American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Awards CITATION OF DR. ARTHUR E. BROADUS FOR THE 1989 FREDERIC C. BARTTER AWARD OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Dr. Arthur E. Broadus was presented the 1989FredericC. Bartter Award of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Dr. Broadus was born in Tennessee in 1941. He was an undergraduate student at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia, and at graduation in 1964 received the Gilliam Award, an honor bestowed on the graduating senior who contributed most to the University. In 1969, he was awarded his Ph.D. in Physiology in Dr. Earl Sutherland’s laboratory, where his interest in cyclic nucleotides began. During those years, he developed sensitive competitive protein binding assays for cyclic AMP. He also earned his M.D. degree at Vanderbilt, graduating in 1971. At medical school graduation, he was awarded the Founder’s Medal, indicating his valedictory class standing, and was selected as a member of AOA. During his years at Vanderbilt, he developed a close working relationship with Dr. Grant Liddle, who served then and has continued to serve over the years for Dr. Broadus as a model mentor, chairman, scientist, and clinical researcher. From 1971 to 1973, Dr. Broadus was an Intern and Resident in Internal Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and from 1973 to 1976 was a Staff Associate and Endocrinology Post-Doctoral Fellow at the NIH. During this latter period, he worked with Dr. Frederic C . Bartter and extended his studies on the utility of urinary cyclic and nephrogenous cyclic AMP measurements in the evaluation of disorders of mineral metabolism. In 1976, Dr. Broadus was recruited to the Endocrinology Division at Yale University School of Medicine. He was appointed to the Division Chairmanship in 1986. During his years at Yale, Dr. Broadus’ productivity has been extraordinary. He has made major contributions to the evaluation and treatment of calcium nephrolithiasis and has popularized the use of the oral calcium tolerance test in the differential diagnosis of hypercalciuria. He delineated the role of 1,25-(OH),D in the various clinical presentations of
primary hyperparathyroidism. In the late 1970s, he turned his attention to the study of what was presumed at the time to be “ectopic hyperparathyroidism.” His studies clearly demonstrated that ectopic PTH secretion was not the cause of this most common paraneoplastic syndrome, which now bears the name “humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy,” a term popularized by his laboratory. Over the past decade, Dr. Broadus and his colleagues have developed assays for, purified to homogeneity, and determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of a novel class of peptide hormones, PTH-related proteins. His laboratory has played a pioneering role in PTH-related protein cDNA cloning, PTH-related peptide synthesis, characterization of synthetic PTH-related peptide effects and defining receptor interactions. His group has defined the role of PTH-related protein in HHM and has recently elucidated the complete structure of the PTHrelated protein gene. He is currently studying the regulation of PTH-related protein gene expression and the role of this novel peptide family in the host of normal tissues that appear to produce it. In these studies Dr. Broadus has displayed extraordinary versatility. He has made outstanding contributions to clinical research, to cyclic nucleotide and parathyroid hormone biochemistry and immunology, to the development of physiologic models, and most recqntly to PTH-related protein molecular biology. In addition, he has administered a large university division and served on study sections and editorial boards and, over the past decade, has presided over the training of 15 postdoctoral fellows and medical students, the majority of whom remain in academic medicine. For those who have had the good fortune to work with Dr. Broadus, he has served as an ideal mentor. He is demanding and endlessly energetic, has an extraordinary intellect, and requires the maintenance of rigorous high standards by his trainees. Perhaps, however, he is best characterized by those who have worked under him as a friend and advocate: he regularly removes his name from manuscripts to which he has every right of authorship and unfailingly encourages the scholarship, independence, and growth of his trainees. Dr. Broadus is an inspiration as a clinical scientist, basic scientist, teacher, mentor, collaborator, and administrator. The bone and mineral field is fortunate to have him in its midst. He made outstanding contributions to the discipline in his first several acts. Further outstanding performances are expected as the curtain rises for the ensuing acts.
