.?Dead,

with the usual symptoms. At 4-52 p.m., blood drawn into three watch glasses, a few drops in each. No. 1. Three drops of the Cape antidote x blood. No. 2. Four drops of Eau de


blood. No. 3. Nothing x blood. These were placed .i?ide and watched for some hours. Nos. 1 and 2 remained fluid. x

No. 3

coagulated imperfectly.

Ihere ments




apparent contradictions in these two expericoagulated firmly when mixed with

in the first the blood

Eau do Luce.

In the second it remained fluid.

Has the shape


of the vessel anything to say to it ? In the first it was deep and narrow; in the second flat and shallow. I do not know that the results of experiments on the coagulability of the blood after death, under any circumstances, is of much import, but I

record those





Fayrer, Chevers, and Ewart, 4th June, 1870.

Present: Drs.

Experiment No. 1.?A small Pariah under the influence of

alcohol; several


and Mr. Sceva.?

brought fully brandy had doses, during the




given, diluted with water, in divided morning. He was bitten in the thigh by a young, one-third grown Gokurrah, at 3 p.m. The snake was with difficulty made to close its jaws, and the bite was doubtful. At 3-10.? No symptoms of poisoning. The dog was bitten in the thigh by a Keautiah full grown, and was very rapidly affected by* the poison, began to stagger; more brandy was administered 3-15.?Dog convulsed. 3-16.?Dead. It has been suggested that persons in a state of intoxication from alcohol are less susceptible to snake poison, and that brandy been

administered to those bitten is useful. I have to a certain extent; but this experiment seems can

do but little in




doubt it is


show that it

the fatal effects of the



animal at all events.


Experiment No. 2.?At 3-20 p.m. three drops of poison recently taken from the same Keauteah mentioned in the last experiment, "were put into a fowl's mouth, being brought in 3-28.?Not affected. the lining membrane. contact with 3-40.?Not affected. 3-56. ?Fowl is drowsy, eyes closed, crouching, cannot stand, resting the point of the beak on the ground. 4-12.?More drowsy. 4-20.?Convulsed. 4-24.?Peculiar convulsion of neck. 4-40.?Lies on its side, appears dying. 5.? Still alive, but completely paralysed. 5-20.?Violently convulsed.

5-43.?Dead. Experiment No. 3.?Half

a drop of poison from the same dog's eye at 3-25 p.m. Immediate excitement resulted, the dog began to rub the eye with his fore-foot with excessive lachrymation. The eyelids began to swell, and the conjunctivae to be chemosed. 3-28.?Eyelids much swollen. The dog is evidently affected constitutionally, he is drowsy. 4 p.m.?Eyelids swollen with great tension. The conjunctiva} in a state of intense chemosis, very drowsy. 4-12.?Lies quiet. 4-40.?Dog was drowsy and partially paralysed; when raised on his legs he cannot stand, falls over. 4-45.?Convulsed. 5-5.? Convulsed. 5-30.?Inspiration ceased, heart's action continuing,

Keautiah put into


5-34.?Dead?in two hours and nine minutes. been taking Liquor Arsenicalis for some time, before the poison was introduced: he was in excellent health and spirits at the time. The arsenic does not seem to have been but





in any way prophylactic. Experiment No. 4.?About four drops of poison from the of water, and same Keautiah were diluted with four parts introduced into a dog's stomach at 3-50 p. m. No effect was manifested by 3-58, when about 8 or 10 drops of poison taken from a large Gokurrah (spectacled cobra) were put into the dog'g on to the tongue and roof of the mouth.

mouth, being dropped

4-2.?The dog runs about uneasily and is restless, is evidently nauseated, tries to be sick. 4-8.?Retching violently. 4-11.? Vomited the contents of his stomach, followed by a quantity no change apparent in of frothy mucus. Mouth examined,

the mucous membrane. 4-15.?Involuntary defecation andinicturation commencing; is very restless; staggers; head rolling from side to side. 4-26.?In convulsions. 4-28.?Dead?in 3? minutes. The body was examined soon after death. The blood




the heart and great


flowed into

oesophagus laid

vessels, and formed coagulum rapidly. The stomach and rugae of stomach deep pink, mucous surface




142 of to

gullet quite blanched,

tenacious and




surface of stomach. The three last experiments quite settle the question of poi-

soning by absorption

of the

poison through rapidly,

In all three animals death resulted





with all the

poisoning well marked. There could be no absorption. The greatest care was taken not to abrade the surface, indeed nothing was done that could have abraded the surface ; and it'was carefully noted at the time that It must, therefore, be admitted that no lesion had taken place. absorbed be through a mucous membrane, snake-poison may and that it is dangerous to apply it to the surface, and that the sucking of a cobra bite might be followed by symptoms of poisoning. This is quite contrary to hitherto expressed opinion, and confirms what I have observed and noted in previous experiments. Experiment No. 5.?The peritoneal cavity of a fowl exposed by a small carefully made incision, no blood lost; a drop or two of Gokurrah poison then applied to the peritoneal surface at 3-53 p.m. The wound was closed, and the fowl released; it ran about for a moment or two, and then began to droop. 3-58.?Drooping, crouching, nodding its head, resting the beak on the ground. 4 p.m.?Symptoms increasing rapidly. Fowl symptoms

of snake

doubt of the

convulsed and fallen over. 4-1.?Dead?in 8 minutes. This proves that the peritoneum also absorbs the poison;


taken that the

poison should not touch the slight spread on the peritoneal surface. Symptoms of poisoning came on rapidly, and death occurred in 8 minutes. This also tends to confirm the absorption of the poison through care


wound ; it was

unbroken membrane. Experiment No. 6.?A full grown Pariah dog was bitten in the thigh by the same Keautiah from which the poison had shortly before been extracted, at 4-43 p.m. Immediately after being bitten the external jugular vein Mras exposed and Liq. Potas. 5i, Aq. ^ii injected into the vein. No effect produced by an

injection, 5 p.m.?Ilind legs weak ; staggers; restless; lies down, and rises again ?, defecations; falls over, and is almost paralysed; tries to use leg3, fails, and he falls over. Twenty drops of Liquor Potas : injected hypodermieally into the thigh ; thirty drops of Eau de Luce with water given by tbe mouth. the


4-5.?Dead?in 22 minutes. In this case the Liquor Potas: seemed to accelerate the action

poison. The snake must have been all but exhausted bit, for all the poison that could be got, had been squeezed out of his glands not two hours before. There were no indications of poisoning for 10 or 12 minutes after the bite, and it generally begins sooner than that; but the poison's action having commenced, its progress was fearfuliy rapid, death taking place in about 12 minutes after the first indication of poisoning presented itself. The Liquor Potas: may not have done any harm, but it certainly did uo good. of the

when he


he continued J

[July 1,


Experiments on Snake Poison.

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