Program of the Thirty-Seventh Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists Julie M. Worlein and Brian Kelly -Guest EditorsDecatur, GA September 12–15, 2014
ASP Board of Directors President President-Elect Past President Executive Secretary Treasurer
Karen Bales Marilyn Norconk Dorothy Fragaszy Carolyn Ehardt Kimberley Phillips
Chairs of the Standing and Ad Hoc Committees Awards and Recognition Conservation Education Membership and Finance Program Publications Research and Development Primate Care Media and Public Engagement Student Committee [Ad Hoc]
Peter Judge Erin Riley Amanda Dettmer Kimberley Phillips Julie M. Worlein & Brian Kelly Dee Higley Kai McCormack & Erin Kinnally Mollie Bloomsmith Julienne Rutherford & Cory Ross Joshua Smith
Local Arrangements Jaine Pearlman and Jamie Russel
Program Committee The Program Committee wishes to thank Nancy Capitanio for her continuing contributions to the development of the on-line abstract submission and program preparation for the ASP. The Program Committee also wishes to thank Grace H. Lee for her contributions to the editing process. Kate Baker Emily Boeving Jayanta Das Amanda Dettmer Sue Howell Peter Judge Sree Kanthaswamy
Brian Kelly Matt Kessler Grace H. Lee Julie M. Worlein Lynne Miller Aaryn Mustoe Marilyn Norconk
Matther Novak Peter Pierre Angelika Rehrig Corrina Ross Nancy Schultz-Darken Darlene Smucny Marlene Snyder
Scientific Sessions, Social Gatherings and Special Events The scientific portion of the meeting was held at the Courtyard Marriott 130 Clairemont Avenue Decatur, GA 30030 The Opening Reception was held at the Old Courthouse on the Square 101 E Court Square Decatur, GA 30030 The Closing Banquet was held at the Sweetwater Brewery 195 Ottley Dr NE Atlanta, GA 30324
Meeting Sponsors, Vendors, and Exhibitors Cambridge University Press Lomir Biomedical, Inc. Princeton University Press Purina LabDiet Research Diets, Inc. S. Karger Publishers
2013 Distinguished Primatologist Award Recipient Linda Fedigan University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
2014 Distinguished Primatologist Award Recipient Chuck Snowdon University of Wisconsin, Department of Psychology Madison, WI
2013 and 2014 Student Competition Winners The ASP recognizes the winners of the 2013 and 2014 Student Paper and Poster Competition
Oustanding Oral Paper: 2013 Francisca Vidal-Garcia Knowing the Current Distribution of Primates in Southeastern Mexico by Using Models of Potential Distribution as Tools of Quest
2014 Marnie Silverstein Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Social Stress on Body Composition and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Female Cynomologous Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Honorable Mention Oral Paper: 2013 Nicoletta Righini Does Energy Intake Correlate with Fecal Gluccocorticoids in Free-Ranging Alouatta Pigra?
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Outstanding Poster: 2013 Katie Chun Behavioral Inhibition Characterized in Infancy Predicts Social Behavior and Immune Function in Young Adult Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
2014 Jessica Rachelle Wombolt Common Marmosets’ (Callithrix jaccus) Responses to Snake Characteristics
2013 Legacy Award Recipient Julienne Rutherford Department of Women, Children, & Family Health Science, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL
2014 Early Career Achievment Award Recipient Katie Hinde Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
2014 President’s Award Recipients Dr. Randall Kyes Washington National Primate Research Center and
Dr. Melinda Novak University of Massachusetts, Amherst
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American Society of Primatologists 2014 Conference Overview
Friday, September 12, 2014 10:00 AM—6:30 PM Vendor Setup (Decatur B)
10:00 AM—6:30 PM Registration (Prefunction Area; Items in bold open to all registrants)
1:00 PM—5:00 PM Standing Committee Meetings (Various Rooms) 3:00 PM—6:30 PM Silent Auction Setup (Decatur B) 5:00 PM—6:30 PM Past Presidents Reception (Presidents Suite) 6:30 PM—8:30 PM Opening Reception (Old Courthouse on the Square)
Saturday, September 13, 2014 8:00 AM—5:30 PM Registration (Prefunction Area) 8:00 AM—9:30 AM Breakfast (Prefunction Area) 8:30 AM—8:45 AM Morning Announcements (Decatur A)
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American Society of Primatologists 2014 Conference Overview Session 1 8:45 AM—9:45 AM Featured Speaker Thomas Gillespie Integrated Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Ecosystem Health in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania (Decatur A)
9:45 AM—10:00 AM Break (Decatur A) Session 2 10:00 AM—11:45 AM Interdisciplinary Symposium Integrating Primate and Ecosystem Health: The One Health Perspective Organizer: Thomas Gillespie (Decatur A) 11:45 AM—1:15 PM Lunch (On Your Own)
Session 3 11:45 AM—1:00 PM Workshop Being a Scientist Online: Possibilities, Pragmatics & Pitfalls Organizer: Amanda M. Dettmer (Swanton Amphitheatre) Session 4 1:15 PM—2:00 PM Paper Session Evolution Session Chair: Jared Taglialatela (Decatur A)
Session 5 1:15 PM—2:00 PM Paper Session Feeding/Nutrition Session Chair: Toni Ziegler (Mary Gay)
Session 6 1:15 PM—2:00 PM Paper Session Infant Development/Maternal Behavior Session Chair: John Capitanio (Henry Oliver)
Session 7 2:15 PM—3:15 PM Keynote Address William Hopkins How Research with Chimpanzees Informs Human Health and Behavior: What the Institute of Medicine and NIH Ignored in their Deliberations (Decatur A)
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American Society of Primatologists 2014 Conference Overview Session 8 Session 9 Session 10 3:30 PM—5:30 PM 3:30 PM—5:30 PM 3:30 PM—5:30 PM Symposium Symposium Paper Session The Many Influences of One Different Insights About Social Learning/Cognition/Language: Primatologist: Dr. Terry Maple Processes in Primates Session Chair: Dorothy Organizer: Mollie Bloomsmith Organizer: Melissa Gerald Fragaszy (Decatur A) (Mary Gay) (Henry Oliver)
5:30 PM—7:00 PM Executive Committee Meeting (Avondale)
5:30 PM—7:00 PM Dinner (On Your Own)
Session 11 7:00 PM—9:00 PM Poster Session 1 (Decatur B) 9:00 PM—11:00 PM Student Mixer (Henry Oliver)
Sunday, September 14, 2014 8:00 AM—5:30 PM Registration (Prefunction Area)
6:30 AM—7:00 AM Fifth Annual Primate Promenade: The (Pan) Troglodytes Trot – 5K Run/2K Walk (Prefunction Area) 8:00 AM—9:30 AM Breakfast (Prefunction Area) 8:30 AM—8:45 AM Morning Announcements (Decatur A)
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American Society of Primatologists 2014 Conference Overview
Session 12 8:45 AM—9:45 AM Distinguished Primatologist Linda Fedigan Deciphering the Sources of Differential Reproductive Success: Conflict and Cooperation in Costa Rican Capuchins (Decatur A) 9:45 AM—10:00 AM Break (Decatur A) Session 13 10:00 AM—12:00 PM Symposium Human-Primate Interfaces: Varied Roles for Human-Primate Interactions and Relationships Organizer: Joshua Smith (Decatur A)
Session 14 Session 15 10:00 AM—12:00 PM 10:00 AM—12:00 PM Symposium Symposium Chronic Hormones and Interdisciplinary Approaches Demographic Variables: to the Study of Social Stress Center-Wide Studies on Effects on Health Non-Human Primate Organizer: Carol Shively Well-Being (Henry Oliver) Organizer: Amanda M. Dettmer (Mary Gay)
12:00 PM—1:30 PM AJP Luncheon (Oakhurst Boardroom) Session 16 1:30 PM—2:30 PM Paper Session Conservation/Demography/ Population Studies Session Chair: Erin Riley (Decatur A)
12:00 PM—1:30 PM Lunch (On Your Own)
Session 17 Session 18 1:30 PM—2:45 PM 1:30 PM—2:15 PM Paper Session Paper Session Welfare and Health Neuroscience/Pharmacology/ Session Chair: Steven Schapiro Genetics (Mary Gay) Session Chair: Christopher Schmitt (Henry Oliver)
Session 19 Session 20 2:45 PM—5:00 PM 2:45 PM—5:00 PM Paper Session Paper Session Ecology Social Behavior Session Chair: Marilyn Norconk Session Chair: Melissa Emery (Decatur A) Thompson (Henry Oliver)
Session 21 3:00 PM—5:00 PM Paper Session Behavior Session Chair: Paul Garber (Mary Gay)
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American Society of Primatologists 2014 Conference Overview
5:00 PM—7:00 PM Dinner (On Your Own) 5:00 PM—8:00 PM Board of Directors Meeting (Presidents Suite) Session 22 7:00 PM—9:00 PM Poster Session 2 (Decatur B) Monday, September 15, 2014 8:00 AM—9:30 AM Breakfast (Prefunction Area)
8:00 AM—12:00 PM Registration (Prefunction Area) 8:30 AM—8:45 AM Morning Announcements (Decatur A) Session 23 8:45 AM—9:45 AM Featured Speaker Toni Ziegler Becoming a Father Changes Everything: The Behavioral Neuroendocrinology of Parenting in Male Marmosets and Tamarins (Decatur A) 9:45 AM—10:00 AM Break (Decatur A)
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American Society of Primatologists 2014 Conference Overview Session 24 10:00 AM—12:00 PM Symposium Methodological Advances in Social Learning Organizer: Dorothy Fragaszy (Decatur A)
Session 25 10:00 AM—12:00 PM Symposium Recent Advances in Primate Nutritional Ecology: The Importance of Nutrient Balancing Organizer: Nicoletta Righini (Mary Gay)
