Case Report J Vet Intern Med 2015;29:732–735

Cavitary Effusion Associated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in 2 Equids M.M. Restifo, D. Bedenice, K.E. Thane, and M.R. Mazan Key words: Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Anaplasmosis; Tick-Borne.

Case 1 15-year-old, 558-kg Quarter Horse gelding was examined because of peripheral edema and bicavitary (pleural and abdominal) effusion, identified via field ultrasonography before referral. Two years earlier, the horse was evaluated for a similar clinical presentation, including peripheral edema, bicavitary effusion, and fever. The gelding was diagnosed with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)a on peripheral blood. He was treated with oxytetracyclineb (approximately 10 mg/kg IV q12h for 5 days) and made a full clinical recovery. Initial evaluation during the most recent episode revealed a normal body temperature, tachycardia (60 BPM; reference range (RR): 26–501), and a normal respiratory rate and effort. Thoracic auscultation identified muffled left-sided heart sounds and bilateral absence of bronchovesicular sounds ventrally. The horse had marked pitting ventral, preputial, and pectoral edema. There were prominent jugular pulses, extending one-half to one-third up the neck. Arterial oxygen tensionc was within reference range. A subsequent serum chemistry analysis revealed low total protein levels (3.9 g/dL; RR: 5.6–7.0) characterized by panhypoproteinemia, but was otherwise unremarkable. Complete blood count (CBC)d analysis revealed mild anemia (hematocrit [HCT] 30%; RR: 32–50), leukopenia (4.8 9 103/lL; RR: 5.9–11.2), and lymphopenia (0.96 9 103/lL; RR: 1.6–5.2), consistent with inflammation. The serum fibrinogen (375 mg/dL; RR: 100–400) and platelet count (159 9 103/lL; RR: 100–400) were within normal limits. No granulocytic inclusions were noted.

A

From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Rd., N. Grafton, MA 01536(Restifo, Bedenice, Thane, Mazan). Corresponding author: D. Bedenice, Dr med. vet., Diplomate ACVIM, Diplomate ACVECC, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, 200 Westboro Rd., North Grafton, MA 01536; e-mail: [email protected]

Submitted August 27, 2014; Revised November 5, 2014; Accepted January 14, 2015. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.12552

Abbreviations: AST BPM CK CSVM EGA F GGT PCR RR SCID

aspartate aminotransferase beats per minute creatine kinase Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine equine granulocytic anaplasmosis fahrenheit gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase polymerase chain reaction reference range severe combined immunodeficiency disease

Abdominal and thoracic ultrasound examination confirmed the presence of moderate, hypoechoic bicavitary effusion, and identified mild dilatation of the liver sinusoids. Bilateral thoracentesis yielded moderate volumes (4 L from the left hemithorax, 3 L from the right hemithorax) of a neutrophilic transudate. As the horse’s clinical signs could be attributable to heart failure, an echocardiogram was subsequently performed. The examination revealed a structurally normal heart with normal cardiac measurements, but mild pulmonic valve insufficiency and mild tricuspid valve regurgitation. Moderate pericardial effusion was present, resulting in irregular motion of the right cardiac chambers, consistent with mild tamponade. Regional epicardial thickening with fibrin accumulation was also noted. An electrocardiogram identified a second-degree atrioventricular block. Subsequent pericardiocentesis yielded 5 L of serosanguinous fluid, which was characterized as a mixed inflammatory exudate with a total protein of 3.8 g/dL (RR:

Cavitary effusion associated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in 2 equids.

Cavitary effusion associated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in 2 equids. - PDF Download Free
109KB Sizes 1 Downloads 13 Views

Recommend Documents


Stat1 negatively regulates immune-mediated injury with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Our data previously demonstrated that A. phagocytophilum induces an immunopathologic response by activating IFN-γ production through th

Transfusion-associated Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a pregnant patient with thalassemia trait: a case report.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an acute nonspecific febrile illness caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Although usually transmitted via tick bite, HGA may rarely also be acquired through transfusion. HGA during pregnancy may

Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.
Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as c

Distinct Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes associated with Ixodes trianguliceps ticks and rodents in Central Europe.
Rodents are important reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis of both medical and veterinary importance. In Europe, this pathogen is primarily transmitted by the Ixodes ri

Detection of tick-borne Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma centrale in Spain.
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes species of medical and veterinary importance. The presence of Anaplasma spp. in ticks from birds, as well as in Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae) specimens collected from cattle a

Dendrimer-enabled transformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the emerging infection, granulocytic anaplasmosis. While electroporation can transform A. phagocytophilum isolated from host cells, no method has been developed to transform

Clinicopathological and molecular findings in a case of canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Northern Italy.
A documented case of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis coupled with the molecular characterization of the etiological agent is reported for the first time in Northern Italy. The patient showed nonspecific clinical signs such as fever and weight loss.

Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in cattle in Tunisia.
Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pa

Identification and Characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Proteins Involved in Infection of the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen transmitted by Ixodes scapularis that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, a high throughput quantitative proteomics approach was used to characterize A. phagocytophilum proteome dur

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis.
The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of human, equine, and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in th