Dental Implants: An Evolving Discipline
P re f a c e D e n t a l I m p l a n t s a n d Ev o l v i n g Discipline
Alex M. Greenberg, DDS
Modern dental implantology begins with the work of Professor Per-Ingvar Bra˚nemark (1929-2014) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, and Professor Andre´ Schroeder (1918-2004) at the University of Bern, Switzerland. Professor Bra˚nemark was the first to observe that titanium had the unique property of developing a permanent attachment to bone, which he termed “osseointegration.” From this observation, he then had the further understanding that titanium could be utilized as a material for permanent dental implants. At the Toronto Conference on Osseointegration in Clinical Dentistry in 1982, Professor Bra˚nemark gave his landmark presentation that convinced dentists that a new era had dawned for dental implants, which became rapidly adopted as a new method of root form screws. Many other individuals contributed further to the development of modern dental implants, including Professor Andre Schroeder, who published in 1976 early histological evidence of dental implant osseointegration and collaborated with Dr Fritz Straumann of Waldenburg, Switzerland to develop improved dental implant designs. Continued scientific research into the basic science of bone biology, dental implant metal surfaces, and metallurgy has allowed new dental implant developments. Building on the refinements of dental implants themselves
were new developments in bone augmentation through various biomaterials and surgical grafting techniques. Guided tissue regeneration, first reported by Professor Anthony Melcher in 1976, and was initially performed with nonresorbable, and then later with resorbable membranes, revolutionized the ability of practitioners to reconstruct the various bony defects that commonly presented in which implants could not be placed. The development of the indirect and direct sinus lift bone graft by Dr Oscar Hilt Tatum in 1974 opened further frontiers for those suffering from posterior maxillary edentulism. New biomaterials such as rhBMP-2 further improved the possibilities for complex bone graft augmentation of alveolar ridges and reducing the need for major bone grafting. The recent development of office-based cone beam CT imaging technologies and CT-guided surgery, new surgical and prosthetic biomaterials, improved dental implants, and other clinical innovations allow clinicians to further advance their ability to provide patients with partial and total edentulism with a greater variety of simple to complex advanced treatment options. As the field of dental implants has undergone these new developments, it is important for practitioners to have a better clinical and scientific understanding of complications and their management.
Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 27 (2015) ix–x http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coms.2015.03.001 1042-3699/15/$ – see front matter Ó 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Preface We are fortunate that this issue of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America brings together so many outstanding articles in a cohesive presentation of the latest clinical and scientific understanding that we have of dental implants. I am deeply grateful to the many authors for their essential contributions and to the editorial staff at Elsevier for their support of this issue. Dental implantology is truly “an evolving discipline,” as seen by the remarkable advances since the early work of Professors Bra˚nemark, Schroeder, and many others. This issue should be a valuable asset to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons in their clinical dental implant practice.
Alex M. Greenberg, DDS Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Columbia University College of Dental Medicine 630 W 168th st, New York, NY 10032, USA The New York Presbyterian Hospital The Mount Sinai Hospital The Mount Sinai Beth Israel Hospital The Mount Sinai St. Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Private Practice 18 East 48th Street Suite 1702 New York, NY 10017, USA E-mail address: [email protected]