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Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: An Indian Perspective Col M Kanitkar* MJAFI 2009; 65 : 45-49 Key Words : Chronic kidney disease; End stage renal disease

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hronic renal failure (CRF) is an insidious and irreversible condition that eventually progresses to end stage renal failure. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. The disease process is better termed as chronic kidney disease (CKD), in order to encompass the entire spectrum and severity of renal disease. In the past various terminologies have been used to describe its severity from chronic renal insufficiency to end stage renal disease (ESRD). This classification did not include the ‘at risk’ population where intervention could modify the outcome. In order to reduce ambiguity and use more objective terms of reference the new name of CKD was introduced. Chronic kidney disease is defined primarily as an abnormality of kidney function or structure as determined by laboratory tests, urinalysis or imaging tests, which have been present for three or more months. Importantly, the classification system describes the stages according to level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), not serum creatinine levels. This staging uses various clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters [1] and is depicted in Table1. These stages correspond to the severity of kidney function loss and the prevalence of co-morbidities associated with kidney disease. The identification of low GFR states may allow the implementation of simple measures to prevent worsening. For these reasons, it may be prudent Table 1 Stages of chronic kidney disease Stage Description 1 2 3 4 5

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Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR Kidney damage with mild decrease GFR Moderate decrease GFR Severe decrease GFR Kidney failure

GFR (ml/min/1.73 m 2) >90 60-89 30-59 15-29

Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: An Indian Perspective.

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