Session 26 10:00 AM—12:00 PM Workshop Facilitating Collaboration Between Veterinarians and Behavioral Scientists to Enhance Animal Care and Welfare Organizer: Michele Fahey (Henry Oliver)
12:00 PM—1:00 PM Lunch (On Your Own) Session 27 1:00 PM—3:15 PM Paper Session Behavior Session Chair: Amanda M. Dettmer (Mary Gay)
Session 28 1:00 PM—2:30 PM Paper Session Colony Management/Enrichment Session Chair: Julie M. Worlein (Henry Oliver)
3:15 PM—4:45 PM Business Meeting (Decatur A)
4:50 PM Silent Auction Closes (Decatur B) 6:00 PM Buses depart for Closing Banquet at Sweetwater Brewery (Prefunction Area) 7:00 PM—11:00 PM Closing Banquet (Buses leave at 6:00 PM) (Sweetwater Brewery)
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2014 ASP Meeting: Scientific and Social Program Friday, September 12, 2014 : Day 1
10:00 AM-06:30 PM:
Vendor Setup (Decatur B)
10:00 AM-06:30 PM:
Registration (Prefunction Area)
01:00 PM-05:00 PM:
Standing Committee Meetings — Various Rooms (Prefunction Area)
Media and Information — Henry Oliver F
Membership and Finance — Avondale
Primate Care — Mary Gay D
Research and Development — Mary Gay C
Conservation — Henry Oliver E
Awards and Recognition — Oakhurst Boardroom
Education — Mary Gay C
Legacy Fundraising — Henry Oliver E
Publications — Henry Oliver F
Scientific Program — Mary Gay D
03:00 PM-06:30 PM:
Silent Auction Setup (Decatur B)
05:00 PM-06:30 PM:
Past Presidents Reception (Presidents Suite)
06:30 PM-08:30 PM:
Opening Reception (Old Courthouse on the Square) Saturday, September 13, 2014 : Day 2
08:00 AM-09:30 AM:
Breakfast (Prefunction Area)
08:00 AM-05:30 PM:
Registration (Prefunction Area)
08:30 AM-08:45 AM:
Morning Announcements (Decatur A)
08:45 AM-09:45 AM:
Session 1: Featured Speaker: Thomas Gillespie INTEGRATED CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH IN THE GREATER GOMBE ECOSYSTEM, TANZANIA (Decatur A) 
09:45 AM-10:00 AM:
Break (Decatur A)
10:00 AM-11:45 AM:
Session 2: Interdisciplinary Symposium: INTEGRATING PRIMATE AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH: THE ONE HEALTH PERSPECTIVE (Decatur A) 
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THE GOMBE ECOHEALTH PROJECT: LONG-TERM INTEGRATED HEALTH-MONITORING IN WILD CHIMPANZEES E. Lonsdorf, D. Travis, I. Lipende, T. Gillespie, J. Raphael, K. Terio, C. Murray, B. Hahn, A. Pusey  INCORPORATING PATHOLOGY INTO THE GOMBE ECOHEALTH PROJECT: DEAD ANIMALS DO TELL TALES K. A. Terio, I. Lipende, J. Raphael, D. A. Travis, E. V. Lonsdorf, B. A. Hahn, M. J. Kinsel  EVALUATING THE ENTERIC MICROBIOME OF SIVCPZ INFECTED WILD-LIVING CHIMPANZEES H. J. Barbian, M. A. Ramirez, Y. Li, I. Lipende, D. Mjungu, A. E. Pusey, E. V. Lonsdorf, F. Bibollet-Ruche, B. H. Hahn  ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ZOONOTIC ENTERIC PATHOGENS FROM HUMANS, WILD PRIMATES AND DOMESTICATED ANIMALS IN THE GREATER GOMBE ECOSYSTEM, TANZANIA M. B. Parsons, D. Travis, E. V. Lonsdorf, I. Lipende, A. Collins, L. Xiao, S. Kamenya, D. Elchoufi, T. R. Gillespie 
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE OUTBREAKS AMONG CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) IN GOMBE STREAM NATIONAL PARK FROM 2004-2012 T. M. Wolf, E. Lonsdorf, I. Lipende, T. Gillespie, K. Terio, B. Hahn, A. Pusey, C. Murray, R. Singer, D. Travis 
IDENTIFYING HOTSPOTS FOR ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION: QUANTIFYING FINE-SCALE MOVEMENT OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS RELATIVE TO CHIMPANZEES AT GOMBE STREAM NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA G. Vazquez-Prokopec, M. B. Parsons, D. A. Travis, E. V. Lonsdorf, I. Lipende, B. Gilagiza, S. Kamenya, L. Pintea, T. R. Gillespie  SCIENCE-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT PLANNING FOR GREAT APES
D. A. Travis, E. V. Lonsdorf, T. R. Gillespie, I. Lipende, J. Raphael, K. A. Terio, C. M. Murray, D. Mjungu, A. Collins, M. B. Parsons, T. Wolf, R. Singer, B. H. Hahn, M. L. Wilson, A. E. Pusey 
11:45 AM-01:15 PM:
Lunch (On Your Own)
11:45 AM-01:00 PM:
Session 3: Workshop: BEING A SCIENTIST ONLINE: POSSIBILITIES, PRAGMATICS & PITFALLS (Swanton Amphitheatre) 
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01:15 PM-02:00 PM:
Session 4: Evolution Session Chair: Jared Taglialatela (Decatur A) DOES THE FACE SIGNAL STATUS? CAPTIVE CAPUCHINS’ RESPONSE TO WIDE VERSUS NARROW FACES V. Wilson, H. Buchanan-Smith, M. Gartner, A. El-Shaarawi, R. D’eath, A. Little, F. B. Morton 
ANCESTRAL ADH4 ENZYMES INDICATE THE ANCESTORS OF HUMANS (HOMO SAPIENS) AND GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA) ADAPTED TO FERMENTED FRUIT. M. Carrigan, O. Uryasev, C. B. Frye, C. R. Myers, T. D. Hurley, S. A. Benner 
COMMUNICATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHIMPANZEES AND BONOBOS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN SPEECH J. P. Taglialatela, B. A. Moore, W. D. Hopkins 
01:15 PM-02:00 PM:
Session 5: Feeding/Nutrition Session Chair: Toni Ziegler (Mary Gay) THE EFFECT OF FRUIT AND FLOWER AVAILABILITY ON FLOWER FORAGING IN WHITE-FACED CAPUCHINS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) IN SECTOR SANTA ROSA, COSTA RICA J. D. Hogan, A. D. Melin, L. M. Fedigan  WHY DO RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) EAT SOIL?
B. P. Marriott, R. L. Jones, J. Roemer, IV, C. J. Sultana, H. M. Habermann (dec.), J. C. Smith, Jr.  VITAMIN D METABOLITES; VALUE COMPARISONS IN THREE LABORATORY PRIMATE SPECIES:COMMON MARMOSET, RHESUS AND CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUE T. E. Ziegler, A. Kapoor, C. J. Hedman, J. W. Kemnitz 
01:15 PM-02:00 PM:
Session 6: Infant Development/Maternal Behavior Session Chair: John Capitanio (Henry Oliver) NEONATAL CAREGIVER-INFANT SOCIAL EXCHANGES AFFECT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NURSERY-REARED RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE E. A. Simpson, A. Paukner, S. J. Suomi, P. F. Ferrari 
SEX AND BIRTH ORDER PREDICT JUVENILE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) C. L. Nunez, M. N. Grote, M. Wechsler, K. J. Hinde 
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NEUROPEPTIDE MANIPULATION MODULATES RESPONSES TO INFANT STIMULI IN MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) J. H. Taylor, J. A. French 
02:15 PM-03:15 PM:
Session 7: Keynote Address: William Hopkins HOW RESEARCH WITH CHIMPANZEES INFORMS HUMAN HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR: WHAT THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND NIH IGNORED IN THEIR DELIBERATIONS (Decatur A) 
03:30 PM-05:30 PM:
Session 8: THE MANY INFLUENCES OF ONE PRIMATOLOGIST: DR. TERRY MAPLE: Mollie Bloomsmith (Decatur A) 
SOMETHING IMPORTANT THAT TERRY TAUGHT ME: CAREER COLLABORATION M. Hoff 
INTEGRATING COGNITIVE RESEARCH AND ANIMAL WELFARE B. M. Perdue 
IMPROVEMENTS IN LABORATORY PRIMATE WELFARE: DR. TERRY MAPLE’S INFLUENCE M. Bloomsmith 
THE ROLE OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN CAPTIVE PRIMATE MANAGEMENT: DR. TERRY MAPLE’S INFLUENCE A. L. Martin 
TO THE FIELD OR NOT TO THE FIELD? WHAT IS THE RESEARCH QUESTION? E. L. Zucker 
03:30 PM-05:30 PM:
Session 9: Symposium: DIFFERENT INSIGHTS ABOUT SOCIAL PROCESSES IN PRIMATES: Melissa Suzanne Gerald (Mary Gay)  CONNECTIONS MATTER: INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS AND THEIR PERTURBATIONS ON KEY INDICATORS OF HEALTH IN RHESUS MACAQUE SOCIETIES B. McCowan 
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN COGNITION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN S. F. Brosnan, M. J. Beran, L. E. Williams, B. J. Wilson 
‘UNUSUAL’ ANIMAL MODELS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND EARLY EXPERIENCE IN HEALTHY AGING K. L. Bales 
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LONELY MONKEYS: WHEN SOCIAL DESIRE AND SOCIAL ATTAINMENT CLASH J. Capitanio 
INSIGHTS FROM PRIMATE MODELS FOR HUMAN SOCIALITY: SYNERGIES BETWEEN STUDIES IN CAPTIVITY AND THE FIELD J. Tung 
PRIMATE SOCIAL STATUS AND GLUCOCORTICOID PRODUCTION: COSTS AND BENEFITS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS S. A. Cavigelli 
03:30 PM-05:30 PM:
ENERGETIC AND SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE LIFE HISTORIES OF CHIMPANZEES M. Emery Thompson, M. N. Muller, A. V. Georgiev, Z. P. Machanda, R. W. Wrangham  Session 10: Learning/Cognition/Language Session Chair: Dorothy Fragaszy (Henry Oliver) VARIATION IN PERFORMANCE OF CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS APELLA), RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) AND CHILDREN (HOMO SAPIENS) IN A FORCED-CHOICE DECISION-MAKING PARADIGM L. Pretot, R. Bshary, S. F. Brosnan 
CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES’ (PAN TROGLODYTES) RESPONSES TO TWO ECONOMIC GAMES K. Hall, M. J. Beran, B. J. Wilson, S. P. Lambeth, S. J. Schapiro, S. F. Brosnan  EXAMINING CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES’ NAVIGATIONAL DECISION-MAKING STRATEGIES IN VIRTUAL SMALL- AND LARGE-SCALE SPACE F. L. Dolins, C. R. Menzel, C. G. Klimowicz, J. Kelley 
CHIMPANZEE MEMORY FOR FOOD TYPE, LOCATION, QUANTITY, AND TIME K. Sayers, C. R. Menzel 
THE HYBRID DELAY TASK AND ASSESSMENTS OF SELF-CONTROL IN CAPUCHINS (SAPAJUS SPP.) AND CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) M. J. Beran, T. A. Evans, W. D. Hopkins, E. Addessi, F. Paglieri 
