Evaluation of unexplained dyspnea in a young athletic male with pectus excavatum.

Pectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall associated with reduced exercise capacity. Uncertainty ex...
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Pectus excavatum.
In pectus excavatum, a developmental chest-wall deformity that affects approximately one in 400 births, the sternum is depressed inward and the ribs protrude anteriorly. This deformity can compromise pulmonary and/or cardiac function. It can also pro

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The correction of deep pectus excavatum, with the Nuss procedure, frequently require a series of maneuvers that is inherently dangerous. Herein we describe 10 technical modifications to prevent potential complications. These modified techniques have