Letter pubs.acs.org/OrgLett

Dual Gold Catalysis: A Novel Synthesis of Bicyclic and Tricyclic Pyrroles from N‑Propargyl Ynamides Yusuke Tokimizu,† Marcel Wieteck,‡ Matthias Rudolph,‡ Shinya Oishi,† Nobutaka Fujii,† A. Stephen K. Hashmi,*,‡,§ and Hiroaki Ohno*,† †

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 270, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany § Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia ‡

S Supporting Information *

ABSTRACT: Various N-propargyl ynamides were converted to bicylic and tricyclic pyrroles by the use of a cationic dual-activation gold catalyst. This reaction starts with the nucleophilic addition of a gold acetylide onto an ynamide triple bond at the β-position of the nitrogen atom. Thus, gold vinylidene is formed, and then a second cyclization takes place. The formation of the gold vinylidene is indicated by the evidence that not only aryl ynamides but also alkyl ynamides undergo C−H activation in these reactions.

Y

Scheme 1. Reactivity of Gold Acetylide onto the Other Alkyne

namides have attracted growing attention as useful building blocks for the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds.1 Recent progress of alkynylation chemistry has been facilitating the development of synthesis and valuable transformations of ynamides under mild conditions.2 Since ynamides are more electrophilic than simple alkynes, nucleophilic additions occur in a regioselective manner at the α-position to the nitrogen atom in most cases. This regioselectivity arises from the lone pair of the nitrogen atom directly bound to the alkyne, which polarizes the ynamide triple bond. Homogenous gold catalysts are well-known as a useful tool for the activation of alkynes3 including ynamides,4 which facilitates addition of various types of nucleophiles onto alkynes. Recently, the groups of Hashmi and Zhang independently reported the novel and fascinating goldcatalyzed cascade cyclization of diynes involving a C−H activation step (Scheme 1).5 In these reactions, a cationic gold catalyst activates two alkynes; the terminal by σcoordination and the internal by π-coordination, thus promoting the nucleophilic attack of gold acetylide onto the internal alkyne. The nucleophilic position of gold acetylide depends on the tether of two alkynes. While 5-endo-dig cyclization takes place with phenylene-,5a,c,d 3,4-thiophenylene-,5k or ethylene-tethered5l diynes (pathway a), 6-endo-dig cyclization takes place with vinylene-5h or 2,3-thiophenylenetethered5f diynes (pathway b). Although the computational studies5j,k suggested that the electronic effect of the tether is important for the selectivity, additional experimental studies are needed to clarify the whole picture of diyne reactions. Our attention was next focused on the reactivity of N-propargyl ynamides. In this case, 5-exo-dig cyclization (pathway c) would be another possible reaction course, considering the general regioselectivity in the ynamide reactions, in addition to the 5endo-dig and 6-endo-dig pathways (a and b). Herein we report © XXXX American Chemical Society

the selective synthesis of bicyclic and tricyclic pyrroles based on gold(I)-catalyzed ynamide cyclization via pathway a. At the outset of this work, we examined the reaction of Npropargyl ynamide 1a with 5 mol % of a gold catalyst. The use of DAC-NTf2 (DAC = dual activation catalyst), which gave good results in the previous study,5f allowed the formation of tricyclic pyrrole 2a in 62% yield (Table 1, entry 1). Though Received: December 16, 2014

A

DOI: 10.1021/ol503623m Org. Lett. XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX

Letter

Organic Letters Table 1. Optimization of Reaction Conditions

a

entry

catalyst (mol %)

conditions

yielda (%)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

DAC-NTf2 (5) IPrAuNTf2 (5) PPh3AuNTf2 (5) SPhosAuNTf2 (5) BrettPhosAuNTf2 (5) t-BuXphosAuNTf2 (5) DAC-PF6 (5) DAC-PF6 (2.5) none

80 °C, 1 h 80 °C, 8 h 80 °C, 15 h 80 °C, 7 h 80 °C, 2 h 80 °C, 4 h 80 °C, 1 h 80 °C, 1 h 110 °C, 1 h

62

Dual gold catalysis: a novel synthesis of bicyclic and tricyclic pyrroles from N-propargyl ynamides.

Various N-propargyl ynamides were converted to bicylic and tricyclic pyrroles by the use of a cationic dual-activation gold catalyst. This reaction st...
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