IMPLICIT LEARNING OF MULTIPLE STRUCTURES BY RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) L. A. Heimbauer, T. Qian, R. N. Aslin, D. J. Weiss 
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CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) MISPERCEIVE FOOD QUANTITIES IN CERTAIN CONTEXTS A. E. Parrish, M. J. Beran 
ARE CHIMPANZEES TRAPPED IN THE “PERMANENT PRESENT?” EVIDENCE FROM FORAGING TASKS C. R. Menzel, K. Sayers 
05:30 PM-07:00 PM:
Executive Committee Meeting (Avondale)
05:30 PM-07:00 PM:
Dinner (On Your Own)
07:00 PM-09:00 PM:
Session 11: Poster Session 1 (Decatur B)
EXPLORING THE AFFECTIVE ASPECTS OF FUR RUBBING IN CAPTIVE BROWN CAPUCHIN (CEBUS APELLA) J. P. Jefferson, A. Riddle, A. Paukner, S. J. Suomi  HANDEDNESS INFLUENCES INTERMANUAL TRANSFER IN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) BUT NOT RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) E. R. Boeving, A. Lacreuse, W. D. Hopkins, K. A. Phillips, M. A. Novak, E. L. Nelson  TOOL-USE COMPREHENSION IN LION-TAILED MACAQUES (MACACA SILENUS) S. E. Haverly, P. G. Judge  EXPERIMENTAL REMOVAL OF HIGH-RANKING NATAL MALES ALTERS THE STRUCTURE OF SILENT-BARED-TEETH DISPLAY NETWORKS IN CAPTIVE GROUPS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) B. A. Beisner, B. McCowan  SINGING AND SWINGING: THE EVOLUTION OF PRIMATE CALL STRUCTURE AS A FUNCTION OF SUBSTRATE USE D. M. Schruth, C. N. Templeton  COMMON MARMOSETS’ (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) RESPONSES TO SNAKE CHARACTERISTICS J. R. Wombolt, S. Neal, M. G. Rice, N. G. Caine  HAND PREFERENCE IN SIAMANGS (SYMPHALANGUS SYNDACTYLUS) AT THE EL PASO ZOO IN TEXAS D. O. Spence, B. Benefit 
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VALIDATION OF A PARTNER PREFERENCE TEST IN COPPERY TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS). E. S. Rothwell, S. B. Carp, S. M. Freeman, E. Ferrer, K. L. Bales  CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (SAPAJUS LIBIDINOSIS) HANDLE STONE TOOLS SKILLFULLY D. M. Fragaszy, K. Smith, R. Baldree, M. Haslam  Colony Management/Enrichment THE EFFECT OF PAIR HOUSING ON THE AYE-AYE (DAUBENTONIA MADAGASCARIENSIS) F. G. McCrossin  STRUCTURE UTILIZATION BY INDOOR GROUP-HOUSED JUVENILE PIGTAILED MACAQUES (MACACA NEMESTRINA) G. H. Lee, R. Kroeker, D. M. Christie, R. U. Bellanca, J. M. Worlein  DOES NEARBY CONSTRUCTION INCREASE AGGRESSION IN OUTDOOR, SOCIALLY HOUSED MACAQUES? D. H. Gottlieb, K. Andrews, K. Coleman, C. L. Johnson, C. M. Lender, K. Prongay, K. Taylor  Conservation TORPOR IN A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED PRIMATE: CLIMATE EFFECTS ON JAVAN SLOW LORIS (NYCTICEBUS JAVANICUS) BEHAVIOR K. D. Reinhardt, D. Spaan, I. Wirdateti, K. A. I. Nekaris  INTERPRETING CENSUS VARIATION IN PLATYRRHINES: DECADAL AND SEASONAL REPEATED CENSUSES AT BROWNSBERG NATURE PARK, SURINAME M. A. Norconk, B. W. Wright, J. W. Moore, J. A. Ledogar  CONNECTING PEOPLE WITH PRIMATES TO CONNECT THE HABITAT F. Vidal-Garcia, J. C. Serio-Silva, L. M. Ayala-Camacho, C. Oliva-Uribe  Ecology PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN HUMANS, WILDLIFE, AND LIVESTOCK IN AND AROUND GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA D. Elchoufi, M. Parsons, D. Travis, E. V. Lonsdorf, I. Lipende, S. Kamenya, T. R. Gillespie 
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ARE TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF FRUIT AVAILABILITY DRIVING OWL MONKEY (AOTUS AZARAE) REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS AND SEASONALITY? B. J. Finkel, G. van der Heide, A. Di Fiore, E. Fernandez-Duque  Endocrinology THE EFFECTS OF EXTRACTION METHOD AND FREEZE/ THAW CYCLES ON FECAL CORTISOL METABOLITES MEASUREMENTS IN SULAWESI CRESTED BLACK MACAQUES AT THE BUFFALO ZOO D. A. Bertrand, M. Heistermann, S. W. Margulis, C. M. Berman  THE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN ON RESPONSE TO NOVELTY IN JUVENILE TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) T. A. R. Weinstein, S. P. Mendoza, W. A. Mason, M. Solomon, S. Jacob, K. L. Bales  Genetics SOCIAL SUBORDINATION, 5-HT TRANSPORTER GENE POLYMORPHISMS, AND BONE MASS AMONG OVARIECTOMIZED, SOCIALLY-HOUSED FEMALE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) A. Mummert, M. Sanchez, Z. Johnson, M. E. Wilson  CHIMPANZEE SOCIAL TOLERANCE AND POSSIBLE GENETIC INFLUENCES OF THE VASOPRESSIN V1A RECEPTOR GENE S. L. Bogart, J. L. Russell, L. A. Reamer, M. C. Mareno, S. J. Schapiro, W. D. Hopkins  MAOA GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND INFLUENCE ON MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTER FUNCTIONING IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) LIVING IN LARGE OUTDOOR CORRALS D. G. Loveland, B. E. Dent, M. A. Skidmore, A. N. Sorenson, M. L. Schwandt, S. G. Lindell, S. J. Suomi, C. S. Barr, J. D. Higley  Infant Development/Maternal Behavior EXPLORING THE VARIABLE WEANING STRATEGIES OF CAPTIVE FEMALE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) USING STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS K. A. Partrick, L. J. Reitsema 
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THE ONTOGENY OF SPONTANEOUS LIPSMACKING IN INFANT RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) IN RESPONSE TO VISUAL STIMULI S. P. Perkins, E. Feczko, S. Huskisson, L. A. Parr  SPEED OF SKIN AND COAT COLOR CHANGES INDICATE MATERNAL EFFECTS ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT IN LANGURS (SEMNOPITHECUS SCHISTACEUS) A. Koenig, C. Borries  Learning/Cognition/Language GROUP DIFFERENCES IN COMMON MARMOSET (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) ALARM CALL SIGNATURES M. G. Rice, M. M. Petracca, N. G. Caine  DEVELOPMENT OF A COGNITIVE TESTING APPARATUS FOR SOCIALLY HOUSED MOTHER-PEER-REARED INFANT RHESUS MONKEYS A. M. Dettmer, A. M. Murphy, S. J. Suomi  Neuroscience/Pharmacology USING MAQFACS TO MEASURE FACIAL MOVEMENT CHANGES DURING MPTP TREATMENT IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) T. R. Heitz, A. Galvan, T. Wichmann, L. A. Parr  MU AND KAPPA OPIOID RECEPTOR BINDING IN THE FOREBRAIN OF THE MONOGAMOUS TITI MONKEY (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) B. J. Ragen, S. M. Freeman, S. A. Laredo, S. P. Mendoza, K. L. Bales  TRACTOGRAPHY OF THE SPIDER MONKEY CORPUS CALLOSUM (ATELES GEOFFROYI) USING DIFFUSION TENSOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING. D. A. Platas-Neri, S. Hidalgo-Tobón , B. da Celis Alonso , F. Chico, J. Muñoz-Delgado , K. A. Phillips  Physiology/Immunology SOCIABILITY IS RELATED TO LOWER BASELINE IMMUNE ACTIVITY IN RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) J. J. Vandeleest, J. Jin, B. McCowan  PERSONALITY AND BLOOD CHEMISTRY ASSOCIATIONS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH IN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) D. M. Altschul, D. Sinn, A. Weiss 
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Social Behavior TALK TO THE HAND: HAMADRYAS BABOON (PAPIO HAMADRYAS) HAND PREFERENCE IN GESTURAL COMMUNICATION R. Vagell  AFFILIATIVE USE OF THE BARED TEETH DISPLAY IN OUTDOOR CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES K. R. Finn, B. A. Beisner, E. Bliss-Moreau, B. McCowan  SOCIAL INTERACTIONS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) THROUGH STEPS OF PAIR CAGING INTRODUCTION M. A. Truelove, A. L. Martin, J. E. Perlman, M. A. Bloomsmith  PERSONALITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN FRIENDSHIPS AFTER SOCIAL SEPARATION IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) J. Jin, B. A. Beisner, J. J. Vandeleest, B. McCowan  Welfare & Health PROMOTING WILD POSTURES: THE USE OF GUM-BASED ENRICHMENT IN INCREASING THE NATURAL BEHAVIORS OF RESCUED SLOW LORISES (NYCTICEBUS BENGALENSIS, N. PYGMAEUS AND N. COUCANG) IN THAILAND S. A. Poindexter, K. A. I. Nekaris  09:00 PM-11:00 PM:
Student Mixer (Henry Oliver) Sunday, September 14, 2014 : Day 3
06:30 AM-07:00 AM:
Fifth Annual Primate Promenade: The (Pan) Troglodytes Trot – 5K Run/2K Walk (Prefunction Area)
08:00 AM-09:30 AM:
Breakfast (Prefunction Area)
08:00 AM-05:30 PM:
Registration (Prefunction Area)
08:30 AM-08:45 AM:
Morning Announcements (Decatur A)
08:45 AM-09:45 AM:
Session 12: Distinguished Primatologist: Linda Marie Fedigan DECIPHERING THE SOURCES OF DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS: CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN COSTA RICAN CAPUCHINS (Decatur A) 
09:45 AM-10:00 AM:
Break (Decatur A)
10:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Session 13: Symposium: HUMAN-PRIMATE INTERFACES: VARIED ROLES FOR HUMAN-PRIMATE INTERACTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS: Joshua Joseph Smith (Decatur A) 
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PRIMATE TOURISM: THE PROS AND CONS OF HUMAN-PRIMATE ENCOUNTERS A. E. Russon, J. Wallis 
APE-HUMAN INTERACTIONS IN THE ZOO: IMPLICATIONS FOR APE WELFARE AND ZOO RESEARCH J. J. Smith 
A PARALLEL EFFORT OF STUDYING CHIMPANZEES IN THE LABORATORY AND IN THE WILD T. Matsuzawa 
THE ROLES THAT HUMANS CAN PLAY IN ENHANCING SOCIAL, COMMUNICATIVE, COGNITIVE, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG NURSERY-REARED CHIMPANZEES K. A. Bard 