CITATION OF DR. STEPHEN M. KRANE FOR THE 1989 WILLIAM F. NEUMAN AWARD OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Dr. Stephen M. Krane was presented the 1989William F. Neuman Award of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research at the past ASBMR/ICCRH meeting in Montreal. This award is given annually to an individual who is not only a creative scientist but also has been responsible for training and fostering the careers of young scientists in our field. Dr. Krane received both his A.B. and M.D. degrees from Columbia University. He then began has careerlong relationship with the Massachusetts General Hospital, where he progressed from Intern in Medicine to Chief of the Arthritis Unit and Persis, Cyrus and Marlow B. Harrison Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. His scientific contributions have ranged widely, from basic biochemistry to clinical research. He has been the principal investigator of an NIH program project grant titled “Study of Mesenchymal Tissues and Their Diseases” for more than 30 years. This title aptly describes the breadth of his work, which has encompassed the biology of bone, cartilage, and other connective tissues. His earliest research dealt with renal and intestinal sugar transport. He then began his classic studies with Melvin Glimcher in the early 1%Os in which they explored the interactions of bone collagen and phosphate. During this time Dr. Krane and a research fellow, Charles Nagant de Deuxchaisnes, also undertook clinical studies in patients with Paget’s disease and in 1964 published a landmark paper on the disease in Medicine. Dr. Krane’s interest in the biology of mineralization led to another classic clinical paper in the American Journal of Medicine in 1%7, The Treatment of Adult Phosphate Diabetes and Fanconi Syndrome with Neutral Sodium Phosphate. In the next phase of his research he turned his attention to collagenase because of an interest in tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis and simultaneously to the analysis of the collagenlike fragments excreted in the urine of patients with Paget’s disease. Remarkably, his first papers on both of these topics were both published in Science in 1%7. Dr. Krane has continued to pursue his interest in the mechanisms of joint destruction, which began with his research fellow, Edward D. Harris, Jr., now Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Stanford University. His studies in this field led to the discovery of a mononuclear cell factor that subsequently was identified as interleukin-1. In this case, a clinical interest led to the discovery of a previously unknown immune factor that could stimulate rheumatoid synovial cell collagenase and prostaglandin production. Dr. Krane was invited to give the 1980 Heberden Oration in England to present this work. Another impressive research accomplishment was the first
AWARDS description of the biochemical basis of a heritable disorder of connective tissue metabolism, hydroxylysine-deficient collagen disease. This work with Dr. Sheldon Pinnell provided the impetus for his outstanding career in dermatologic research. Dr. Krane’s broad interest in mineral metabolism is further reflected by the fact that he stimulated outstanding research fellows, such as Drs. Stephen Goldring, Jean-Michel Dayer, and Dennis Ausiello, to study the actions of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in cell culture. In a series of elegant studies published between 1977 and 1986 he and his colleagues helped define the mode of action of these hormones and provided more insight into the possible biologic roles of the hormones. During the 1980s Dr. Krane became intrigued by the interactions of another classic hormone of mineral metabolism, vitamin D, with the immune system and cell differentiation. In association with another group of outstanding young investigators, including Drs. Edward Amento, Ashok Bhalla, Mary Goldring, and Barbara Polla, he has explored the interactions of vitamin D with cytokines and immune cells to develop an understanding of how inflammation may lead to fibrosis. This research has major implications not only in the musculoskeletal system but in any organ system in which fibrosis is a consequence of an inflammatory process. The outstanding young men and women who have chosen to work in Dr. Krane’s laboratory over the years have clearly made great contributions to the success of his research. However, it is equally clear that his ability to attract and stimulate so many young investigators is a testimony to his role in fostering the careers of these individuals. It is particularly for this reason that Dr. Krane is such an appropriate recipient of the William F. Neuman Award. Finally, it must be stated that Stephen Krane has had exceptional assistance from his lovely wife Cynthia. She has been tremendously supportive of Steve in his career while pursuing her own career as a nursing administrator at Beth Israel Hospital. Thus, it is appropriate that the ASBMR honor both Cynthia and Stephen Krane.
CITATION OF DR. TIMOTHY J. CHAMBERS FOR THE 1989 FULLER ALBRIGHT AWARD OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH The 1989 Fuller Albright Award was presented to Dr. Timothy J. Chambers as one who has made outstanding contributions to the field of bone and mineral metabolism. The 41-year-old Dr. Chambers was born in the United Kingdom, graduated in Medicine at the University of London, and worked throughout his career within that university. After training
AWARDS in pathology with the late Professor W.G. Spector at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital and Medical School, he was appointed Lecturer, then Senior Lecturer at that institution, and in 1985 to the Chair of Pathology at St. George’s Hospital Medical School within the University of London. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists and a member of the Endocrine Societies of the United States and United Kingdom and the British Bone and Tooth Society. He served on the editorial boards of Bone and Mineral and the Journal of Pathology. Dr. Chambers’ research in the bone field has focused on the biology of the osteoclast. He came to the bone field through the unusual route of having studied the biology of macrophage polykaryons under Spector and was struck by the parallels to be drawn between that system and the osteoclast formation system. He therefore came to the field without having been trained by any of the experts in bone research, and in a real sense this allowed him to make very substantial conceptual and practical contributions without the constraint of traditional views. He had a thorough grasp of the formation and function of multinucleated phagocytes, and virtually before he had begun his bone research, he formulated the hypothesis that the multinucleated osteoclasts were controlled indirectly by bone-resorbing hormones. This view was developed by others at about the same time but was arrived at by a different approach. Chambers argued that the osteoclast was a “wandering” cell, derived as it was thought to be from the monocyte-macrophage series, and therefore it was appropriate that its activities in bone be programmed by cells that are genuinely bone cells. It seemed to him that those
667 most likely to be responsible for this would be cells of the osteoblast lineage, and he therefore considered it likely that the resorbing hormones would promote osteoclast formation and activity through first acting on osteoblast. This was a profound insight, and certainly a revolutionary suggestion, but subsequent events have proven it to be virtually certainly the case. Having proposed the hypothesis, Dr. Chambers set out to develop the methods to test it. He did this with a series of now classic experiments over the next several years, in which he developed a method of studying the activity of osteoclasts freshly isolated from newborn rodent bone, showed that these were motile cells whose motility ceased immediately upon treatment with extremely low amounts of calcitonin, and, most importantly, that their activity was increased by the resorbing hormones, but only in the presence of cells of the osteoblast lineage. His approach throughout his work has been an impressively scholarly one, combined with an inventive flair for cell biology. There is little doubt that the body of Dr. Chambers’ work in that area over the years since 1979 has had a major impact on bone cell biology. Its impact on thinking in this field carries through to clinical bone disease, because it is clear that one of the really important questions needing to be answered is the nature of the factors produced by osteoblastic cells that result in activation of osteoclasts. Dr. Chambers’ work has been in basic bone cell biology, but with a constant reminder in the background of the importance of its application to understanding of bone diseases, especially osteoporosis.