States’ legalization of marijuana has implications for veterinary medicine By R. Scott Nolen

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Veterinarians are likely to see more and more cases of accidental marijuana poisoning, particularly in states where the use of cannabis for human medicinal or recreational purposes has become legal, experts say. Nevertheless, support for cannabis’s potential as a veterinary drug is gaining ground. The American Holistic VMA is the first, and so far only, veterinary organization that officially encourages researching the safety, dosing, and uses of cannabis in animals. This July, the AHVMA adopted a position that states in part: “There is a growing body of veterinary evidence that cannabis can reduce pain and nausea in chronically ill or suffering animals, often without the dulling effects of narcotics. This herb may be able to improve the quality of life for many patients, even in the face of life-threatening illnesses.” The AHVMA cautioned veterinarians to follow state and local laws regarding cannabis.

THC overdose Twenty-three U.S. states and the District of Columbia have enacted laws allowing the use of medical marijuana. Colorado and Washington have also decriminalized recreational marijuana use. While marijuana use remains illegal under federal law, the Justice Department has signaled a

willingness not to challenge states’ marijuana laws so long as they do not conflict with certain federal enforcement priorities. Dr. Justine A. Lee, a diplomate of both the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care and American Board of Toxicology, expects marijuana poisoning will become a more common veterinary diagnosis. She cited a study reported in 2012 in the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care in which cases of marijuana toxicosis at two Colorado veterinary hospitals quadrupled over a five-year period during which the number of state medical marijuana registrations increased by more than 100 percent. Two dogs died after eating baked goods containing tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in cannabis, the study stated. “Veterinarians do need to be aware of how to treat (marijuana poisoning) because it’s a growing toxicity that we are seeing,” Dr. Lee advised. The typical marijuana overdose involves a dog that has accidentally consumed an owner’s drugs or food cooked with THC, according to Dr. Lee, a consultant for the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals’ Animal Poison Control Center. Signs include incontinence, low or high heart rate, respiratory depression, and unconsciousness. Potential adverse effects include seizures, agitation, and pneumonia.


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myself 25 years ago when I first learned about holistic modalities and how they can help our pets,” Dr. Silver recalled. “I also felt like he could use some mentoring from me and offered that to him at that time. So we had a number of telephone conversations about cannabis, about his work, and also about what I’ve been doing in the animal nutraceutical realm,” he explained. Dr. Silver has been studying the phytochemistry underlying the medicinal benefits of cannabis since 2006 when his home state of Colorado legalized the drug for medicinal use. He found several studies in which cannabis, usually injectable THC, had been given to dogs and cats. From this body of data, Dr. Silver says he’s identified potential Research needed starting points for experimental cannabis dosages Still, there’s a segment of the veterinary profesfor clinical applications in dogs and cats. sion that believes cannabinoids can be an effecThe literature shows dogs have the same endotive treatment when a patient isn’t responding to cannabinoid receptors that let humans benefit approved animal drugs. Until Dr. Doug Kramer’s from the therapeutic effects of cannabis, Dr. Silver untimely death in 2013, the small animal practiadded. Dogs have a higher concentration of these tioner from California had been the most visible receptors in the hindbrain, which is why they advocate for veterinary marijuana (see JAVMA, develop more severe neurologic effects, such as June 15, 2013, page 1605). static ataxia, and need to be dosed with THC much Dr. Kramer was careful not to portray cannabis more cautiously than other species do, he said. as a panacea and was well-aware that pets were Those findings are described in a paper Dr. Silver being accidentally overdosed, sometimes with presented this September at the AHVMA annual serious consequences. Like many of his counconference. terparts in human medicine, Dr. Kramer wanted “With this information, veterinarians can make marijuana reclassified from a schedule I controlled a better-informed decision as far as whether to substance to a less restrictive category so the therapeutic claims about the drug could be more recommend, or not, the medicinal use of cannabis in their patients,” he said. “I believe that with easily studied. impartial, objective information about cannabis, Dr. Robert Silver, chief medical officer for a it will help to destigmatize the issue and allow for veterinary nutraceutical company, contacted a more intelligent conversation about this very Dr. Kramer early in 2013 after learning about Dr. Kramer’s interest in veterinary marijuana. “I actually interesting and potentially valuable emerging felt like he was in the same place that I had found therapy for people and their pets.” “Tetrahydrocannabinol has a relatively high LD50 , so the likelihood that the dog is going to die from it is rare,” Dr. Lee explained. “But dogs develop clinical signs at very low doses, so they can become quite symptomatic quite early.” As for anecdotal reports of cannabis successfully treating everything from pain and nausea to anxiety and allergies in cats, dogs, and horses, Dr. Lee doesn’t doubt THC possesses properties effective to treat some conditions in some animals. But the lack of scientific evidence prevents her from endorsing the drug’s use in veterinary medicine. “We don’t know the therapeutic dose. We don’t even know its toxic dose,” Dr. Lee said.


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Courtesy of Mourad Gabriel, PhD

Anticoagulant rodenticide bait pellets at an illegal marijuana cultivation site in fisher habitat

ILLEGAL MARIJUANA CULTIVATION THREATENS ENDANGERED WILDLIFE By R. Scott Nolen The fisher, an endangered member of the weasel family native to California forests, seems an unlikely casualty of the gradual erosion of prohibitions on marijuana use in the United States. Years of habitat loss and trapping have decimated the west coast fisher population, making it a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act. Yet, a new threat to the imperiled fisher has emerged in recent years. Wildlife ecologists have attributed multiple fisher deaths to anticoagulant rodenticide exposure at illegal marijuana farms hidden on public and tribal lands in California. Demand for marijuana has exploded now that nearly half the United States and the District of Columbia have decriminalized marijuana use for medical or recreational purposes. Mourad Gabriel, PhD, a wildlife disease ecologist working in California, says his state has become a magnet for people looking to cash in on this emerging market. “What we’re seeing right now in California is our natural resources are being decimated. People are flocking to California to grow marijuana because it has millions of acres of free public land and free water,” said Dr. Gabriel, who spoke on the issue July 26 at the AVMA Annual Convention in Denver. Dr. Gabriel is executive director of the Integral Ecology Research Center, and he has been studying threats to two California fisher populations for the past six years. In 2012, he and his colleagues reported that toxicology screening of 58 fisher carcasses revealed 46 had been exposed to anticoagulant rodenticides. Of those animals, 96 percent had been exposed to one or more second-generation AR compounds.

No spatial clustering of rodenticide exposure was detected, suggesting the contamination was widespread throughout the fisher’s forest habitat. Illegal marijuana cultivation sites were found to be the source of the rodenticide, which growers use in excess to protect the plants. Dr. Gabriel noted the first confirmed intentional poisoning of a fisher was identified at an illegal marijuana site in Northern California in 2013. Hot dogs laced with a carbamate insecticide had been strung around the area. Necropsy and toxicology screening showed the fisher had died as a result of ingesting poisoned hot dogs. In addition to fishers, Dr. Gabriel said, bear, fox, and other native wildlife carcasses are regularly discovered at these illegal cultivation sites, which are known as “death ring zones.” The ecology of these forested areas is further damaged by clearcutting, water diversion, and the use of massive amounts of high-grade fertilizer, a mean of 2,000 pounds per site, he added. “Clandestine (activity) involving wildlife isn’t something we’re used to in North America, unlike in Africa, where illegal activities such as poaching for ivory and bush meat are very well-established,” Dr. Gabriel observed. He said more research is necessary not only to determine the scope of this environmental and ecological problem but also to inform government agencies, wildlife managers, policymakers, and the public. Funding to decontaminate these sites is limited, with most coming from private donors, according to Dr. Gabriel, who wants to see more support for such efforts.

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AVMF adds to its charitable programs Fund will help donors assist in-need veterinary patients


he American Veterinary Medical Foundation is expanding its reach once again, this time with an emphasis on partnering with veterinary practices to help support the charitable efforts of those practices. The Foundation announced the launch of its Veterinary Care Charitable Fund at its Partnership Breakfast July 27 during the AVMA Annual Convention in Denver. With the fund, the AVMF aims to serve as an umbrella charitable organization to accept donations and make payments directly to veterinarians for care they provide to pets of their clients who do not have the means or ability to afford certain treatments. Michael Cathey, AVMF executive director, explained that clinics often have angel funds to cover specialneeds cases that come through the door. The Foundation, because it is a nonprofit organization, allows contributions to its fund to be taxdeductible—meaning that money will not have to be claimed as income for the veterinarians. Donations received by the AVMF fund for a particular clinic can be used at the veterinarian’s discretion. The AVMF will not charge the annual fee that other organizations with similar programs sometimes do. Instead, the Foundation asks that practices allow a small portion of donated funds to go to other animal care initiatives rather than their practice. “It is going to be a big undertaking, as we’re trying to harness all these practices’ resources to help us fundraise for funds they’ll get back,” Cathey said. He added that more details on the logistics need to be worked out. An example of how the fund could help is allowing the public to donate