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RESPONSE OF SINGLY HOUSED RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) TO HUMAN INTERACTION K. C. Baker 
IMPLICATIONS OF CAREGIVER RELATIONSHIPS IN PRIMATE SANCTUARIES S. Baeckler Davis 
10:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Session 14: Symposium: CHRONIC HORMONES AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: CENTER-WIDE STUDIES ON NON-HUMAN PRIMATE WELL-BEING: Amanda M. Dettmer (Mary Gay)  RISK FACTORS FOR ALOPECIA AND HAIR CORTISOL IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA): PRELIMINARY FINDINGS C. K. Lutz, K. Coleman, J. S. Meyer, D. Arnold, A. Hamel, K. Rosenberg, M. A. Novak  FACILITY OF ORIGIN AFFECTS LATER ALOPECIA IN RHESUS MACAQUES R. Kroeker, G. H. Lee, R. U. Bellanca, J. P. Thom, J. M. Worlein 
MATRILINE FRAGMENTATION AND ALOPECIA IN CAPTIVE OUTDOOR SOCIALLY-HOUSED RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) D. Hannibal, B. Beisner, B. McCowan 
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INFLUENCE OF PREGNANCY ON HAIR LOSS AND CHRONIC HORMONE PROFILES IN RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) A. M. Dettmer, K. Rosenberg, M. T. Menard, M. A. Novak, J. S. Meyer, S. J. Suomi  THE CORRELATION OF ALOPECIA AND ANXIETY BEHAVIOR IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) K. Coleman, D. H. Gottlieb, C. K. Lutz, J. M. Worlein, E. Peterson, G. H. Lee, K. Rosenberg, M. T. Menard, M. A. Novak  HAIR CORTISOL PHENOTYPE PREDICTS RHESUS MONKEY (MACACA MULATTA) BEHAVIOR DURING THE HUMAN INTRUDER TEST A. F. Hamel, C. K. Lutz, K. Coleman, J. M. Worlein, E. J. Peterson, K. L. Rosenberg, J. S. Meyer, M. A. Novak 
10:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Session 15: Symposium: INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SOCIAL STRESS EFFECTS ON HEALTH: Carol A. Shively (Henry Oliver)  AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FEMALE MACAQUE MODEL OF SOCIAL SUBORDINATION STRESS M. E. Wilson 
SOCIAL SUBORDINATION ALTERS NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE MACAQUES: FOCUS ON PREFRONTAL CORTEX, AMYGDALA AND EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY DURING ADOLESCENCE. M. Sanchez, B. Howell, J. Godfrey, M. Wilson 
ACUTE STRESSOR EXPOSURE POTENTIATES THE CONSEQUENCES OF CHRONIC STRESS ON INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION J. Kohn, M. Wilson, Z. Johnson 
LOW SOCIAL RANK PRIOR TO SIV OR SHIV INFECTION ASSOCIATES WITH HIGHER VIRAL LOAD IN CHRONIC INFECTION OF INDIVIDUALLY HOUSED RHESUS MACAQUES G. N. Neigh, T. Hayes, R. Trible, T. H. Vanderford, D. G. Carnathan, K. Easley, M. Paiardini, G. Silvestri 
EFFECTS OF SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS AND SOCIAL STRESS ON BODY COMPOSITION AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN FEMALE CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) M. G. Silverstein, T. C. Register, S. E. Appt, C. A. Shively 
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MODULATION OF STRESS SIGNALING PATHWAYS BY CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS AND ANTIDEPRESSANT TREATMENT IN OLFACTORY NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS FROM SOCIALLYHOUSED FEMALE MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) S. L. Willard, K. E. Borgmann-Winter, C. A. Shively, C. G. Hahn 
EMOTIONAL FEEDING AND NEUROADAPTATIONS TO SOCIAL STRESS V. Michopoulos, C. Moore, D. Toufexis, Z. Johnson, M. Wilson 
DIETARY MODIFICATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSES C. A. Shively, T. C. Register, M. Z. Vitolins, M. E. Wilson, S. E. Appt 
12:00 PM-01:30 PM:
AJP Luncheon (Oakhurst Boardroom)
12:00 PM-01:30 PM:
Lunch (On Your Own)
01:30 PM-02:30 PM:
Session 16: Conservation/Demography/Population Studies Session Chair: Erin Riley (Decatur A)
CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION BETWEEN HUMAN AND NONHUMAN PRIMATES: ONLINE SURVEY RESULTS M. Baker, P. Pebsworth , S. Radhakrishna 
THE EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCE ON PARASITE INFECTIONS IN BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) IN SOUTHERN MEXICO R. Martinez-Mota, P. A. Garber, T. R. Gillespie 
POPULATION DEMOGRAPHY OF THE ROADSIDE RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) IN THE HIMALAYAN STATE OF UTTARAKHAND, INDIA S. K. Sahoo, A. K. Negi, R. Jajedi 
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE ASP CONSERVATION SMALL GRANT PROGRAM: TOWARD ANOTHER 25 YEARS OF EFFECTING PRIMATE CONSERVATION E. P. Riley, A. A. Zak 
01:30 PM-02:45 PM:
Session 17: Welfare and Health Session Chair: Steven Schapiro (Mary Gay) MEAN DOMINANCE RELATIONSHIP CERTAINTY IS BETTER THAN RANK AT PREDICTING DIARRHEA INCIDENCE AND WOUNDING IN CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) B. A. Beisner, J. J. Vandeleest, F. Hsieh, K. Fujii, B. McCowan 
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EFFECTS OF ENHANCED ENRICHMENT IN RUN-HOUSED SOOTY MANGABEYS J. Crast, T. J. Jones, M. A. Bloomsmith 
DOMINANCE, GLUCOCORTICOIDS, AND SPATIAL COMPRESSION IN A CAPTIVE GROUP OF BACHELOR GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA) L. Torgerson-White, M. McGuire, S. Allard, C. Bennett 
MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF ENTAMOEBA SPP. AND THE DIFFERENTIATION OF NON-COMMENSAL ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA TO UNDERSTAND HEALTH RISKS TO ENDANGERED MOUNTAIN GORILLAS IN RWANDA W. Eckardt, D. H. Ryu, T. S. Stoinski, A. J. Williams-Newkirk, J. R. Hensley, D. Abavandimwe, J. P. Mucyo, T. R. Gillespie 
PROVIDING CHIMPANZEES WITH OPPORTUNITIES TO VOLUNTARILY PARTICIPATE IN THEIR OWN CARE: CHOICE OF MEDICATIONS S. J. Schapiro, L. A. Reamer, M. C. Mareno, S. P. Lambeth 
01:30 PM-02:15 PM:
Session 18: Neuroscience/Pharmacology/Genetics Session Chair: Christopher Schmitt (Henry Oliver) HIGH GENETIC HERITABILITY OF OBESOGENIC GROWTH IN CAPTIVE VERVET MONKEYS (CHLOROCEBUS SPP.) C. A. Schmitt, S. Service, R. M. Cantor, A. J. Jasinska, M. J. Jorgensen, J. R. Kaplan, N. B. Freimer  DIFFERENCES IN SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER DENSITY IN THE AMYGDALA OF BONOBOS (PAN PANISCUS) AND CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE REGULATION OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR C. D. Stimpson, W. D. Hopkins, J. P. Taglialatela, N. Barger, P. R. Hof, C. C. Sherwood 
OXYTOCIN FACILITATES FIDELITY IN WELL-ESTABLISHED MARMOSET PAIRS BY REDUCING SOCIOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR TOWARD OPPOSITE-SEX STRANGERS J. Cavanaugh, A. C. Mustoe, J. H. Taylor, J. A. French 
02:45 PM-05:00 PM:
Session 19: Ecology Session Chair: Marilyn Norconk (Decatur A) INFLUENCE OF FRUIT AND INVERTEBRATE AVAILABILITY ON PATTERNS OF SPATIAL ASSOCIATION IN WHITE-FACED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) IN NORTHEASTERN COSTA RICA E. K. Mallott 
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PREDATION RATE AND FUTURE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL EXPLAIN HOME RANGE SIZE IN GOLDEN LION TAMARINS S. J. Hankerson, J. M. Dietz 
FACTORS INFLUENCING REVISITATION RATES TO FEEDING TREES IN WILD BORNEAN ORANGUTANS (PONGO PYGMAEUS WURMBII) IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA K. E. Markham, M. A. van Noordwijk, E. R. Vogel 
ACTIVITY PATTERNS, DIET AND THE EVOLUTION OF COLOR VISION IN ARCHONTA A. D. Melin, G. L. Moritz, K. Wells, C. Danosi, Y. Matsushita, G. McCracken, S. Kawamura, N. J. Dominy  ADAPTING TO FLORIDA’S RIVERINE FLOODPLAINS: THE DIET AND ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) IN SILVER SPRINGS STATE PARK T. W. Wade, E. P. Riley 
RANGING BEHAVIOR AMONG WILD WHITE-HANDED GIBBONS (HYLOBATES LAR) IN A MOSAIC FOREST IN HUAI KHA KHAENG WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, WESTERN THAILAND L. E. Light 
CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY OF HYBRIDISING MACAQUES (GENUS MACACA) IN SOUTHERN CHINA AND JAPAN C. Boel, D. Curnoe 
VIRTUAL FIELDWORK: BRINGING CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) INTO PROVIDENCE, RI CLASSROOMS M. Baker, B. Canning, E. Dayon, R. Lazo, C. LaChance 
02:45 PM-05:00 PM:
Session 20: Social Behavior Session Chair: Melissa Emery Thompson (Henry Oliver) SOCIAL AND GENETIC FACTORS MEDIATING MALE PARTICIPATION IN COLLECTIVE ACTION IN BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) S. Van Belle, P. A. Garber, A. Estrada, A. Di Fiore 
SOCIAL EXPERIENCE PREDICTS SOCIAL PREFERENCE IN MACACA MULATTA E. Bliss-Moreau, G. Moadab, A. Santistevan , D. Amaral 
AUDIENCE EFFECTS IN A GAMBLING TASK WITH CHIMPANZEES D. Proctor, S. Calcutt, F. B. de Waal 
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MARMOSETS’ RESPONSES TO INEQUITY FOLLOWING OXYTOCIN MANIPULATION A. C. Mustoe, J. A. French 
FORMATION OF A DOMINANCE HIERARCHY IN TWO NEWLY FORMED GROUPS OF CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) S. E. Calcutt, J. Watzek, M. Suchak, F. B. de Waal, M. Suchak 
CONTEXTUAL STABILITY OF BEHAVIORALLY ASSESSED PERSONALITY TRAITS IN TWO GROUPS OF CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) J. Watzek, D. Proctor, S. E. Calcutt, F. B. de Waal 
MAKE-UP SEX: THE ROLE OF POST-CONFLICT SEXUAL CONTACTS IN SEMI-FREE BONOBOS, PAN PANSICUS Z. Clay, F. de Waal 
