Aust Endod J 2014; 40: 111–115


Antibacterial properties of root canal lubricants: A comparison with commonly used irrigants Samantha Wong, BDS; Lance Mundy, BDS; Nicholas Chandler, BDS, MSc, PhD; Jenine Upritchard, BSc, MSc; David Purton, BDS, MDS; and Geoffrey Tompkins, BSc, PhD Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Keywords carbamide peroxide, cetrimide, chlorhexidine, EDTA, irrigant, lubricant, root canal treatment. Correspondence A/Professor Nicholas Chandler, School of Dentistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 647, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Email: [email protected] doi:10.1111/aej.12075

Abstract The aim was to assess in vitro the antibacterial activity of 10 root canal lubricants. K-Y Jelly personal lubricant, RC-Prep, File-Eze, File-Rite, EndoPrep Gel, Endosure Prep Crème 15%, Prep-Rite, Glyde, SlickGel ES and Alpha Glide were selected and compared in their antimicrobial properties to seven irrigants. Serial dilutions of each agent in tryptic soy broth were inoculated with either Enterococcus faecalis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and incubated at 37C for 24 h. During incubation bacterial growth was measured by optical density (A600), and samples removed for cultivation on tryptic soy broth agar. Against both test bacteria after 1 h incubation, six lubricants recorded minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 1/10 to 1/80, whereas the inhibitory activity of the irrigants ranged from 1/20 to 1/640. Under these conditions, several lubricants exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable with some irrigants. Three irrigants, Consepsis (containing chlorhexidine), Endosure EDTA/C (containing cetrimide) and EndoPrep Solution (containing cetrimide), showed superior antibacterial action to lubricants against both species. The irrigants containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and cetrimide were the most effective against both bacterial species at all time intervals. Antimicrobial activity of the lubricants did not correlate to pH values, which ranged from 2.9 to 10.3. Root canal lubricants have antibacterial properties that may help to disinfect canals.

Introduction Root canal lubricants are used during canal preparation to facilitate the movements of hand and rotary files, soften dentine in canals and chelate debris. Their antibacterial properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Commercial products frequently contain chlorhexidine or cetrimide. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is often incorporated as a chelating agent to remove inorganic dentine components, thus enhancing the antibacterial properties of irrigants and, possibly, the agents in some lubricants (1). In recent years paste or gel lubricants have regained popularity and almost all instrument manufacturers recommend their use, especially with nickel-titanium instruments (2). The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial properties of 10 lubricants

© 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology

in vitro, comparing them with sodium hypochlorite-, EDTA, chlorhexidine- and cetrimide-containing irrigants.

Materials and methods All procedures were carried out under aseptic conditions in a laminar flow cabinet. The lubricants and irrigants investigated are listed in Table 1. The following bacteria from the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago were used: (a) Enterococcus faecalis (V583) (b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OT15) Lubricants and irrigants were diluted in tryptic soy broth (TSB; BactoTM tryptic soy broth, Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, MD, USA) to final concentrations of 1/10, 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 in antibacterial 111

Antibacterial Properties of Lubricants

S. Wong et al.

Table 1 Canal lubricants (1–10) and irrigants (11–17) assessed Legend





K-Y Jelly personal lubricant





Johnson and Johnson Pacific, Broadway, NSW, Australia Premier Dental Products, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA

4 5

File-Rite EndoPrep Gel


Endosure Prep Crème 15%

Pulpdent Corp, Watertown, MA, USA Professional Dental Supplies, Bayswater North, Vic., Australia Dentalife, Ringwood, Vic., Australia

7 8 9 10

Prep-Rite Glyde SlickGel ES Alpha Glide

Pulpdent Corp, Watertown, MA, USA Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA Komet, Brasseler GmbH, Lemgo, Germany

11 12 13 14 15

Endosure Hypochlor 1% ChlorCid Endosure Hypochlor 4% Forte Vista EDTA Solution Consepsis

Dentalife, Ringwood, Vic., Australia Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA Dentalife, Ringwood, Vic., Australia Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI, USA Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA

16 17

Endosure EDTA/C EndoPrep Solution

Dentalife, Ringwood, Vic., Australia Professional Dental Supplies, Bayswater North, Vic., Australia

0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and methyl hydroxybenzoate 15% EDTA, 10% carbamide peroxide in water-soluble glycol base 19% EDTA in a water-soluble solution with a lubricating base 17% EDTA gel buffered to a neutral pH, water soluble 15% EDTA w/v, 0.85% cetrimide w/v pH adjusted to 7.2 15% EDTA w/v, 10% carbamide peroxide in water soluble base 17% EDTA viscous gel, water soluble EDTA, propylene glycol,

Antibacterial properties of root canal lubricants: a comparison with commonly used irrigants.

The aim was to assess in vitro the antibacterial activity of 10 root canal lubricants. K-Y Jelly personal lubricant, RC-Prep, File-Eze, File-Rite, End...
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