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to veterinarians who care for military service dogs. Currently, Veterans Affairs provides veterinary insurance for assistance dogs that serve veterans with physical disabilities but does not cover dogs used for post-traumatic stress disorder and other invisible wounds. Also, the insurance covers only the veterinary care of these dogs after they are placed with a veteran. According to the 2012 Veteran Census Report for Assistance Dogs International of North America, the number of veterans waiting for placement with a service dog was more than 220, and the number of veterans denied a service dog by the VA was 112. Rick Yount, the founder of Warrior Canine Connection, said July 26, “These AVMF efforts are incredibly helpful to support the military and use of man’s best friend to reintegrate people back into society. We have a lot of work ahead of us, and to have a nonpharmaceutical way to address these problems (is) unique and important.”

that the money not be touched for three years so that the money can be invested and grow. In the meantime, she has agreed to give money toward regular events in the area to help these veterinary clients in need. A one-health event in September kicked off the initiative. Dr. Shawn K. Tussey of Beaver Creek Veterinary Hospital in Langley, Kentucky, is a local practitioner who will help develop the follow-up events Photo by Malinda Larkin


By Malinda Larkin

Helping in Kentucky

The AVMF also launched during convention an offshoot of the Veterinary Care Charitable Fund, called the Drs. Chandra and Mahendra Varia Animal Care Fund. Dr. Mahendra Varia (Bombay ’58) was a veterinarian at Martin Animal Hospital in Martin, Kentucky, which is located in an impoverished area. He died earlier this year (see JAVMA, Aug. 15, page 370), and his widow, Chandra Varia, MD, wanted to do something to help animals in his honor. The Varia fund will help practitioners in eastern Kentucky assist low-income clients in affording their pets’ care. Dr. Chandra Varia has asked

Rick Yount, the founder of Warrior Canine Connection, interacts with Huff during his presentation announcing a new AVMF program to help provide funding for veterinary care of military service dogs. His organization uses clinically based canine connection therapy to help wounded veterans. The WCC program has 40 dogs in training right now. It takes two years for a dog to be fully trained, and 40 to 50 volunteer military service members are involved in the dog’s training.

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Photo by R. Scott Nolen

The Drs. Chandra and Mahendra Varia Animal Care Fund will help practitioners in eastern Kentucky assist low-income clients in affording their pets’ care. Chandra Varia, MD, (second from left) was on hand for the announcement at the AVMF Partnership Breakfast, July 27 in Denver.

America’s Favorite Veterinarian

In other AVMF news, Ginger Brainard, AVMF board member, announced July 26 the 20 finalists for America’s Favorite Veterinarian. These individuals were selected by an AVMF review panel from more than 700 nominees. Nominations were submitted online by clients, who were asked to include a brief essay explaining why their veterinarian deserved recognition for his or her work. The committee evaluated nominees on the basis of the nominators’ essays, the veterinarians’ responses to questions about their practices

Photo by R. Scott Nolen

Charity leader recognized for efforts Michael Cathey was honored with the first American Veterinary Medical Foundation Chair Impact Award by Dr. Richard P. Streett, outgoing AVMF board of directors chair, for his dedication to increasing the Foundation’s charitable contributions and programs. “In the last seven years, we have come a long way. It’s been a team effort, but there’s one individual who has shown guidance to get us that way. It all trickles back to one person who has cracked the whip and stayed on point,” Dr. Streett said. Michael Cathey Cathey has served as AVMF executive director since August 2008. Since then, the Foundation has gone from a one-star rating from Charity Navigator to earning a four-star rating for the past three years. The AVMF also increased its revenue from less than $1 million in 2008 to $8.5 million in 2013, and the budget spent on programs and services went from 50 percent to 91 percent in that time frame. Previously, Cathey worked six years at the National Safety Council as executive director of development. While at NSC, he launched a refocused and restructured development operation and led the organization in successfully implementing its first $1 million event. Before then, Cathey had a 17-year stint with the Boy Scouts of America. His final position there was director of major gifts and planned giving with the National Capital Area Council in Washington, D.C. He grew up on a farm in eastern Oklahoma, joined the Boy Scouts, and became an Eagle Scout.

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as well as the Varia fund once it begins awarding money. The program will be concentrated in five counties in eastern Kentucky. In Floyd County, there are only three veterinary hospitals, which have struggled to develop angel funds. Also, if there is need in other parts of the state, say for disaster relief, the funds could be allocated there to meet the demand. “When you look at the skeleton of the project, you find we have bridged differences in religion, age, and geography. The advent of the program is what I hope to be one of many set up around the country,” Dr. Tussey said. “It shows that the profession is a genuine profession and does things to help people and animals. Whatever the details, this program will be extraordinary.”


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and professional philosophies, and other criteria. The list of finalists is available at www. Voting to select the winner of America’s Favorite Veterinarian lasted from July 26-Sept. 1. The winning veterinarian will be announced later this fall. Dr. Carlos Campos, last year’s winner, said the award has changed his life professionally and personally. For example, since July 2013, his practice, San Francis Veterinary Hospital in Spring Hill, Florida, has grown from three doctors to potentially six by the end of this year, and he has plans to move into a new facility twice the size of the original. Dr. Campos teared up during his speech July 27 when recounting how

his wife, Lisa, helped put him through veterinary college and the amazing journey he’s had to get to where he is today. “My hope is to bring exposure to the AVMF on the things they do for the things we veterinarians do every day. America’s Favorite Veterinarian could have gone to anyone. I was just the lucky recipient, and I know the 20 new nominees are just as deserving as I am,” he said. Mobile exhibit, service events

The “Animal Connections: Our Journey Together” traveling exhibition, another project sponsored in part by the Foundation, made a stop at the AVMA convention, too. “Animal Connections” is a free mobile

exhibition on an 18-wheel truck that introduces visitors of all ages to the complex bond between humans and animals, highlighting the critical role veterinarians play in ensuring the health of both. The AVMA, the Smithsonian Institution, and Zoetis are also co-sponsors. And finally, Our Oath in Action service events will take place once again on Make a Difference Day, Oct. 25, in Alabama, California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Oregon. This is the second year since the service event went nationwide, and this year the focus is on hosting clinics for low-income clients. These activities will once again be co-sponsored in part by the AVMF and Hill’s Pet Nutrition.



A Rocky Mountain Evening at the

OF NATURE&SCIENCE A DENVER RockyMUSEUM Mountain Evening at the

Photo by Malinda Larkin


A hear ty barbecue dinner under the watchful eye of wildlife—stuffed, not live— greeted attendees of the American Veterinar y Medical Foundation’s fundraiser July 25 during the AVMA Annual Convention in Denver. “Get Back to Nature with the AVMF” at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science cele brated the Foundation’s work supporting the profession and animals.


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New AVMF scholarships created as others end By Malinda Larkin

Millions awarded

The AVMF took some time during the AVMA Annual Convention this past July in Denver to announce the beneficiaries of its scholarship programs. The AVMF/Merck Scholarship program had 20 veterinary student recipients who each got $5,000. Plans are in progress—but not yet confirmed—to continue the program another year and to expand it to some international schools. The Foundation also handed out 21 aquatic animal medicine scholarships totaling $20,000, an amount that has grown in recent years. Michael Cathey, executive director of the Foundation, recognized Zoetis for the Zoetis/AVMF Veterinary Student Scholarship Program, which over the past five years awarded $3.625 million through nearly 1,600 scholarships to second- and third-year students enrolled at AVMA COE– accredited universities in the U.S. and Caribbean. This was the last year the AVMF administered the program; the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges has taken it over. According to an AAVMC press release earlier this year, “Zoetis chose to partner with AAVMC on the basis of the organization’s proximity to the students they are attempting to assist with the scholarship program. AAVMC works closely with the college administrators and students that are involved with the program.”

At the same time, the AVMF has taken over a scholarship program previously administered by the AAVMC: The Harold Wetterberg Scholarship. This program awards scholarships to current or former residents of New Jersey—or those who have graduated from a New Jersey high school or university—who are enrolled in postgraduate education in veterinary medicine. The first of the AVMF/Wetterberg Foundation Scholarships, totaling $75,000, went to seven students. Food animal program sunset

The AVMA/AVMF Food Animal Veterinarian Recruitment and Retention Program has reached its end. The economic assistance program was created to provide student loan debt forgiveness to bring more veterinarians into food animal practice. The program’s selection committee chose five individuals in 2010 to receive up to $100,000 each over a fouryear period. They are Drs. Austin Ayars (Ohio State ’07) of Phoenix; Scott Morey (Kansas State ’10) of Concordia, Kansas; Shaw Perrin (Ohio State ’10) of Goshen, Indiana; Kay Russo (Cornell ’10) of Stephenville, Texas; and Conrad Spangler (Minnesota ’09) of Dalhart, Texas. Mean student debt for the recipients was about $150,000. The AVMF administered the application process and payments for the FAVRRP. The Foundation also assisted the selection committee in choosing recipients. Each winner agreed to work in a qualified U.S. food animal practice—i.e., a practice that derives half or more of its revenue from food animal services—until 2014. The recipients received payments that could be applied to their student loan debt for every 12 months of continuous practice, assuming they remained in a qualifying practice. Drs. Morey, Perrin, and Russo ultimately met all the criteria. The FAVRRP’s co-sponsors were Zoetis, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Elanco Animal Health, Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Phibro Animal Health, the AVMF, and the AVMA. No plans are in place to repeat the program; the three final installment checks will be mailed this fall. In all, the AVMF distributed $2.5 million from June 2013June 2014 in student activities, which largely comprised veterinary student scholarships.