FOOD-ASSOCIATED CALLING BEHAVIOR IN THE GOMBE CHIMPANZEES: MANAGING THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN FOOD AND FRIENDS L. R. O’Bryan, M. L. Wilson 
RANK, REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, AND RATES OF AGONISTIC AND AFFILIATIVE BEHAVIORS IN RHESUS MACAQUES K. M. Milich, D. Maestripieri 
03:00 PM-05:00 PM:
Session 21: Behavior Session Chair: Paul Garber (Mary Gay) VISITOR EFFECTS ON CAPTIVE SULAWESI CRESTED BLACK MACAQUES AT THE BUFFALO ZOO D. A. Bertrand, C. M. Berman, S. W. Margulis 
INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON CATHEMERAL ACTIVITY AMONG SOUTHERN BAMBOO LEMURS T. M. Eppley, J. U. Ganzhorn, G. Donati 
THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY COMPOSITION ON GROUP DYNAMICS IN SANCTUARY CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) N. G. Sharpe, D. R. Davison, B. McCowan 
EFFECT OF REWARD TYPE ON REINFORCED LEARNING BEHAVIOR IN LABORATORY-HOUSED COPPERY TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) S. M. Freeman, N. Rebout, K. L. Bales 
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EVALUATING AND APPRECIATING BEHAVIORAL TRAINING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AFRICAN GREEN MONKEYS (CHLOROCEBUS AETHIOPS SABAEUS) AND CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) J. Makar, L. R. Hamilton, T. M. Myers 
FEMALE OLIVE BABOONS (PAPIO ANUBIS) DISRUPT THE MATING ACTIVITIES OF OTHER FEMALES: EVIDENCE FOR FEMALE-FEMALE COMPETITION? J. Walz, D. M. Kitchen 
SQUIRREL MONKEYS COORDINATE ON A COOPERATIVE BAR PULL TASK C. F. Talbot, K. Hall, L. E. Williams, S. F. Brosnan 
SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES AND PARTNER PREFERENCES IN WILD SADDLEBACK TAMARINS (SAGUINUS WEDDELLI) P. A. Garber, J. C. Bicca-Marques 
05:00 PM-07:00 PM:
Dinner (On Your Own)
05:00 PM-08:00 PM:
Board of Directors Meeting (Presidents Suite)
07:00 PM-09:00 PM:
Session 22: Poster Session 2 (Decatur B)
Behaviour DOES THE FULL MOON AFFECT WOUNDING IN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES)? J. Bridges, L. A. Reamer, S. P. Lambeth, S. J. Schapiro  EFFECTIVE TOOL CHOICE BY CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) L. M. Mahovetz, W. D. Hopkins  ONTOGENY OF POSITIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HABITAT USE IN ANGOLA BLACK AND WHITE COLOBUS MONKEYS (COLOBUS ANGOLENSIS PALLIATUS) FROM SOUTH COASTAL KENYA N. T. Dunham, W. S. McGraw  USING VIDEO CAMERA TRAPS TO STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF THE NEWLY ANNOUNCED GUENON LESULA, CERCOPITHECUS LOMAMIENSIS, FROM THE LOMAMI RIVER BASIN, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO S. G. McPhee, P. Ayali, J. A. Hart, K. M. Detwiler 
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COMPOUND GRIP IN CAPTIVE TUFTED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (SAPAJUS SPP) C. E. Jones, D. Fragaszy  5HTTLPR GENE, MOTHER’S SOCIAL DOMINANCE, AND INFANT CORTISOL IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) LIVING IN LARGE OUTDOOR ENCLOSURES K. R. Glass, M. T. Bennett, B. S. Humbert, A. N. Sorenson, B. Mcowan, J. P. Capitanio, J. D. Higley  CHRONIC INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN AFFECTS SOCIAL PREFERENCE BEHAVIOR IN JUVENILE TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) R. Arias del Razo, T. A. R Weinstein, S. P. Mendoza, M. Solomon, S. Jacob, K. L. Bales  ASSOCIATION BETWEEN STRESS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ACROSS DEVELOPMENT IS SEX DEPENDENT IN MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX GEOFFROYI) M. C. Huffman, J. A. French  Breeding/Reproduction AN EXAMINATION OF TWIN BIRTHS IN A CAPTIVE COLONY OF GARNETT’S BUSHBABIES (OTOLEMUR GARNETTII) S. Watson, B. Fontenot, T. Baker, J. Christopher, K. Gamble  Colony Management/Enrichment SUCCESSFUL SOCIAL HOUSING OF ADULT MALE CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES WITH SIMILAR BODYWEIGHTS D. M. Abney, J. E. Toscano, L. L. Poor, H. A. Moomaw  MATRILINEAL OVERTHROWS IN CAPTIVE GROUPS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA): A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS D. M. Sanchez, R. Herman, K. Wallen  HAIR LOSS AND HAIR CORTISOL CONCENTRATIONS IN RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) REMAIN STABLE ACROSS TIME AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION M. T. Menard, S. N. El-Mallah, A. F. Hamel, K. Rosenberg, C. K. Lutz, K. Coleman, J. Worlein, J. S. Meyer, M. A. Novak  Conservation EVALUATING THE USE AND EFFICACY OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION DISPLAYS AT ZOOS L. A. Taglialatela 
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IDENTITY AND CONSERVATION MODELS IN BALANCAN, MEXICO: KEY TO SAVING THE CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEXICAN BLACK HOWLER MONKEY J. C. Serio-Silva, F. Vidal-García, A. Balandra-Montes de Oca, M. A. Alvarado-Villalobos, J. Aristizabal, H. M. Díaz-Lopez, R. A. Collado-Torres, B. Valenzuela-Córdova, L. M. Ayala-Camacho, C. Oliva-Uribe, A. Villalón, M. Franquesa-Soler, A. Cambou, D. Tejero-Gerónimo  THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ON CHILDREN’S LEARNING: THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE F. Vidal-Garcia, K. A. Esper-Reyes, J. C. Serio-Silva  Demography/Population Studies SURVEY OF THE LONG-TAILED MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) ON JAVA, INDONESIA: DISTRIBUTION AND HUMAN-PRIMATE CONFLICT R. C. Kyes, E. Iskandar, D. P. Farajallah, S. Saputro, P. Kyes, F. Iskandar, J. Pamungkas  PRELIMINARY CENSUS OF FREE RANGING VERVET MONKEYS, CHLOROCEBUS SABAEUS, IN DANIA BEACH, FLORIDA D. M. Williams, E. T. Broemel, K. M. Detwiler  Ecology HABITAT AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE STATUS DIFFERENCES IN URINARY INDICES OF HEALTH IN WILD BLACK HOWLING MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) IN BALANCAN, MEXICO E. L. Zucker, J. C. Serio-Silva, D. Tejero-Geronimo  CONSPECIFIC PROXIMITY OF PAN TROGLODYTES, PAN PANISCUS, AND GORILLA GORILLA AND THE ROLE OF THE PRESENCE OF FOOD ON SOCIO-ECOLOGY S. C. Milne, J. Taglialatela  Endocrinology URINARY CORTISOL IN YOUNG CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES): EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON S. D. Breaux, J. J. Breaux, S. L. Watson, M. B. Fontenot  MALE CAPUCHINS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) SHOW SIGNIFICANT ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO ECOLOGICAL FACTORS V. M. Schoof, K. M. Jack, T. E. Ziegler, A. D. Melin, L. M. Fedigan 
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Feeding/Nutrition BEYOND PEANUT BUTTER: REFINEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF THE FORAGING AND ORAL DOSING PLAN FOR CLINICAL AND ENRICHMENT PURPOSES M. C. Carey, R. J. Mistretta, W. L. Wagner, J. M. Erwin, C. Guevara, Z. Pippin, A. Lozano  Infant Development/Maternal Behavior PARENTAL CARE DYNAMICS IN THE MONOGAMOUS OWL MONKEY (AOTUS AZARAE) R. K. Boner, A. T. Garcia de la Chica, S. M. van Kuijk, M. Corley, A. DiFiore, E. Fernandez-Duque  COGNITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF MATERNAL MALTREATMENT IN JUVENILE RHESUS MONKEYS, MACACA MULATTA D. I. Sharpe, T. L. Vratanina Smoot, D. Guzman, K. McCormack, B. R. Howell, J. Bachevalier, M. M. Sanchez  HAIR CORTISOL IN PIGTAILED MACAQUE (MACACA NEMESTRINA) DAMS AND NEONATES J. M. Worlein, K. S. Grant, J. S. Meyer, M. A. Novak, K. Rosenberg, G. H. Lee, C. Kenney, T. M. Burbacher  Learning/Cognition/Language INHIBITION AND COGNITIVE CONTROL IN CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS APELLA) AND RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) T. A. Evans, M. J. Beran  NOVEL OBJECT USE TASK FROM HUMAN DEMONSTRATOR TO RHESUS MACAQUE (MACACA MULATTA) RECIPIENT IMPACTED BY REACTIVITY AS MEASURED BY THE HUMAN INTRUDER TEST A. M. Ryan, C. A. Begnoche, M. A. Novak  Neuroscience/Pharmacology THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAIN VOLUME AND CORPUS CALLOSUM SURFACE AREA IN 7 PRIMATE SPECIES E. M. Latash, W. D. Hopkins  A C-TO-T SNP IN THE PROMOTER REGION OF THE RHESUS MACAQUE (MACACA MULATTA) CRH GENE INTERACTS WITH NURSERY REARING RESULTING IN PTSD-LIKE DYSREGULATION OF THE HPA AXIS AND DISRUPTED HPA AXIS HABITUATION TO REPEATED STRESS S. A. Aston, P. H. O’Connell, J. Shackett, A. N. Sorenson, M. L. Schwandt, S. G. Lindell, S. J. Suomi, C. S. Barr, J. D. Higley 
