HHS Public Access Author manuscript Author Manuscript
Menopause. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 01. Published in final edited form as: Menopause. 2016 April ; 23(4): 396–402. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000545.
The Relationships between Psychological Symptoms and Cardiovascular Symptoms Experienced during Menopausal Transition: Racial/Ethnic Differences
Eun-Ok Im, PhD, MPH, RN, CNS, FAAN* [Professor], Jinyoung Kim, PhD* [Assistant Professor], Eunice Chee, BSE** [Research Assistant], and Wonshik Chee, PhD* [Associate Research Professor] *School **School
of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Abstract Objective—The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms in a multi-ethnic group of midlife women while controlling for other influencing factors and to determine the association of race/ethnicity to the relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms.
Methods—This was a secondary analysis of the data among 1,054 midlife women from two Internet Surveys. The instruments included the questions on background characteristics, health, and menopausal status and the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index. The data were analyzed using correlation analyses, chi-squared tests, ANOVA, and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses. Results—The total numbers and total severity scores of psychological symptoms were significantly related to those of cardiovascular symptoms as a whole and in each racial/ethnic group (p