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The American Veterinary Medical Foundation is ready to start taking applications for the new Auxiliary to the AVMA Legacy Endowed Scholarship Program. The program will begin awarding $1,000 scholarships to one student at each of the U.S. veterinary colleges next spring. The fund originated in July 2013 when the Auxiliary transferred $2 million to the AVMF to establish the endowed scholarship program. Annual proceeds from the endowment will support veterinary student scholarships in the coming years. Applicants must be, among other things, a U.S. resident, a second- or third-year student at an AVMA Council on Education–accredited veterinary school, and a member of the Student AVMA, and must have demonstrated academic excellence, financial need, and leadership abilities. Applications are available at; the submission deadline is Oct. 15.

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AVMF chair service-oriented

Assistance Teams, funded by the AVMF, and the Foundation’s Saving the Whole Family and Our Oath in Action initiatives. A goal he has as AVMF chair is to encourage and promote the work of the VMATs, which are prepared to deploy to states when called on. Dr. John R. Brooks That’s why he says memorandums church, in his community, and in orga- of understanding for each state are nized veterinary medicine, including critical. the AVMA board from 2005-2011. Prior Dr. Brooks says he also hopes to to that, he represented Maryland in the continue the work of outgoing chair Dedication to lead AVMA House of Delegates for about 14 Dr. Richard P. Streett in a way that will Dr. Brooks grew up on a hog farm years and chaired the House Advisory move forward the existing goals and north of Baltimore, which instilled in visions for the charity. He anticipates him an abiding affinity toward agricul- Committee from 2004-2005. He spent most of his career in a doing this by maintaining the AVMF’s ture and large animal medicine. close relationship with the AVMA and After earning a preveterinary degree, mixed animal private practice in the Baltimore area as owner of Fork increasing its grassroots support withDr. Brooks had the option to join the in the veterinary community to build a Navy for flight training or go to veteri- Veterinary Hospital, where he was a solo practitioner. Dr. Brooks left his reputation as a charity that advocates nary school. He chose the latter and for and represents practitioners. was accepted into the University of the clinic in 2003 when he was appointed deputy secretary of the Maryland “I’ve been around organized veteriPhilippines, receiving his DVM degree Department of Agriculture, a position nary medicine now for 25 years, and in 1974. he held for four years. I know at times the Foundation has “It didn’t have all the bells and During his time at the Maryland struggled in times past with identity whistles, but it gave me a good, basic Department of Agriculture, Dr. Brooks and internal issues and leadership. education. Years later, my experience would often remind his colleagues One of the greatest commitments for proved to be an absolute significant during tabletop exercises that agricul- me going forward is to make sure the advantage for me,” Dr. Brooks said. “I ture is the “Achilles’ heel of the U.S.” AVMF becomes the advocate for all got to see firsthand issues of major “There needs to be an emphasis on veterinarians,” Dr. Brooks said. importance, such as agricultural secuHe continued, “We are like a candle rity issues, hog cholera, and rinderpest. food production security. Whether or not it’s an intentional disaster or under a basket. I want to remove that I was able to be directly involved in natural disease, the ability for us to basket and get our light to shine. We ongoing issues there that allowed me train community members and first are and should be the go-to charity to develop a grounding few stateside responders is critical,” Dr. Brooks said. for the care and welfare of animals. veterinarians could experience, or We are the only animal advocate frankly, would never experience.” charity directed predominantly by Dr. Brooks also developed a passion Getting the word out for service. He has served on a numUnsurprisingly, he’s taken great inter- veterinarians. There’s a lot to be said for that.” ber of boards and committees at his est in the AVMA Veterinary Medical Dr. John R. Brooks of Kingsville, Maryland, has long been a part of organized veterinary medicine, but now he’s focusing on leading its charitable side. Four years ago, Dr. Brooks chaired the AVMA Board of Directors. Now he’s chair of the American Veterinary Medical Foundation’s board of directors, following his appointment during the AVMA Annual Convention in July in Denver. Dr. Brooks joined the AVMF board in 2006 at the encouragement of former AVMF chair Dr. Robert E. “Bud” Hertzog. From the start, Dr. Brooks has been involved with the Foundation board’s subcommittee on disaster and emergency issues, which he says “dovetailed into my education in veterinary medicine and my passion.”

Photo by R. Scott Nolen


By Malinda Larkin


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SAVMA sees chapter program further bolstered Member benefits big focus at SAVMA HOD By Malinda Larkin and Amanda Lee Dimascio, The Vet Gazette editor Member task force

But first, the SAVMA HOD received some exciting news at the start of its meeting. The ALL for Students program— with ALL being an acronym for Achieving, Leading, and Learning—will be extended for another year. The program, by which the AVMA, AVMA PLIT, and SAVMA are providing support for student chapters of the AVMA, will also receive $100,000 in additional funding from the AVMA Group Health & Life Insurance Trust. In all, $333,000 will be distributed among the 32 student chapters and the one associate organization in the SAVMA HOD for the 2014-2015 school year. The American Veterinary Medical Foundation will distribute the funds. The pilot program was extended on the basis of results of program evaluations. The main categories for use of funding have been community outreach, professional development, wellness, and leadership events. Students are in charge of determining how best to use the money for their chapters.

SAVMA delegates later heard from the Task Force on Member Benefits as it presented its findings, which were more than a year in the making. At the beginning of 2014, the task force surveyed all students attending AVMA Council on Education–accredited schools, regardless of their SAVMA membership status. There were 1,314 respondents, 96 percent of whom were SAVMA members, and the students made clear they wanted to see more scholarships and potentially more perks to being a member of SAVMA, such as insurance discounts. Respondents expressed interest in having each student chapter of the AVMA create its own benefits, unique to that chapter’s students’ needs. On a national level, students would like to have more information with regard to AVMA PLIT and AVMA GHLIT. Respondents said they would prefer an easier way to apply for PLIT student liability insurance and that many are not aware of PLIT until their fourth year, despite student representatives being at most schools. Students suggested creating an online form that could be submitted electronically, speeding up both the application and payment process. With regard to JAVMA, respondents requested the option of a tablet or mobile version and at a discounted rate. SAVMA members currently pay a discounted rate of $40 a year for a print subscription and have access to the online version through their university library website.

Student AVMA President Ricci Karkula (Texas A&M ’15) tells the SAVMA House of Delegates that the ALL for Students program will be extended for another year.

Delegates representing 33 U.S. and Caribbean veterinary schools attended the two-day SAVMA House of Delegates meeting.

Photos by R. Scott Nolen

ALL for Students


At its recent meeting, the Student AVMA House of Delegates intended to answer an important question: What more can the association offer to members? Not only were member benefits discussed by the student delegates July 27-28 during the AVMA Annual Convention in Denver, but also, they were the top agenda item for delegate committees.

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SAVMA officers plan to overhaul their organization’s social media presence in the near future. Facebook pages for SAVMA and its publication The Vet Gazette already exist along with a SAVMA Twitter account and a SAVMA page on the AVMA website at The goal will be to overhaul these to make the navigation and visuals more pleasing and functional. The goal is to complete the work by the next SAVMA Symposium in March 2015. Extending student scholarships

SAVMA members received more good news with the announcements concerning new or expanded scholarship programs. Information Technology Officer Matt Sellers (Oklahoma State ’15) developed a contest challenging schools to create a video about benefits of membership in SAVMA and student chapters of the AVMA. The schools with the most creative videos will win money for their chapter. Also, the SAVMA Animal Welfare–Human Animal Bond Committee will join with AVMA to give travel stipends to 25 students to attend the 14th Annual Intercollegiate Animal Welfare Judging/Assessment Contest, which will be held this November at Michigan State University. The SAVMA Education and Professional Development Committee will extend its North American Veterinary Licensing Examination Study Package Scholarship, funding NAVLE study materials for more third-year students seeking aid. And the SAVMA Integrative Communications and Diversity Committee increased its funding request for travel grants for students involved with SAVMA, a student chapter of the AVMA, or Student Associates of the AVMA (the associate organization in the SAVMA HOD) to allow students to

travel to any conference focused on communication in veterinary medicine. In other SAVMA HOD action, members approved increasing startup funding to SAVMA Symposium host schools from $30,000 to $50,000, approved adding the symposium fundraising chair and the symposium treasurer to the list of positions eligible for symposium scholarships, created a task force to review the SAVMA governance documents, and changed the name of the International Veterinary Exchange Committee to the International Veterinary Experience Committee. A look ahead

SAVMA delegates welcomed Dr. Rebecca Stinson (Georgia ‘02), the new AVMA vice president. In her new role, Dr. Stinson will serve a two-year term on the AVMA Board of Directors from 2014-2016. During this time, she will attend the SAVMA House of Delegates meetings and visit veterinary colleges. Dr. Stinson has a personal connection to SAVMA, having served as SAVMA president from 2001-2002 and as SAVMA secretary from 2000-2001. In her address to the SAVMA House, she emphasized that she knows what it’s like to be a delegate and has a passion for veterinary student issues. The SAVMA Executive Board welcomed the following newly elected members: Ilana Yablanovich (Pennsylvania ’16), secretary-elect; Eric Nickerson (California-Davis ’16), treasurer-elect; Kirk Kasuya (St. George’s ’16), information technology officer–elect; and Stephen Marsh (Texas A&M ’16), The Vet Gazette editor–elect. The next meeting of the SAVMA HOD will take place at the SAVMA Symposium hosted by the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, March 19-21, 2015.