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CHIMPANZEES’ MORE EFFICIENT HAND DURING A TOOLUSE TASK PREDICTS NEUROANATOMICAL ASYMMETRIES IN BROCA’S AND MOTOR HAND AREAS S. M. Pope, M. C. Mareno, L. A. Reamer, S. J. Schapiro, W. D. Hopkins  Other ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PRIMATOLOGICAL JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS J. P. Jefferson, T. Boussina, L. A. Isbell  Research Methods VOLUNTARY COMPUTERIZED TESTING FOR STUDYING SOCIAL COGNITION IN A SPECIES-TYPICAL SOCIAL GROUP OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) R. A. Roberts, K. Wallen  Social Behavior WILD RHESUS MACAQUE FEMALES ALLOCATE GROOMING DIFFERENTLY THAN THEIR CAPTIVE COUNTERPARTS A. L. Heagerty, S. K. Seil, B. McCowan  BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO CAGEMATE STRESS ARE INDEPENDENT OF SOCIAL RANK AND PREDICT CORTISOL OUTPUT IN GROUP-HOUSED FEMALE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) J. N. Kohn, Z. P. Johnson, D. Toufexis, M. E. Wilson  AFFILIATIVE RELATIONSHIPS, ALLIANCE SUPPORT, AND PERSONALITY INFLUENCE CUMULATIVE RECEIPT OF SUBORDINATION SIGNALS IN CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUE SOCIETIES K. R. Davidek, B. A. Beisner, B. McCowan  SOCIAL BEHAVIORS OF A CAPTIVE HAMADRYAS BABOON (PAPIO HAMADRYAS HAMADRYAS) COLONY AND ITS COMPARISON TO WILD POPULATIONS D. J. Coppeto, P. R. Morales, J. L. Wagner  POOR RECEPTIVE JOINT ATTENTION SKILLS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ATYPICAL GRAY MATTER ASYMMETRY IN THE POSTERIOR SUPERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS OF CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) W. D. Hopkins, M. B. Misiural, L. A. Reamer, J. A. Schaeffer, M. C. Moreno and S. J. Schapiro 
Conference Schedule / 32
Monday, September 15, 2014 : Day 4 08:00 AM-09:30 AM:
Breakfast (Prefunction Area)
08:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Registration (Prefunction Area)
08:30 AM-08:45 AM:
Morning Announcements (Decatur A)
08:45 AM-09:45 AM:
Session 23: Featured Speaker: Toni Ziegler BECOMING A FATHER CHANGES EVERYTHING: THE BEHAVIORAL NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF PARENTING IN MALE MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS (Decatur A) 
09:45 AM-10:00 AM:
Break (Decatur A)
10:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Session 24: Symposium: METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN SOCIAL LEARNING : Dorothy M Fragaszy (Decatur A) 
USING SOCIAL NETWORKS TO STUDY THE SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF BEHAVIOUR W. Hoppitt 
SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF FORAGING TACTICS IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS: NETWORK AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES J. Mann, E. M. Patterson, C. Newport, L. O. Singh 
INTEGRATING SOCIAL DYNAMICS INTO SOCIAL LEARNING EXPERIMENTS E. V. Lonsdorf, K. E. Bonnie, A. Krupnick, M. Grim 
USING EXPERIENCE WEIGHTED ATTRACTION MODELS TO IDENTIFY SOCIAL LEARNING STRATEGIES IN WHITE-FACED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS B. J. Barrett, S. E. Perry 
TAKING TIME INTO ACCOUNT: HOW LONG DOES SOCIAL INFLUENCE LAST? Y. Eshchar, D. M. Fragaszy 
10:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Session 25: Symposium: RECENT ADVANCES IN PRIMATE NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY: THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENT BALANCING: Nicoletta Righini (Mary Gay)  MACRONUTRIENT TRADE-OFFS IN BAOBAB (ADANSONIA DIGITATA) FRUIT FOR WESTERN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES VERUS) AT FONGOLI, SENEGAL S. M. Lindshield, J. M. Rothman, J. D. Pruetz 
Conference Schedule / 33
HOWLER MONKEY NUTRITIONAL GEOMETRY: WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM AN INTERSPECIFIC APPROACH N. Righini, V. A. Fernandez, P. A. Garber, J. M. Rothman 
DIETARY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NEIGHBORING GROUPS IN VERREAUX’S SIFAKAS F. Koch , C. Fichtel 
WITHIN- SPECIES VARIABILITY IN THE MICROHABITATS OF MOUNTAIN GORILLAS (GORILLA BERINGEI): IMPLICATIONS FOR NUTRIENT BALANCING J. M. Rothman, E. Cancelliere, D. Raubenheimer 
BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) AT PALENQUE NATIONAL PARK, MEXICO TARGET LIPID METABOLITES WHEN FORAGING K. R. Amato, K. Ju, A. V. Ulanov, P. A. Garber 
NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES DURING SPRING AND WINTER IN AN ASIAN COLOBINE, RHINOPITHECUS ROXELLANA P. A. Garber, R. Hou, N. Righini, W. Ji, B. Li, S. Guo 
NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF THE SEASONAL DIET OF FREE-RANGING BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (ALOUATTA PIGRA) IN A FRAGMENTED HABITAT OF MEXICO J. F. Aristizabal, J. M. Rothman, L. M. García-Feria, J. C. Serio-Silva  NUTRITIONAL BALANCING IN WILD BORNEAN ORANGUTANS: THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONALITY
E. R. Vogel, T. D. Bransford, M. A. van Noordwijk, D. Raubenheimer, J. M. Rothman 
10:00 AM-12:00 PM:
Session 26: Workshop:FACILITATING COLLABORATION BETWEEN VETERINARIANS AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TO ENHANCE ANIMAL CARE AND WELFARE: Michele A. Fahey (Henry Oliver) 
12:00 PM-01:00 PM:
Lunch (On Your Own)
01:00 PM-03:15 PM:
Session 27: Behavior Session Chair: Amanda M. Dettmer (Mary Gay)
DECREASES IN SCRATCHING DURING ANXIETY-PROVOKING SITUATIONS IN COMMON MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) S. J. Neal, J. Wombolt, M. Rice, N. Caine 
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THE PERSONALITY, SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING, AND HEALTH OF CAPTIVE GIBBONS (FAMILY HYLOBATIDAE) A. Weiss, M. C. Gartner, F. B. Morton, C. Cunningham, M. Inoue-Murayama  PROFILES IN COURAGE: LEADERSHIP BY MALE TUFTED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (SAPAJUS NIGRITUS) DURING INTERGROUP ENCOUNTERS C. J. Scarry 
EFFICIENCY OF MOVEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM NATURAL OBSERVATION AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS A. Howard, D. Fragaszy, M. Madden, N. Nibbelink, L. A. Young 
MOTHER-OFFSPRING BEHAVIORAL CONFLICTS IN VIRUNGA MOUNTAIN GORILLAS (GORILLA BERINGEI BERINGEI) W. Eckardt, K. Fawcett, A. W. Fletcher 
WILD VERVETS ARE “SELLING SNAKE OIL” BY SOLVING ROUTING PROBLEMS WITH SIMPLE HEURISTICS J. A. Teichroeb 
ESTRADIOL AND MALE-FEMALE ASSOCIATION PATTERNS IN WILD SPIDER MONKEYS M. A. Rodrigues 
3:00 PM 01:00 PM-02:30 PM:
VISITOR PERCEPTIONS OF INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCES WITH BONOBOS (PAN PANISCUS) AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO E. M. Carver  Abstract Withdrawn Session 28: Colony Management/Enrichment Session Chair: Julie M. Worlein (Henry Oliver) DEVELOPMENT OF A TOUCHSCREEN TESTING APPARATUS TO ASSESS RECURRENT PERSEVERATION IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) D. H. Gottlieb, S. W. Gonzales, K. A. Grant, L. Houser, K. Coleman 
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PRIMATE BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN INTERACTION TRAINING PROGRAM D. M. Abney 
Conference Schedule / 35
FACTORS IMPACTING SUCCESS AND WOUNDING DURING CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) SOCIALIZATION PROCEDURES A. W. Clay, M. A. Bloomsmith, J. E. Perlman 
PAIRING RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA): METHODOLOGY AND OUTCOMES AT FOUR NATIONAL PRIMATE RESEARCH CENTERS K. C. Baker, K. Coleman, M. A. Bloomsmith, B. McCowan, M. A. Truelove 
A COMPARISON OF TWO SOCIAL HOUSING TECHNIQUES FOR SEXUALLY MATURE MALE CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) S. L. Nelsen, D. Bradford, P. Houghton 
SOCIALIZATION IN PIGTAILED MACAQUES: FEMALES ARE UNPREDICTABLE J. M. Worlein, R. Kroeker, G. H. Lee, J. P. Thom, R. U. Bellanca, C. M. Crockett 
03:15 PM-04:45 PM:
Business Meeting (Decatur A)
04:50 PM-04:50 PM:
Silent Auction Closes (Decatur B)
06:00 PM-06:00 PM:
Buses depart for Closing Banquet at Sweetwater Brewery (Prefunction Area)
07:00 PM-11:00 PM:
Closing Banquet (Buses leave at 6:00 PM) (Sweetwater Brewery)
American Journal of Primatology 76(Suppl.):36–105 (2015)
Abstracts of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists Decatur, GA September 12–15, 2014
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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CONTRIBUTED ABSTRACTS 1. INTEGRATED CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH IN THE GREATER GOMBE ECOSYSTEM, TANZANIA T. R. Gillespie Emory University and Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA There is widespread concern that infectious diseases pose one of the greatest risks to the survival of apes in the wild. With over ﬁfty years of demographic and behavioral data, thirteen years of SIV prevalence data, ten years of syndromic health (i.e., signs of gastrointestinal and respiratory illness) and fecal macro‐ and micro‐parasitic data; the chimpanzees of Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, are arguably the best characterized wild ape population in relation to health and disease‐related threats. A disease risk analysis determined that infectious disease plays an important role in the observed and ongoing decline of the Gombe chimpanzee population, sparking the initiation of a prospective health monitoring system. After more than 12 years of non‐invasive screening of chimpanzees for SIVcpz, it is now clear that there are differences in survival and fecundity between SIVcpzþ and SIVcpz – cohorts. In addition, mixed‐methods approaches have allowed the Gombe Ecohealth team to examine the natural history of this disease and risk factors including opportunistic zoonotic and natural infections that contribute to these differences. This symposium will review the successes and challenges of this effort and provide insights as to how ﬁndings from Gombe may be applied to other wild primate research and conservation efforts.
