PUBLIC HEALTH BRIEFS 5. Petersen LR, Helgerson SD, Gibbons CM, Calhoun CR, Ciacco KH, Pitchford KC: Employee smoking behavior changes and attitudes following a restrictive policy on worksite smoking in a large company. Public Health Rep 1988; 103:115-120. 6. Rosenstock IM, Stergachis A, Heaney C: Evaluation of smoking prohibition policy in a health maintenance organization. Am J Public Health 1986; 76:1014-1015. 7. Andrews JL: Reducing smoking in the hospital. Chest 1983; 84:206-209. 8. Rigotti NA, Hill Pikl B, Cleary P, Singer DE, Mulley AG: The impact of banning smoking on a hospital ward. Clin Res 1986; 34:833A. 9. Gottleib NH, Hedl JJ, Eriksen MP, Chan F: Smoking policies among private employers and public agencies in Texas: A statewide analysis. JNCI 1989; 81:200-204.
10. Walsh DC, McDougall V: Current policies regarding smoking in the workplace. Am J Ind Med 1988; 13:181-190. 11. US Department of Health and Human Services: The Health Consequences of Smoking: Cancer and chronic lung disease in the workplace. A Report of the Surgeon General. DHHS Pub. No. PHS 85-50207. Washington, DC: Govt Printing Office, 1985. 12. Rigotti NA: Trends in the adoption of smoking restrictions in public places and worksites. NY State J Med 1989; 89:19-26. 13. Scott WR: Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981; 30. 14. US Dept of Health and Human Services: The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. A Report of the Surgeon General. DHHS Pub. No. PHS CDC 87-8398. Washington, DC: Govt Printing Office, 1985; 298.
Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking among Latinos in San Francisco ELISEO J. PEREZ-STABLE, MD, GERARDO MARIN, PHD, BARBARA V. MARIN, PHD, Abstract: We administered the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale to 547 San Francisco Latinos as part of a random digit dialing telephone survey to evaluate smoking behavior. Both men and women current smokers had the highest mean CES-D levels (9.7 and 14.3, respectively). Logistic regression analysis adjusting for gender, acculturation, education, age, and employment showed that current smokers had an odds ratio of 1.7 (95% CI = 1.3, 2.2) for significant depressive symptoms compared to former smokers (OR = 1. 1; 95% CI = .8, 1.6) and never smokers (OR = 1). (Am J Public Health 1990; 80:1500-1502.)
Cigarette smoking continues to be the most common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the US.' Three community studies2-4 and a study of adolescents5 have reported on possible relations between smoking status and depressive symptoms with conflicting results. Five population-based surveys of Latino communities in California have reported a high rate of depressive symptoms compared to non-Latino White samples.6-" Female gender,6.8.9 younger age,6.9 formerly married status,9-" lower income,6, 10,11 less education,9,'0 unemployment,"I and inability to speak English9 have been associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms. Factors associated with increased depressive symptoms in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were female gender, low educational achievement, low income, and US birth combined with Anglo-oriented acculturation. 12 To date, no study has examined smoking status as it relates to depressive symptoms among Latinos. Address reprint requests to Eliseo J. Perez-Stable, MD, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, Room A-405, San Francisco, CA 94143-0320. Dr. B. Manrn and Dr. Katz are with that same department; Dr. G. Marfn is with the Department of Psychology, University of San Francisco. This paper, submitted to the Journal August 18, 1989, was revised and accepted for publication April 9, 1990. © 1990 American Journal of Public Health 0090-0036/90$1.50
MITCHELL H. KATZ, MD
Although the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among US Latinos is somewhat lower than that for Whites or Blacks, this rate reflects the substantially lower smoking proportions of Latino women compared to men.13-' Increasing acculturation to the mainstream US culture results in more smoking by Latino women, but less among Latino men, and thus may eventually narrow this smoking gender gap.'5 We examined the possible relation of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking status, and demographic variables, within a community survey of Latinos in San Francisco, part of an ongoing evaluation of a community intervention to promote smoking cessation.
Methods Subjects were sampled from the 27 census tracts in San Francisco with at least 10 percent Latinos and representing two-thirds (N = 55,541) of all Latinos (N = 83,373) living in San Francisco according to the 1980 US Census. 16 Telephone prefixes corresponding to the census tracts were identified using a reverse telephone directory and the Mitofsky-Waksbergl7 method for random digit dialing was applied.'8 This method identifies nonworking and other ineligible prefixes in a first stage. A household was eligible if, on the initial question, the person answering the telephone self-identified as Latino or if the majority of residents were Latino. Within a given household, the Latino adult between 18 and 65 years of age who had most recently celebrated a birthday was invited to respond. A structured questionnaire was administered anonymously by trained bilingual interviewers after subjects gave verbal consent. Participants responded in Spanish (69.7 percent) or in English (30.3 percent); 5.5 percent of eligible participants refused to be interviewed. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D)'9 which has been applied in Spanish in other studies with Latinos.6-8." A CES-D score of 16 or more is considered to represent significant depressive symptoms, and validation studies with psychiatric and community samples showed that approximately one-third of persons scoring 16 or more on the CES-D are diagnosed with clinical depression.20,2' Never smokers were defined as persons who had smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their entire life. Gender, age, AJPH December 1990, Vol. 80, No. 12
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education, employment in last two weeks, birthplace, and national background were asked, but marital status was not determined. A five-item acculturation scale with excellent reliability and validity was administered and scores were dichotomized into low (1 to