AVMA staff member added to work with students The AVMA Membership & Field Services Division recently welcomed Jackie Ross as the new student program coordinator. Her job responsibilities involve working with the Student AVMA and student chapters of the AVMA. Ross joined the AVMA following seven years with the American Diabetes Association, where she managed the nonprofit’s grassroots advocacy efforts, communications, and website and coordinated its Chicago Diabetes EXPO. She was awarded the National Reaching People Award in 2013 for her efforts to strengthen community outreach for the association. Ross joined the AVMA July 25 and attended the Student AVMA House of Delegates meeting July 27-28 during the AVMA Annual Convention in Denver. Jackie Ross


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Future Leaders focus on career transitions, wellness By Malinda Larkin Future Leader Dr. Heather Fowler, “and considered the typical questions and concerns that go along with that, like ‘Is it really necessary to go back to school?’” The user-friendly content provides insight into subjects such as personal assessment, career options, and successful marketing as well as an introduction to Prosper, the piggybank mascot that represents “change.” Veterinarians browsing the new website are likely to fall into three categories: young veterinarians out of school two to five years, midcareer professionals looking for different career paths or feeling burned out, and veterinarians with a long track record of success who want to give back and make a difference in another capacity. Up to 10 veterinarians with less than 15 years of experience are chosen annually to serve as Future Leaders. The program also brought in as mentors this past year Drs. Gary Vroegindewey, director of the onehealth program at Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine, and Valerie Ragan, director of the Center for Public and

Corporate Veterinary Medicine at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. Members of the new 2014-2015 class are as follows: Drs. Erin Brannick of Newark, Delaware; Caitlin DeWilde of St. Louis; Erin Frey of Raleigh, North Carolina; Tracy Gluckman of Phoenix; Kris Helke of Charleston, South Carolina; Jeremy Keen of Jackson, Tennessee; Michelle Larsen of Phoenix; Stephanie L. Mont of San Antonio; Matthew D. Rosenbaum of Germantown, Tennessee; and Julie Stafford of John Day, Oregon. Their anticipated project will focus on wellness. “There are many topics related to wellness that permeate our lives as veterinarians. I am excited to spend the next 10 months creating some tools to recognize these issues that are often left for us to muddle through alone,” Dr. Larsen said. “The year ahead will be challenging, but that makes the potential growth opportunities personally and professionally limitless.” The Future Leaders Program is sponsored by Zoetis.


Members of the 2013-2014 Class of Future Leaders attend the press conference announcing their accomplishments and the next class of Future Leaders.

Photo by Matt Alexandre/Robb Cohen Photography

The AVMA Future Leaders Program had another successful year, culminating in a half-day symposium during the AVMA Annual Convention focusing on the theme of career transitions, which the 2013-2014 class had chosen to explore. On July 27, Dr. Clark K. Fobian, 20132014 AVMA president, announced the 2014-2015 class of Future Leaders. Earlier in 2014, the 2013-2014 Future Leaders conducted a random survey of 2,000 AVMA members. Of the 17 percent who responded, close to a third indicated they were considering a career transition in the future. Most of them were looking to move from clinical practice into either industry or academia. The goal of the symposium was to illustrate to veterinarians in any stage of their career how they can transition away from traditional clinical practice if they so desire. Also, the sessions touched on stumbling blocks that have been hit by those who have gone through the process before, said Future Leader Dr. Nina R. Kieves, who is completing a postdoctoral fellowship in canine performance medicine and surgery at Colorado State University. As part of their yearlong program, the Future Leaders seek to develop tangible, timely, and useable resources for veterinarians. In addition to the symposium, the group hosted a luncheon July 28 during which attendees could rotate among veterinarians who had made career transitions to gain pearls of wisdom. The Future Leaders also created an online toolkit to provide information to AVMA members interested in beginning the career transition process, available at www.avma. org/careerchange. “We brainstormed over the tangible process of making a career move in veterinary medicine,” said

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Women taking the lead Speakers discuss barriers, solutions at WVLDI sessions


Story and photo by Malinda Larkin That said, change is hapLast year’s AVMA Annual pening. In the AVMA House Convention proved notable of Delegates, for example, in the long-term advance31 percent of the HOD is ment of women in veterimade up of women—reachnary leadership positions, ing that critical tipping and this year looks to be point—yet only two of the meaningful as well. 15 voting members on the At the 2013 AVMA conAVMA Board of Directors are vention, Dr. Karen Bradley women. stood for re-election for In veterinary academia, the AVMA House Advisory only six of 30 U.S. veterinary Committee. She was among Drs. Stacy L. Pritt (left) and Karen Bradley, co-founders of the Women’s colleges have female deans. five veterinarians who ran for three slots, and not only Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative, encourage their female And only 25 percent of tencolleagues to run for volunteer leadership positions. ured professors are women, was she not re-elected—a according to the Association rarity—but also, all the open of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. seats on the HAC were filled by men. In addition, Dr. Stacy Both Dr. Smith and Kumble acknowledge the reasons L. Pritt had run for AVMA vice president the previous year behind the female leadership gap are multifactorial and but was defeated by Dr. Walter Threlfall. break them down into four categories: systemic, cultural, Drs. Bradley and Pritt decided immediately following the economic, and psychological. convention in 2013 to turn their defeats into an opportuSystemic barriers are those where women aren’t as likely nity when they formed the Women’s Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative, which is meant to spur more wom- as men to have chances to advance. For example, more women are associates, and associate veterinarians typically en into participating at higher levels of the profession. have less autonomy than practice owners to participate in There’s already been some progress with the election organized veterinary medicine. of Dr. Rebecca Stinson as the 2014-2016 AVMA vice presiCultural barriers can be stereotypes, such as women dent during the AVMA House of Delegates regular annual being known for taking care of others first. Women exhibit session. traits of being more nurturing and collaborative comTo encourage more women to pursue practice ownerpared with men, who tend to be more self-promoting and ship or other positions of leadership, the WVLDI planned a assertive. number of events for this year’s convention. On July 25, Dr. “It’s great when men get female traits, but there’s pushDonald Smith, former dean of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, and Julie Kumble, acting CEO of the back when women take on male traits. So we get pushback Women’s Fund of Western Massachusetts, hosted a Women’s from the outside or even from within ourselves,” Kumble said. Leadership Development Workshop and Interactive Economically, barriers still exist, with women making less Laboratory, which was co-sponsored by the AVMA and Ceva Animal Health. Participants discussed where they perceived than men, whether because they’re less willing to negotithe women’s leadership gap to be and what could be done ate, they are more likely to take time off, or their work is undervalued. about it. And finally, psychological barriers manifest when women “Research shows that when about 30 percent of a group tend not to promote themselves and are stymied by the is made up of women, the discourse, values, profitabil“perfection complex,” which makes them think they need to ity, and working style of the entire organization change,” be the perfect candidate for a position before they apply or Dr. Smith said. This is true for political groups, corporate that they should wait for the perfect alignment of circumboards, and other groups. In four sectors of veterinary medicine—academia, private stances rather than take a risk. Dr. Lindsay F. Mathre (Colorado State ’08) is an associate practice, organized veterinary medicine, and industry— veterinarian at Greenbelt Veterinary Hospital in Midland, things are still coming up short, Dr. Smith said. 738

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careers and what they are doing about the common setbacks they face. So what can be done about these barriers? Dr. Smith and Kumble spent the last two hours of their four-hour session coaching the 30 attendees on how to improve their negotiation skills and about the importance of mentorship. “Mentoring is one of the most critical aspects to professional growth,” Dr. Smith said.

Sessions explore issues in supply of veterinarians


Texas, who attended the WVLDI workshop because she would like to further her opportunities with leadership. She added that she thinks women generally sell themselves short. “Women don’t ask,” Dr. Mathre said. “We feel like we need to be recognized instead of rightfully asking for what is ours.” She said the workshop was valuable because it allowed her to hear what other women are experiencing in their

Story and photos by Katie Burns The audience overflowed the room for a three-hour series of sessions July 28 at the AVMA Annual Convention about whether there is an oversupply of veterinarians—and what should be done if such an oversupply exists. The panelists were Dr. Dennis McCurnin, Dr. James Wilson, Mark Cushing, Dr. Dennis Lawler, and Dr.