2. INTEGRATING PRIMATE AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH: THE ONE HEALTH PERSPECTIVE T. R. Gillespie Departments of Environmental Sciences & Environmental Health, Emory University & Rollins School of Public Health, 400 Dowman Drive, Suite E510, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA Pathogen emergence is disproportionately associated with the tropics and is often linked to anthropogenic change. Unique human and primate behaviors associated with this interface can also contribute to chronic zoonotic transmission and/or disease emergence. To better understand these transmission dynamics, we have used a mixed‐methods approach in tropical African and Latin American systems integrating epidemiology, molecular ecology, behavioral ecology, vector ecology, social and clinical survey, and spatially‐explicit modeling. Using examples from our research, I will demonstrate how key human behaviors, primate behaviors, ecological conditions, and landscape features in such systems increase the risk of interspeciﬁc disease transmission among people, primates, and domesticated animals. Supported by: NIH, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Morris Animal Foundation, PIVOT, The Herrnstein Foundation, The Emory University Global Health Institute, National Geographic Society.
3. THE GOMBE ECOHEALTH PROJECT: LONG‐TERM INTEGRATED HEALTH‐MONITORING IN WILD CHIMPANZEES E. Lonsdorf1, D. Travis2, I. Lipende3, T. Gillespie4, J. Raphael5, K. Terio6, C. Murray7, B. Hahn8 and A. Pusey9 1 Department of Psychology and Biological Foundations of Behavior, Franklin and Marshall College, PO Box 3003, Lancaster, PA, 17604, USA, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 3Gombe Stream Research Centre, Kigoma, Tanzania, 4Program in Population Biology, Ecology, & Evolution and Departments of Environmental Sciences & Environmental Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 5Gombe National Park, Tanzanian National Park Authority, Tanzania, 6University of Illinois Zoological Pathology Program, Maywood, IL, 7Center for the Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 8University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 9Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC Disease and other health hazards pose serious threats to the persistence of wild ape populations. The total chimpanzee population at Gombe National Park, Tanzania has declined from perhaps 120–150 in the 1960s to around 100 by the end of 2013, with death associated with observable signs of disease, as the leading cause of mortality. In 2004, we began an observational health‐monitoring program in the two habituated communities in the park to determine population prevalence of clinical signs of ill health. Health data were collected in a standardized format on known individuals during focal follows conducted by Tanzanian ﬁeld staff. Observable clinical signs of ill health included wounds, weight loss, diarrhea and respiratory indicators (e.g., coughing). For the central Kasekela community from 2004–2012, the percent of observed individuals showing ill health in these four categories annually were: wounds (1.20–6.47%), weight loss (0–3.57%), diarrhea (0.79–12.04%) and respiratory (0.19–4.89%). The corresponding numbers for the Mitumba community were: wounds (0.83– 16.64%), weight loss (0–6.42%), diarrhea (0–10.43%) and respiratory (0–10.12%). Over the last decade, we have integrated diagnostic components such as parasitology, virology, bacteriology, endocrinology and histopathology, making the Gombe chimpanzee population one of the best‐studied in terms of both behavior and disease. Our work highlights the need for a large, collaborative team and long‐term data to fully understand the impacts of disease on a wild ape population.
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4. INCORPORATING PATHOLOGY INTO THE GOMBE ECOHEALTH PROJECT: DEAD ANIMALS DO TELL TALES K. A. Terio1, I. Lipende2, J. Raphael3, D. A. Travis4, E. V. Lonsdorf5, B. A. Hahn6 and M. J. Kinsel1 1 University of Illinois Zoolgical Pathology Program, LUMC Bldg 101 Rm 0745, 2160S First St, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA, 2Greater Gombe Ecosystem Health Project, 3Tanzania National Parks Authority, 4University of Minnesota, 5Franklin and Marshall College, 6 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Health surveillance of wildlife populations is challenging because it can be difﬁcult to obtain useful samples. The actual risks posed by pathogens are not evident by identiﬁcation of infectious agents within samples or by serology because not all infections result in disease. With proper training and equipment, necropsies can be safely performed in the ﬁeld and, when combined with complete histopathologic evaluation of tissues, necropsies help identify not just the cause of death but also other underlying conditions. Since 2004, complete necropsies (N ¼ 32) have been performed on recovered carcasses of non‐human primates within the Gombe ecosystem including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), olive baboons (Papio anubis), red colobus (Procolobus badius) and blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis). Examples of knowledge gained through pathologic evaluations with population implications include: determining that chimpanzees are not innocuously infected with SIVcpz but can develop AIDS‐like disease, identifying potentially zoonotic pneumococcal meningitis infection in a wild chimpanzee, and determining which parasites are generally well‐tolerated (Pneumonyssus) and which are not (Oesophagostomum). Although no chimpanzees died during recent respiratory disease outbreaks, other primates have been diagnosed with viral pneumonias highlighting the importance of monitoring disease in sympatric primates to identify potential pathogens circulating in the environment. Integration of pathology into conservation programs can help identify diseases of concern and correlate infection with disease to better assess risks for individuals and populations. Supported by NIH (R01 A1058715‐11).
5. EVALUATING THE ENTERIC MICROBIOME OF SIVCPZ INFECTED WILD‐LIVING CHIMPANZEES H. J. Barbian1, M. A. Ramirez1, Y. Li1, I. Lipende2, D. Mjungu2, A. E. Pusey3, E. V. Lonsdorf4, F. Bibollet‐Ruche1 and B. H. Hahn1 1 University of Pennsylvania, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Johnson Pavilion Rm 420, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19104, USA, 2Gombe Stream Research Center, Tanzania, 3Duke University, North Carolina, USA, 4Franklin and Marshall College, Pennsylvania, USA Decade‐long population studies in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, have shown that SIVcpz can cause immunodeﬁciency and AIDS in infected wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Insight into the mechanisms of SIVcpz pathogenesis requires disease markers that can be studied using non‐invasively collected material (fecal samples). Recent studies have shown that enteric dysbiosis and an expansion of the gut virome are associated with HIV‐1 and SIVmac infection in humans and macaques, respectively. In a pilot study, we investigated the bacterial and viral communities in fecal samples collected from Gombe chimpanzees to determine whether SIVcpz infection has similar effects. Fecal material collected from ﬁve SIVcpz‐infected and four uninfected chimpanzees were used for DNA extraction and subjected to Nextera shotgun DNA preparation and Illumina next generation sequencing. Fecal samples from infected chimpanzees were found to be enriched for bacteria of the genus Prevotella [P ¼ 0.04], similar to HIV‐1 infected humans. Shotgun sequencing revealed the presence of several mammalian viruses, such as adenovirus and stool‐associated circular virus, the presence of which was conﬁrmed by PCR ampliﬁcation of viral sequences. Quantitative PCR suggested that SIVcpz‐infected chimpanzees have higher adenovirus loads [P ¼ 0.54]. These results suggest that the fecal microbiome of wild‐living chimpanzees is altered as a result of SIVcpz infection. Sequencing of samples from additional individuals [N ¼ 96] is currently under way to determine whether SIVcpz infection is associated with enteric dysbiosis.
6. ECO‐EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ZOONOTIC ENTERIC PATHOGENS FROM HUMANS, WILD PRIMATES AND DOMESTICATED ANIMALS IN THE GREATER GOMBE ECOSYSTEM, TANZANIA M. B. Parsons1,2, D. Travis3, E. V. Lonsdorf4, I. Lipende5, A. Collins5, L. Xiao2, S. Kamenya5, D. Elchouﬁ1 and T. R. Gillespie1 1 Program in Population Biology, Ecology and Evolution and Departments of Environmental Sciences & Environmental Health, Emory University, Math and Sciences Center E526, 400 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, 2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 4Department of Psychology, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA, 5The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania We examined the eco‐epidemiology of enteric pathogens in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), baboons (Pabio anubis), humans, and livestock, residing in and around Gombe Stream National Park, to identify potential sources of infection, and determined the prevalence of sulfonamide resistance to examine zoonotic spillover potential across groups. From March 2010‐February 2011, fecal specimens were collected from humans (N ¼ 178), wild primates (N ¼ 131) and livestock (N ¼ 98). PCR detected Cryptosporidium in 5.2% of humans, 17.5% of wildlife, and 9.6% of livestock. DNA sequences revealed that all humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees were infected with C. hominis; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all livestock infected with C. xiaoi. The dominance of C. hominis among non‐human primates suggests zoonotic transmission. Chimpanzees infected with C. suis may have experienced cross‐ species transmission from forest bush pigs, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Salmonella was cultured from 7.9% humans, 6.1% non‐human primates and 6.1% livestock. Shigella was not recovered from livestock but was found in humans (4.1%), and nonhuman primates (3%), supporting anthropogenic spillover. PCR detected sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2) from humans (84.2%), nonhuman primates (29.8%), and livestock (17.3%). Humans are likely reservoirs for resistance since antibiotics are not administered to wild primates and livestock. Our ﬁndings highlight the complexity of enteric zoonoses transmission and stress the need for further study.
Am. J. Primatol.
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7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE OUTBREAKS AMONG CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) IN GOMBE STREAM NATIONAL PARK FROM 2004–2012 T. M. Wolf1,2, E. Lonsdorf3, I. Lipende4, T. Gillespie5, K. Terio6, B. Hahn7, A. Pusey8, C. Murray9, R. Singer1 and D. Travis1 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA, 2Minnesota Zoo, 3Franklin and Marshall College, 4Greater Gombe Ecosystem Health Project, 5Emory University, 6University of Illinois Zoological Pathology Program, 7 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 8Duke University, 9George Washington University Infectious disease is a threat to the conservation of great ape populations throughout Africa, including the chimpanzee population of Gombe National Park. Due to the large proportion of disease‐associated mortality among Gombe chimpanzees, an ongoing syndromic health surveillance system was initiated in 2004 to capture observational data of clinical signs associated with speciﬁc disease syndromes: respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and wasting. The objective of this research was to establish baselines of disease frequency in an effort to more readily detect disease outbreaks in the two habituated chimpanzee communities. Using respiratory disease as a model, several methods, including the use of average monthly counts and densities of respiratory signs to establish baselines, were evaluated for outbreak detection. The baseline occurrence of respiratory disease, characterized by any combination of cough, sneeze, or rhinorrhea, was fairly low, with an average of less than one chimpanzee per month showing signs. The most frequently observed respiratory sign in both communities was cough. Preliminary analyses reveal the occurrence of four major and two minor respiratory disease outbreaks. There were no mortalities although mean morbidity associated with the major outbreaks was 49% [SD 30%, range: 30–100%], and morbidity of smaller outbreaks ranged 8–25%. These and other analyses will be used to generate recommendations for outbreak response, including targeted, noninvasive diagnostic sampling and enhanced veterinary monitoring.