Mark Cushing

Paul Pion. Dr. Alice Villalobos was the facilitator. Each panelist gave a presentation, and the question-and-answer period at the end ran overtime with impassioned discussion. Among the presentations were Cushing’s talk on “Alleged oversupply of veterinarians” and Dr. Pion’s talk on “Ethical issues relating to the oversupply (‘excess capacity’) of veterinarians.” Cushing, a lawyer with the Animal Policy Group, said the low unemployment rate of veterinarians means there is no oversupply. “We don’t have a duty to scare undergraduates with bad news,” Cushing said. “There’s a lot bigger picture to share.” He said the AVMA’s 2013 U.S. Veterinary Workforce Study found excess capacity in the veterinary industry, not an oversupply of veterinarians. He pointed out that many industries have the capacity to produce more than they are producing. Many small animal practices are doing very well, Cushing said. He sees opportunities ahead with the growing U.S. population and in the high proportion of pets not currently receiving veterinary care. Dr. Pion, co-founder of the Veterin ary Information Network, said the problem is not only the quantity of employment but also the quality. He summarized some of the questions that the panelists raised. Is the ratio of veterinarians’ educational debt

to income sustainable? Does the veterinary community have a responsibility to maintain or increase the value of a veterinary degree? How have economic realities and the actions of groups led the profession to the current situation? Dr. Pion said diversifying veterinarians’ roles would be good for the profession and for society, but he believes the need is limited because others can fill roles in areas such as global health. He agreed that the profession should tell the whole story, good and bad, to aspiring veterinarians. The VIN Foundation has started a website,, to tell that story. Dr. Pion said the profession should do more public relations to increase demand, but he believes veterinary care will remain a luxury for many pet owners. He said the profession should not be afraid to talk about the supply side or to talk with veterinary colleges about the perils of overexpansion. He said, “Just the fact that we can say we absorb all graduates does not mean we are OK.” Michael Dicks, PhD, director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, said after the convention that the discussion of the supply side is occurring in various venues and will continue during the Oct. 28 AVMA Economic Summit.

Dr. Paul Pion

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Symposium covers macro- and microeconomics plus finance


By Katie Burns A symposium on veterinary economics July 27 at the AVMA Annual Convention provided a basic grounding in macroeconomics and microeconomics for veterinarians and offered tips for practitioners on using financial ratios to improve financial performance. Michael Dicks, PhD, director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, spoke about “How the economy affects you—And, what you can do about it.” He emphasized a need for veterinarians to comprehend and respond to the business cycle. “You’re not powerless,” Dr. Dicks said. “You can understand what is happening to that macroeconomy and where it’s going and understand what you should do to prepare yourself for where that economy is going.” Employment is a driver of consumer spending, Dr. Dicks said. He showed maps of unemployment by county over recent years to illustrate how unemployment increased and then decreased, although the rebound did not translate to every county.

Dr. Dicks described factors in the peaks and troughs of the business cycle. He said veterinarians can follow economic indicators to help anticipate upturns and downturns and position themselves accordingly. Right now, he said, there is no sign the country is heading toward a recession. Bridgette Bain, PhD, statistical data analyst in the AVMA economics division, spoke about “The 3 vertically related veterinary service markets.” Dr. Bain said there are three veterinary industry markets: the market for veterinary education, the market for veterinarians, and the market for veterinary services. These markets interact via prices. Dr. Bain said the market for veterinary services has two unique characteristics: pet owners with more money will spend more on veterinary services, and owners’ varying views of pets affect their willingness to spend. The question-and-answer period focused largely on the painfulness of market adjustments to balance the supply of and demand for veterinary

education, veterinarians, and veterinary services. “How to improve financial performance” was the title of the talk by Ekaterina Vorotnikova, PhD, an assistant professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology at the University of Idaho College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. According to the presentation, financial ratios describing the flow of capital provide simple diagnostics to identify the causes of poor financial performance. One key financial ratio is return on equity, which is net income divided by equity. This ratio encompasses three components: operating efficiency, asset use efficiency, and financial leverage. Operating efficiency is measured by profit margin, which is net income divided by sales. Asset use efficiency is measured by asset turnover, which is sales divided by the cost of investment. Financial leverage is assets divided by equity.

AVSAB adopts position paper on breed-specific legislation The American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior has expressed concern about various communities’ reliance on breed-specific legislation—legislation to control, limit, or prevent ownership of specific dog breeds or mixes—as a tool to decrease the risk and incidence of dog bites. The AVSAB adopted a position paper on breed-specific legislation July 25 during the 2014 Veterinary Behavior Symposium, held in conjunction with the AVMA Annual Convention in Denver. Members of the AVSAB and diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists attended the event. The position statement was co-authored by ACVB diplomate Dr. Sagi Denenberg and Steve Dale, a certified animal behavior consultant. Targeted to the public, the AVSAB position paper supports the use of appropriate legislation regarding 740

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dangerous dogs as long as it is education-based and not breed-specific. Dale said, “Research is all over the map on this. We’ve sniffed it out so it’s all in one place. The hope is that veterinarians will be called upon as experts and use this document to discourage a breed ban in some places and help to rescind them in others. “This document is important to help educate the public and eradicate myths regarding dogs referred to as pit bulls. By AVSAB publishing this document, I have no doubt animal lives will be saved.” To download the position paper, go to www.avsabonline. org, click on “Resources” and then “Position Statements,” and scroll to the bottom.

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Photo by R. Scott Nolen

Michael Dicks, PhD (center), director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, with staff members Bridgette Bain, PhD, and Ross Knippenberg, PhD.

Economics division analyzes problems, causes By Reedhima Mandlik With the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division now fully staffed, veterinarians can expect answers to some of their biggest concerns—with the help of data veterinarians themselves will provide. The Veterinary Economics Division was created in 2011 by the AVMA Board of Directors as part of an effort to study perceived economic problems throughout the veterinary profession and, if verified, provide strategies to resolve them. Bridgette Bain, PhD, is the statistical data analyst for the division. Previously, she conducted economic data analysis research at the University of New Orleans, where she earned a doctorate in financial economics. According to Dr. Bain, the division has the potential for making waves in the veterinary world by improving market efficiency. “I really think we could have a great impact because we have all this valuable data that has not been thoroughly analyzed nor looked at from the perspective that we’ve been doing,” Dr. Bain said. “I think everybody’s starting to come on board with us as our work continues to reach broader audiences and engenders awareness.” The division’s current projects include the workforce model, which pools several variables to project the supply of and demand for veterinary services in the U.S. Three other projects are designed to examine practice profitability and veterinarian employment. An elasticity study will determine the effects of the price

of veterinary services and customer disposable income on the demand for veterinary services. An employment study will look at how many veterinarians have been unemployed or underemployed and for how long, in addition to whether their status is temporary or permanent and why. Finally, a capacity study will determine differences in characteristics between veterinary practices with excess capacity and those operating at full capacity. The division’s main goal for the AVMA Economic Summit, Oct. 28 in Chicago, is to present preliminary results of its projects in the hope of illustrating the importance of gathering accurate data and providing unbiased analysis, Dr. Bain said. Despite the division’s progress over the past year, it is still finding it challenging to get the economic data’s meaning across to veterinarians. According to Ross Knippenberg, PhD, the economic analyst in the division and the newest addition to the team, the staff works to help veterinarians understand “what exactly are the market forces that are influencing the conversation in the veterinary world.” Dr. Knippenberg, who received a doctorate in economics at the University of Colorado-Boulder in 2014, said he respects what veterinarians do and knows a few of the unique labor market issues that they face. “Our goal, really, is to inform the veterinarian community—to get them the facts they need to make informed Vol. 245, No. 7

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decisions. That’s where the Veterinary Economics Division comes in,” Dr. Knippenberg said. “We’re trying to bring all of the information together so that people can have a really clear picture of what’s going on.” The division lacks information from a variety of veterinary demographic subgroups as a result of past data collection practices. According to division director Michael Dicks, PhD, one impediment has been the way previous data were collected—studies in the past, he says, have not “provided information that is actionable.” The veterinary community’s lack of confidence in preliminary study results has been an issue arising largely from veterinarians thinking the conclusions are not applicable to their geographic regions. According to Dr. Dicks, however, the problem lies not in the analyzed data but in the gaps in the data—only one in five veterinarians responds to the division’s surveys, which could leave entire regions undocumented. “This is the most oversurveyed and underinformed pro-

fession I’ve ever been in. I don’t want to know just what the problem is, I want to know what caused the problem,” Dr. Dicks said. “The studies in the past didn’t do that. They just measured the problem.” The number one thing veterinarians can do to help their community, according to Dr. Dicks, is to work together. “The way that they can help us is just to keep an open mind and engage us,” Dr. Dicks said. To him, the division’s goal is to produce hard facts that do not attempt to steer veterinarians toward any one opinion. “It’s a process, and we have to learn to trust each other and understand that we’re both in it for the same reason,” Dr. Dicks said. “We want to see the betterment of the profession.”

Reedhima Mandlik is a third-year journalism and psychology major at Northwestern University and was a 2014 summer intern with JAVMA News.

Mentoring program plays matchmaker By Katie Burns Eighteen mentors and mentees paired up within weeks of attending a luncheon at the Association of Avian Veterinarians’ annual conference in August in New Orleans. The Compass Mentoring Program, an AVMA initiative, played the part of matchmaker. The AVMA has piloted the mentoring program in partnership with three state VMAs and the AAV. Zoetis also has provided funding. The inaugural class of the AVMA Future Leaders Program developed Compass to help meet the desire for mentorship in the veterinary profession. The AVMA launched the program in Connecticut with an October 2012 kickoff event and June 2013 follow-up event, pairing 20 recent graduates with mentors. Four mentees found one or two mentors each as a result of a Compass event in June 2013 with the Alabama VMA at the Emerald Coast Veterinary Conference in Florida. The AVMA canceled a January 2014 event in conjunction with the Indiana VMA’s annual meeting because of a lack of RSVPs. Dr. Robert Groskin, AAV executive 742

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director, said the AAV has always had a luncheon at its annual conference to bring together experienced avian veterinarians with first-time attendees and veterinary students. This year, the luncheon also served as a meeting place for mentors and mentees. “I like the idea of the ongoing mentorship relationship,” Dr. Groskin said. “This program is a creative way to introduce younger members to the value associations have in fostering personal professional relationships, which cannot be found in virtual communities.” This year’s luncheon attracted 47 students and first-time attendees and 25 potential mentors. Mostly students signed up for mentors. The AVMA is considering new directions for Compass, said Dr. Carrie Javorka, assistant director for recent graduate initiatives in the AVMA Membership and Field Services Division. Future kickoff events could combine stand-alone continuing education with networking, and the AVMA might try partnering with a regional or local VMA in addition to the state

VMAs. Another idea is to develop a mentoring network for mentees. For one-on-one relationships between mentors and mentees, Compass organizers have found that an initial face-to-face interaction is vital to making the right match. Dr. Javorka said the program has allowed mentors to give back to a new generation of veterinarians. She said, “They feel as though the knowledge and experience they have garnered throughout their years in practice can be put to good use in making things a little easier for students and recent grads at a time that can be very stressful for them.” Dr. Javorka said all the mentees who responded to surveys were somewhat or very satisfied with their mentoring relationship. She said, “They have had someone to lean on and introduce them to others in their respective associations who can help them in their personal and professional lives.”

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AVMA welcomes two assistant directors Photos by R. Scott Nolen

By R. Scott Nolen and Malinda Larkin Dr. Kendall Houlihan and certified veterinary technician Laura Lien joined the AVMA staff this August as assistant directors in the Animal Welfare and the Education and Research divisions, respectively. A 2009 graduate of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Houlihan worked for five years in companion animal Dr. Kendall Houlihan practices in the Chicago area prior to coming to the AVMA. She had been searching for opportunities to advocate for animal welfare and the human-animal bond on a broader scale than private practice when the job with the Association became available. “I realized that I couldn’t have designed a more appropriate position,” Dr. Houlihan said. “I would be able to use my knowledge and experience as a veterinarian to help support the voice of our profession on animal welfare issues as we work with our volunteers to refine existing policies, develop new ones, and educate the public.” Dr. Houlihan said her experience as a practitioner dealing with declawing, early spay-neuter, and sources of new pets will help her understand all sides of such controversial welfare issues. Her interests in shelter, laboratory animal, and zoo animal medicine complement the division’s work in these areas, she added. “This is an exciting time in the realm of animal welfare, and I’m thrilled to be able to embrace the AVMA’s mission and assist the profession in responding to challenging welfare issues,” Dr. Houlihan said. Laura Lien holds a veterinary technician specialization in large animal internal medicine with the Academy of Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians. A 1996 graduate of Madison Area Technical College’s

veterinary technology program in Wisconsin, Lien has 18 years of experience in clinical practice and academia. She worked for eight years at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Veterinary Teaching Hospital in the large animal section while she taught part time at Madison Area Technical College. Laura Lien Lien then left in 2006 to start the distance learning program at Moraine Park Technical College based in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, where she was director and an instructor for five years. Later, Lien would go on to serve as director of the veterinary technology programs at the Pima Medical Institute in Mesa, Arizona, and Milwaukee Career College. Lien said her experience as a program director, who often dealt with the AVMA Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities and was responsible for implementing its policies into the curriculum, was a challenging but also positive experience. The CVTEA accredits veterinary technology programs. Lien jumped at the chance when she saw the opening for the AVMA Education and Research assistant director position, which entails working with the CVTEA and going on veterinary technology program site visits. “I feel AVMA placing veterinary technicians in this kind of role is a wonderful step in the right direction for our young profession. It’s great that more veterinary technicians are overseeing their educational process,” she said. In May, Lien published the textbook “Large Animal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians.” She received her bachelor’s degree in technical management from Franklin University in Ohio and her master’s degree in instructional design for online learning from Capella University.

Education council schedules site visits The AVMA Council on Education has scheduled site visits to three schools and colleges of veterinary medicine for the remainder of 2014. Site visits are planned for the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 4-9; Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 26-30; and Oniris Ecole National Veterinaire in France, Nov. 16-20 (consultative site visit).

The council welcomes written comments on these plans or the programs to be evaluated. Comments should be addressed to Dr. Karen Martens Brandt, Director, Education and Research Division, AVMA, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Comments must be signed by the person submitting them to be considered.

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Practice Veterinary technicians’ efforts being celebrated in October They’ve always been by your side supporting you—now’s your chance to support them, too. Celebrate the veterinary technicians in your life during the annual National Veterinary Technician Week, which will run from Oct. 12-18. The week symbolizes the commitments all veterinary technicians make to the veterinary profession. This year’s theme is “What Does a Vet Tech Do?” National Veterinary Technician Week has been an annual tradition since June 1993 when NAVTA, then known as the North American Veterinary Technician Association, declared the observance to be the third week of October each year. A variety of celebratory activities have occurred in the past, all of which serve to educate the public about veterinary technicians and celebrate the relationship between technicians and veterinary professionals. Clinics and animal hospitals are encouraged to educate the public by advertising the week with posters, available through NAVTA— now the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America— and to personally thank veterinary technicians for everything they do. The week is co-sponsored by NAVTA, Partners for Healthy Pets, the Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians, and Hill’s Pet Nutrition. Go to for more information.





O C T.

12 -1 8 N AT I O N A L V E T TECH WEEK Visit Us Online At: WWW.NAVTA.N

© 2014 National Associa tion of Veterinary Technic ians in America

sponsored by


AVMA, FDA providing education on antiparasitic resistance

Webinar provides update on jerky treats

This month, Food and Drug Administration officials will provide an hour of free education on drug resistance of parasites that infect grazing livestock. The AVMA is hosting the webinar “Resisting resistance: FDA’s antiparasitic resistance management strategy” from 10-11 a.m. CDT on Oct. 14. The AVMA will accept up to 500 listeners, and those interested can register at www4.goto Four speakers from the FDA are scheduled to talk about drug resistance of parasites that infect cattle, small ruminants, and horses; the agency’s response; and scientific information on slowing down resistance development.

Members of the AVMA can access an archived Aug. 13 webinar providing an update on the Food and Drug Administration’s investigation into illnesses associated with jerky pet treat products. The FDA arranged the webinar for AVMA members. Veterinarians with the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine provided an overview of the investigation, an examination of the illnesses reported in association with consumption of the treats, and a summary of the extensive diagnostic and analytic testing that has been performed. The archived webinar and links to additional information are available at


The article “Substitution errors” in the Sept. 1, 2014, issue of JAVMA News, page 462, included an inaccurate statement that pet owners in Oregon could, by requesting generic alternatives, override a veterinarian’s orders against substitutions. If a veterinarian’s prescription includes an order against substitutions, a pharmacist cannot provide a generic alternative without approval from the prescriber.


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Missourians have rights to farm, ranch By Greg Cima


recent change in Missouri’s state constitution could be used to fight laws that restrict agriculture practices, including those governing animal housing or ownership. On Aug. 5, Missouri voters passed an initiative to amend the state constitution to add a statement that “the right of farmers and ranchers to engage in farming and ranching practices shall be forever guaranteed in this state.” It passed with 50.1 percent of votes in favor of the change. Attorney Erin M. Hawley, an associate professor at the University of Missouri School of Law, said the amendment leaves undefined what farming and ranching practices are protected by the state constitution and who is considered to be a farmer or rancher. She considers the change in the constitution to be a somewhat symbolic endorsement of agriculture and said courts will decide whether it has teeth. The amendment was proposed at

least partly in response to a 2010 ballot proposition that imposed limits and requirements on dog breeders in Missouri. “I think there was a big worry in the agricultural industry that something similar might take place with respect to livestock standards,” Hawley said. At that time, 52 percent of voters agreed to prohibit anyone from owning more than 50 breeding dogs for commercial purposes, impose a limit of two litters per breeding dog within 18 months, and require that dog breeders meet housing, veterinary care, and exercise requirements. Six months later, Gov. Jay Nixon signed a bill that reduced the initiative’s impact, which included removing the limits on breeding dogs and litters per dog and replacing specific housing requirements with general language about ensuring housing is appropriate. But Blake Hurst, president of the Missouri Farm Bureau, said the state’s farmers and ranchers remained vulnerable to ballot initiatives pushed by Vol. 245, No. 7

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groups that want to restrict how livestock are raised or prohibit production of genetically modified crops. Protection for agriculture

Hurst expects the new constitutional language could be used in a court challenge if Missouri’s legislature or voters enact laws that limit breeding animal ownership or pass restrictions similar to California’s 2008 Proposition 2 , which set minimum space requirements for housing egg-laying hens, veal calves, and pregnant sows. “I don’t know whether the constitutional amendment would overturn that requirement,” Hurst said. “I would fully anticipate that agriculture groups in the state would challenge a ballot initiative on constitutional grounds, using right-to-farm as their basis.” But Joe Maxwell, vice president for outreach and engagement for the Humane Society of the United States and a former Missouri lieutenant governor, expects individuals and corporations will use the amendment in court JAVMA News: October 1, 2014


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challenges to existing laws and regulations intended to protect animal and human health and welfare. He cited potential challenges to the remaining restrictions on dog breeding, felony penalties for animal cruelty, and county and local ordinances that prohibit agricultural development close to drinking water sources. “I think it does dampen our ability to have clean drinking water in Missouri,” Maxwell said. Hurst said local restrictions on where farm operations are placed—specifically, their proximity to homes—are the types of local laws that he expects will not be challenged. “That kind of legislation clearly is the sort of legislation that any industry would expect, and I don’t think the constitutional amendment would reach that,” he said. Maxwell and Hurst both indicated

the law could reduce advocacy by groups opposed to current agriculture practices, as those advocates would not know whether any success could be blocked or overturned by a court. Hawley expects local ordinances will be unaffected, and she noted that the state constitution cannot affect enforcement of federal regulations. As for state laws, she said courts could interpret which farming and ranching practices are protected by the amendment on the basis of which ones were commonplace when it was passed, but they will have discretion in applying the law. One of many battles

Hurst said that, if state law were to prevent him from using genetically modified seed on his corn and soybean farm in northwestern Missouri, yields would drop and production costs would rise. He thinks all those

involved in agriculture, including veterinarians, should speak out about the harm caused by rising food prices. Maxwell said the right-to-farm amendment divided people in agriculture between those “who believe in good stewardship of the animals, the land” and those “who believe that, because they own it, they should be able to do that which they want.” And he sees it as one of many battles that will take place throughout the U.S. The amendment is not the first such battle. In 2012, North Dakota voters passed a similar amendment, Constitutional Measure No. 3, with two-thirds of votes in favor of the measure. It states that farmers and ranchers will forever have a right to “engage in modern farming and ranching practices” in the state, and no law shall abridge the right to use agricultural technology, “modern” livestock production, and ranching practices.

USDA changing poultry test requirements, inspection options Poultry companies will need to test for microbial contamination at two points in the production process, starting in early 2015. The requirements are expected to help control Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination. The Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service is implementing the new testing requirements and giving poultry companies an option to change inspection of chicken and turkey carcasses in ways to reduce the number of federal inspectors examining production lines but increase the inspectors’ other duties, such as microbial testing and examining plant sanitation. FSIS authorities expect that, if companies agree to some optional changes in poultry inspection, thousands fewer people could become ill each year. The FSIS published July 31 an advance copy of a Federal Register notice that the agency had submitted for publication in the Federal Register. That copy indicates that, at participating poultry plants, company employees would find

poultry products with quality defects and remove them from production lines ahead of FSIS inspection. A smaller number of federal inspectors would watch the production lines, and they would see poultry carcasses that were sorted, washed, and trimmed and “thus much more likely to pass inspection.” FSIS information indicates the optional inspection system is based on a 15-year pilot program that proved it was better than other options at ensuring food safety. It uses fewer inspectors and involves them in more meaningful activities. In implementing the new microbial testing requirements, the FSIS is rescinding a regulation requiring tests for Escherichia coli on poultry carcasses. The agency concluded that tests for E coli had not met expectations as a process control measurement. “The new testing requirements will allow establishments to develop sampling plans that are more tailored, thus more effective in monitoring their specific process control than the current generic E. coli criteria,” the notice states.

Nominations are open through Oct. 15 for the Bustad Companion Animal Veterinarian of the Year Award. The award will be presented at the AVMA Veterinary Leadership Conference in January. Details are at 746

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Photos by Michael P. Carroll


Veterinary students have a chance to present their findings from mentored research they conducted over the course of the summer at veterinary colleges in the U.S. and Canada.

Research symposium highlights students’ work Noted scientists give talks relating to one health


he 2014 Merial–National Institutes of Health Veterinary Scholars Symposium was held July 31-Aug. 3 at Cornell University. This year’s theme was “One Health,” addressed through the perspective of four plenary sessions: sustainability, genetics, cancer, and infectious disease. The event attracted 620 registered attendees from 10 countries who were a mix of scientists and veterinary students who have been engaged in mentored research experiences over the course of the summer at U.S. and Canadian veterinary colleges. Since 1989, the Veterinary Scholars Program has provided an opportunity for veterinary schools to introduce first- and second-year students to conducting biomedical research in a laboratory and clinical setting during the summer. The program works with

the participating veterinary schools, Merial, the NIH, the AVMA, and several other institutions to attract a talented pool of veterinary students who are interested in biomedical research and comparative medicine. Veterinary scholars share their research findings in poster sessions and have the chance to hear and interact with scientists from diverse fields at the symposium, which caps off their experience. This year’s keynote speaker, Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, MD, is a cardiology professor at the University of California-Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine and co-director of UCLA’s Evolutionary Medicine Program. Dr. Natterson-Horowitz published the book “Zoobiquity: The Astonishing Connection Between Human and Animal Health” and is the founder and chair of the Zoobiquity Conference. Vol. 245, No. 7

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Other speakers at the conference included Dr. Alexander Travis, director of the Cornell Center for Wildlife Conservation, who studies methods to preserve spermatogonial stem cells as a means of maintaining genetic diversity; Elaine Ostrander, PhD, chief and NIH distinguished investigator, whose laboratory in Bethesda, Maryland, aims to find genes that control the morphologic body plan of the domestic dog, which has an extraordinary level of variation between breeds, and to identify disease susceptibility genes in dogs; Lewis Cantley, PhD, director of the new Cancer Center at Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital in New York City, who discovered and continues to study the enzyme PI-3-kinase, now known to be important to understanding cancer and diabetes mellitus; and JAVMA News: October 1, 2014


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Dr. Jorge Galan, chair of the Department of Microbial Pathogenesis at the Yale Cancer Center, whose research focuses on defining the molecular details of host-pathogen interactions and the atomic interphase between the pathogens and the host. The symposium also featured the Young Investigator Award Competition, sponsored by the AVMA and American Veterinary Medical Foundation. The Young Investigator Award is given to graduate veterinarians pursuing advanced research

training through doctoral or postdoctoral programs who presented their research at the symposium. The winners were as follows: • First place went to Dr. Elizabeth The 2014 Merial–National Institutes of Health Veterinary Scholars More Lennon of Symposium, held July 31-Aug. 3 at Cornell University, saw 452 veterinary students present results from their summer research projects. North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine for in a model of inflammatory bowel “Mast cells play a protective role disease.”

Research awards presented During the 2014 Merial–National Institutes of Health Veterinary Scholars Symposium, held July 31-Aug. 3 at Cornell University, the AVMA and American Veterinary Medical Foundation conferred awards on two individuals for their efforts in advancing veterinary research. Following are some key achievements of these award recipients. AVMA Lifetime Excellence in Research Award

This award recognizes a veterinary researcher on the basis of lifetime achievement in basic, applied, or clinical research. Dr. Henry J. Baker Dr. Baker (Auburn ’60), is professor emeritus of pathobiology at Auburn University and former editor-inchief (2007-2013) of the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. At the beginning of his career, Dr. Baker interned and then practiced at the Angell Memorial Hospital in Boston before entering postdoctoral training in pathology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore. In 1968, he joined the faculty of the University of Alabama Medical Center as associate professor of comparative medicine, and in 1974, he became professor and chairman. In 1986, Dr. Baker joined the faculty of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, as professor and director of comparative medical genetics. In 1991, he was appointed director of Auburn’s Scott-Ritchey Research Center, where he established a research program on molecular and medical genetics of lysosomal diseases, the central focus of his research interest. A diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Dr. Baker was also editor of the journal Laboratory Animal Science from 1984-1991. 748

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American Veterinary Medical Foundation/AKC Career Achievement Award in Canine Research

This award honors a candidate’s long-term contribution to the field of canine research. Dr. Deborah W. Knapp Dr. Knapp (Auburn ’83) has directed Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine’s Comparative Oncology Program for more than 20 years. She also serves as program co-leader for the Medicinal Chemistry program in the Purdue University Center for Cancer Research. Dr. Knapp completed her residency and master’s at Purdue and is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine in the specialty area of oncology. Her research has centered on invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, which she says is a prime example of a comparative approach leading to marked improvement for the outlook for dogs with this cancer and the findings being translated for application to humans. Dr. Knapp’s current research in invasive bladder cancer includes studies of genetic causes, the role of chemical exposures, targeted therapy, and epigenetic-based therapies.

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• Second place was awarded to Dr. Blake “Eason” Hildreth III of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine for “Deletion of the nuclear localization sequence and C-terminus of PTHrP decreases osteogenesis and chondrogenesis but increases adipogenesis and myogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.” • Third place went to Dr. Katherine M. Tolbert of the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine for “Cysteine protease activity of feline Tritrichomonas foetus promotes adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to intestinal epithelial cells.” The 2014 Merial Veterinary Scholars Award went to Nida Intarapanich (Tufts ’16) for her research project “Characterization and comparison of injuries caused by spontaneous vs. illegal organized dogfighting.” Dr. Dan Regan (Georgia ’11) was the recipient of the Merial Graduate Veterinary Scholar Award. He is a resident in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology at Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. Dr. Regan was recognized for his research looking at the role inflammatory monocytes play in the promotion of tumor metastasis as well as the regulation of tumor vaccine immunity. For other awards handed out at the symposium, see sidebar, page 748. In addition, the inaugural Second Opportunity Summer Scholars Awards went to 10 third-year veterinary students who participated in the 2013 summer research program. They were awarded $5,000 stipends from the AVMA and the AVMF to perform a second research project this past summer. Each award includes $1,000 to cover travel expenses to the symposium. The recipients are as follows: Kelsey Brakel, Adam Brown, Mark Byrum, Brian Dent, Ashley Heard-Ganir, Ellen Jackson, Rebekah Packer, Patrick Reilly, Samantha Salmon, and Katherine Watson.

Obituaries AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember Eugene A. Adkins Dr. Adkins (California-Davis ’58), 86, Escondido, California, died June 15, 2014. He owned a small animal practice in Escondido from 1964 until retirement in 1997. Earlier in his career, Dr. Adkins worked at a mixed animal practice in Modesto, California; practiced small and mixed animal medicine in San Diego; and worked in a mixed animal practice in Escondido. In retirement, he served as a relief veterinarian. Dr. Adkins was a past president of the Sierra VMA, a past area director for the American Animal Hospital Association, and a past secretary of the San Diego County VMA. He served as a founding director of the San Diego Animal Emergency Clinic, was a charter member of the California Academy of Veterinary Medicine, and served on the California VMA Continuing Education Committee. Dr. Adkins was also a member of the California Veterinary Medical Board Question Review Committee, served on the board of directors of the North County Emergency Animal Clinic, and was a member of the AVMA Veterinary Medical Assistance Team 5 and a former member of the Disaster Management Assistance Team San Diego. He served in the Marine Corps during the Korean War, attaining the rank of captain. Dr. Adkins was a member of the Kiwanis and Rotary clubs. His wife, Helen; three children; and seven grandchildren survive him.

Wayne B. Chapin Dr. Chapin (Kansas State ’50), 90, Mount Vernon, Missouri, died May 21, 2014. He practiced mixed animal medicine in Mount Vernon from 19501987. Dr. Chapin also worked for the Department of Agriculture’s Meat Inspection Service from 1976-1987. He Vol. 245, No. 7

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was a member of the American Animal Hospital Association and Missouri VMA. Dr. Chapin served as a 1st lieutenant in the Army Air Corps during World War II and received an Air Medal for his service. He was a member of the American Legion and was active with the Rotary Club. Dr. Chapin’s wife, Alicia; three sons and a daughter; 13 grandchildren; and 10 great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials toward the Marine Corps Law Enforcement Foundation or American Diabetes Association may be made c/o Fossett Mosher Funeral Home, 510 E. Cherry St., Mount Vernon, MO 65712.

Harry B. Cook Dr. Cook (Minnesota ’53), 90, Arlington Heights, Illinois, died June 24, 2014. In 1957, he established Morton Grove Animal Hospital in Morton Grove, Illinois, where he practiced mixed animal medicine for more than 30 years. Dr. Cook then worked part time at several animal hospitals in the area until retirement in 2002. Early in his career, he practiced in Wisconsin. Dr. Cook was a past president of the Chicago VMA, a lifetime member of the Minnesota VMA, and a member of the American Animal Hospital Association and Illinois State VMA. He is survived by his son, two daughters, and two grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the H.B. Cook Memorial Veterinary Scholarship Fund, c/o Mount Prospect State Bank, 299 W. Central Road, Mount Prospect, IL 60056. Margaret J. Dillender Dr. Dillender (Missouri ’81), 61, Dusseldorf, Germany, died June 2, 2014. She headed the Global Business Development & Licensing Department of Bayer HealthCare Animal Health in Monheim, Germany, since 2009. Dr. Dillender began her career in mixed animal practice in Indianola, Iowa. After earning a master’s degree in veterinary microbiology from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1982 and obtaining her doctorJAVMA News: October 1, 2014


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ate in immunology from the University of Iowa in 1989, she went on to work for Abbott and Pfizer before joining Bayer. Dr. Dillender was a member of the Licensing Executives Society. She is survived by her husband, Steven; a daughter; and three sons. Dr. Dillender’s sister, Dr. Mary Benz (Purdue ’90), is a small animal veterinarian in Carpentersville, Illinois. Memorials may be made to the American Cancer Society, P.O. Box 22718, Oklahoma City, OK 73123.

Roy N. Masson Dr. Masson (Iowa State ’46), 96, Brookings, South Dakota, died Feb. 21, 2014. During his career, he practiced mixed animal medicine in South Dakota. Dr. Masson was a lifetime member of the South Dakota VMA and a member of the Elks Lodge. He was active with the 4-H Club and was a past recipient of its Achievement Award. His grandson and great-granddaughter survive him.

Ellen J. Maxwell

Dr. Maxwell (Georgia ’57), 83, Watkinsville, Georgia, died July 20, 2014. A small animal veterinarian, she Dr. Endrizzi (Ohio State ’50), 94, owned a practice in Athens, Georgia, Parkersburg, West Virginia, died March for more than 40 years. Memorials in 24, 2014. He owned Parkersburg her name may be made to the Athens Veterinary Hospital from 1951 until Area Humane Society, 1781 Mars Hill retirement in 1984. Dr. Endrizzi was a past president of the West Virginia VMA Road, Watkinsville, GA 30677. and served on the West Virginia Board of Veterinary Medicine. In 1986, he Billy R. Mayse was named West Virginia Veterinarian Dr. Mayse (Texas A&M ’50), 87, of the Year. Dr. Endrizzi served in the Southlake, Texas, died July 2, 2014. In Army Air Corps during World War II. His 1957, he moved to Freeport, Texas, four daughters, a son, and 10 grandestablishing the Animal Hospital of children survive him. Dr. Endrizzi’s Freeport and practicing small animal son, Dr. Michael J. Endrizzi (Ohio medicine for over 50 years. Earlier, Dr. State ’77), is a veterinarian in Tampa, Mayse practiced in Texas at Bandera Florida. Memorials may be made to and Brownwood and worked for the the Emma Lou Endrizzi Memorial Fund, Department of Agriculture in the c/o Our Community’s Foundation, P.O. United States and Mexico. Active in civBox 1762, Parkersburg, WV 26102; or ic life, he served on the City of Freeport Matthew 25 Food Cupboard, c/o St. Board of Health and the founding Margaret Mary Parish, 2500 Dudley Board of Regents for Brazosport Ave., Parkersburg, WV 26101. College. Dr. Mayse was a past president of his local Kiwanis Club, receiving its Distinguished Service Award. He was Harry H. Hill an Army veteran of World War II. Dr. Hill (California-Davis ’52), 91, Dr. Mayse’s four children, 10 grandEncinitas, California, died June 10, 2014. He practiced small animal medi- children, and six great-grandchildren survive him. His son-in-law, Dr. Patrick cine, with a special interest in radiolBreen ( Texas A&M ’79), is a small ogy, in Solana Beach, California, for animal veterinarian in Georgetown, 20 years prior to retirement in 2002. Texas. Memorials in his name may Earlier, Dr. Hill owned a practice in be made to Brazosport College Encinitas. He was a Navy veteran of Foundation, 500 College Drive, Lake World War II. Dr. Hill is survived by his Jackson, TX 77566. companion, Penelope Lewis; a son; nine grandchildren; and two greatgrandchildren. Memorials may be John W. Moore made to Living Free Animal Sanctuary, Dr. Moore (Tuskegee ’77), 62, St. P.O. Box 5, Mountain Center, CA 92561. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, died April

Nick N. Endrizzi


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22, 2014. He co-owned Veterinary Centers of the Virgin Islands with his wife, Dr. Marilyn S. Moore (Tuskegee ’78), in St. Thomas, where he practiced small animal and equine medicine for 36 years. Dr. Moore is survived by his wife and daughter.

John H. Post Dr. Post (Iowa State ’55), 90, Slayton, Minnesota, died June 23, 2014. Prior to retirement, he practiced mixed animal medicine at Slayton Veterinary Clinic. Earlier in his career, Dr. Post worked in Worthington, Minnesota, and served as a veterinarian with the state of Minnesota. He was an Army veteran of World War II. Dr. Post’s wife, Arlys; five children; 12 grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren survive him.

Richard B. Tangeman Dr. Tangeman (Colorado State ’48), 93, Susanville, California, died May 28, 2014. Prior to retirement in 1996, he practiced mixed animal medicine in Johnstonville, California, serving Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, and Lassen counties, and in eastern Nevada. Dr. Tangeman was veterinarian for the Lassen County Fair for over 20 years. He worked with the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, mentoring students and providing summer internships. Earlier, he owned a practice in Pomona, California. He was a past member of the California Veterinary Medical Board and a past president of the Lassen County Cattlemen’s Association. In civic life, Dr. Tangeman served as captain of the Lassen County Sheriff’s Posse and was a past president of the Lassen Union High School Board. He is survived by a son, two daughters, and two grandsons. Dr. Tangeman’s daughter, Dr. Susan Tangeman (CaliforniaDavis ’88), and grandson, Dr. Kevin Tangeman (Oregon State ’14), are small animal practitioners in Redding, California, and Beaverton, Oregon, respectively. Memorials may be made to Lassen County Historical Society, P.O. Box 321, Susanville, CA 96130.

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Bad medicine natural remedy? States' legalization of marijuana has implications for veterinary medicine.

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