8. IDENTIFYING HOTSPOTS FOR ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION: QUANTIFYING FINE‐SCALE MOVEMENT OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS RELATIVE TO CHIMPANZEES AT GOMBE STREAM NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA G. Vazquez‐Prokopec1, M. B. Parsons1,2, D. A. Travis3, E. V. Lonsdorf4, I. Lipende5, B. Gilagiza5, S. Kamenya5, L. Pintea5 and T. R. Gillespie1 1 Departments of Environmental Sciences & Environmental Health, Emory University & Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, 2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA, 3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 4Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA, USA, 5The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania Domesticated animals are an important source of pathogens to endangered wildlife populations, especially when anthropogenic activities increase their overlap with humans and wildlife. Recent work in Tanzania reports the introduction of Cryptosporidium into wild chimpanzee populations and the increased risk of ape mortality associated with SIVcpz‐Cryptosporidium co‐infection. Here we describe the application of novel GPS technology to track the mobility of domesticated animals (27 goats, 2 sheep and 8 dogs) with the goal of identifying potential routes for Cryptosporidium introduction into Gombe National Park. Only goats (5/27) and sheep (2/2) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Analysis of GPS tracks indicate that a crop ﬁeld frequented by both chimpanzees and domesticated animals was a potential hotspot for Cryptosporidium transmission. This study demonstrates the applicability of GPS data‐loggers in studies of ﬁne‐scale mobility of animals and suggests that domesticated animal–wildlife overlap should be considered beyond protected boundaries for long‐ term conservation strategies. Supported by the Morris Animal Foundation, Emory University Global Health Institute, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzanian Wildlife Research Institute and Jane Goodall Institute.
9. SCIENCE‐BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT PLANNING FOR GREAT APES D. A. Travis1, E. V. Lonsdorf2, T. R. Gillespie3, I. Lipende4, J. Raphael5, K. A. Terio6, C. M. Murray7, D. Mjungu4, A. Collins4, M. B. Parsons3,8, T. Wolf1, R. Singer1, B. H. Hahn9, M. L. Wilson1 and A. E. Pusey10 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, 1988 Fitch Ave, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA, 2Franklin and Marshall College, 3Emory University, 4Jane Goodall Institute, 5Tanzanian National Park Authority, 6University of Illinois, 7George Washington University, 8US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 9University of Pennsylvania, 10Duke University Characterizing and managing health risks, especially those posed by infectious diseases, is fraught with both scientiﬁc and political challenges. Tropical ape habitat typically has high biodiversity (including potentially pathogenic microorganisms), is generally surrounded by increasing human and livestock pressure, and often contains animals habituated for research and tourism – increasing their potential exposure to microbes from around the globe with relatively little pre‐exposure health screening or preventative measures. Conversely, non‐human primates have been identiﬁed as natural reservoirs of some of the most important emerging zoonotic diseases of humans. Thus, these communities represent the “perfect storm” for bi‐directional disease emergence and spread in situations of high emotion and complicated politics. They also represent an incredible opportunity to show the value of science‐based health management and policy. The Gombe Ecosystem Health Project was created to systematically build the infrastructure needed for health risk assessment and contingency planning. To date, the focus has been on the creation and validation of good scientiﬁc ﬁeld protocols to establish baselines of “normal” health, while attempting to characterize threats to these animals and humans in a non‐invasive manner. Here, we discuss the need to move from science to policy, highlighting potential approaches to address pressing management questions, and the potential challenges to the implementation of these policies in the real world. Supported by NIH (R01 A1058715‐11); NIH (R00HD057992); NSF (LTREB‐1052693); Duke University; Morris Animal Foundation Wildlife Research Funds and MAF/Zoetis Veterinary Research Fellowship; US Fish and Wildlife Great Ape Fund; ARCUS Foundation, Lincoln Park Zoo; University of Minnesota, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzanian Wildlife Research Institute and Jane Goodall Institute
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10. BEING A SCIENTIST ONLINE: POSSIBILITIES, PRAGMATICS & PITFALLS A. M. Dettmer1, K. Hinde2, C. N. Ross3 and J. N. Rutherford4 1 Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, Poolesville, MD, 20837, USA, 2Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA, 3 Department of Arts & Sciences, Texas A&M University‐San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78224, USA, 4Department of Women, Children, & Family Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA Many of today’s science conversations occur via online social media. From conservation efforts to science outreach to academic networking, an online presence provides unique and unparalleled professional opportunities. Scientists across all disciplines are increasingly recognizing the importance of establishing and maintaining a virtual presence. This lunchtime workshop, co‐sponsored by ASP’s Education and Media/Information committees, will capitalize on the experiences and expertise of ASP members who have successfully navigated social media to establish their own online presence. Panelists will discuss various online platforms, navigating online social networks, and opportunities for brand building, crowd‐sourced funding, and reputation management. Demonstrations will include the basics of blogging, live tweeting, and online networking. This workshop will be useful for both trainees and established scientists; moreover, Q&A and discussion will be a fundamental aspect of the workshop. A majority of the general public engage via online social networks, however relatively few scientists are similarly engaged. In this era of waning support for the sciences and federal grant support, we can no longer afford to absent ourselves from the public discourse.
11. DOES THE FACE SIGNAL STATUS? CAPTIVE CAPUCHINS’ RESPONSE TO WIDE VERSUS NARROW FACES V. Wilson1,2, H. Buchanan‐Smith2,4, M. Gartner1, A. El‐Shaarawi3, R. D’eath3,5, A. Little4 and F. B. Morton2,4 1 Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, United Kingdom, 2Scottish Primate Research Group, UK, 3The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, UK, 4Behaviour and Evolution Research Group, Psychology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, UK, 5Scotland’s Rural College, Edinburgh In humans, studies suggest that face width indicates dominance and status in males, which has been linked to testosterone. In brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella), we recently found similar links between facial width, alpha status and ratings of Assertiveness. This suggests that facial traits may act as social signals pertaining to an individual’s status. To test this theory, we examined the response of capuchins to faces differing in facial Width‐to‐Height ratio (fWHR), using two models that represent life‐size, unfamiliar, capuchins (one wide‐faced and one narrow‐faced). Latency to approach was compared with a no‐model condition and a real monkey condition (a subordinate and a dominant member of the group). Preliminary results from 10 subjects showed a signiﬁcantly longer latency to approach the model or monkey condition than the no‐model condition, [t(12.35) ¼ 3.58, P ¼ 0.004]. However there was no signiﬁcant difference in latency to approach a real conspeciﬁc versus a model [F(1) ¼ 0.43, P ¼ 0.52]. There was also no signiﬁcant difference in latency to approach the wide versus narrow faced models, or the dominant versus subordinate conspeciﬁcs [F(1) ¼ 0.07, P ¼ 0.79]. We discuss results in the context of both signaling theory, and the use of realistic stimuli in testing primate perception of social signals.
12. ANCESTRAL ADH4 ENZYMES INDICATE THE ANCESTORS OF HUMANS (HOMO SAPIENS) AND GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA) ADAPTED TO FERMENTED FRUIT. M. Carrigan1, O. Uryasev2, C. B. Frye2, C. R. Myers3, T. D. Hurley3 and S. A. Benner2 1 Department of Natural Sciences, Santa Fe College, 3000 NW 83 Street, Gainesville, FL, 32606, USA, 2Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, P.O. Box 13174, Gainesville, FL 32604, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 Many modern human diseases are attributed to an incompatibility between our current environment and the environment for which our genome is adapted. This model has been applied to alcoholism, positing that human predisposition towards ethanol consumption arises from our evolution as a highly frugivorous primate. We tested this hypothesis by examining the evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase class IV (ADH4), the ﬁrst enzyme exposed to dietary ethanol in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The sequences of ADH4 genes from seventeen primates (Galago moholi, Drosera madagascariensis, Eulemur albifrons, Microcebus murinus, Tarsius syrichta, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Saguinus oedipus, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus aethiops, Macaca mulatta, Papio anubis, Nomascus leucogenys, Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens) were used to infer the sequences of ancestral ADH4s at various points during the past 70 million years of primate evolution. We resurrected several ancestral ADH4 enzymes from different points during this period, and identify a single mutation occurring in the ancestor of African apes that endowed this ancestor with a markedly enhanced ability to metabolize ethanol (as measured by changes in the kcat/Km values, P < 0.05, Welch’s t‐test). This genetic change coincides in time with when the ancestors of African apes adopted a terrestrial lifestyle. Since fruit collected from the ground is more likely to be infected by fermenting yeast than hanging fruit, this novel form of ADH4 may have provided an advantage to primates living where fermented fruit is more common.
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13. COMMUNICATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHIMPANZEES AND BONOBOS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN SPEECH J. P. Taglialatela1,2, B. A. Moore1 and W. D. Hopkins2,3 1 Department of Biology and Physics, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, 30144, USA, 2Division of Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 3Neuroscience Institute and The Language Research Center, Georgia State University Despite being closely related – diverging from a common ancestor only approximately 1 million years ago – bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) exhibit some notable behavioral differences. One of the most striking, but least studied, differences between these species are their vocal repertoires. Whereas chimpanzees produce low frequency, noisy barks and grunts, bonobos produce relatively high frequency, tonal peeps and yelps. We hypothesized that differences between the Pan species’ feeding ecology may have favored bonobos to become increasingly reliant on vocalizations to coordinate social behaviors and therefore subsequent selection for increased vocal control and ﬂexibility occurred – a situation that may have been similar to the selection pressures faced by early hominins. To evaluate this hypothesis, 1571 chimpanzee vocal events and 612 bonobo vocal events were analyzed from digital audio/video recordings of communicative interactions among captive apes. The data indicate that chimpanzees were more likely than bonobos to pair their vocalizations with signals from other communicative modalities, and to direct vocalizations to speciﬁc individuals. In contrast, bonobos were more likely than chimpanzees to produce vocalizations that were not bound to a speciﬁc social context. These results support the hypothesis that observed differences in the communicative strategies of the two Pan species were driven by differences in foraging strategies since they diverged from a common ancestor approximately one million years ago.
14. THE EFFECT OF FRUIT AND FLOWER AVAILABILITY ON FLOWER FORAGING IN WHITE‐FACED CAPUCHINS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) IN SECTOR SANTA ROSA, COSTA RICA J. D. Hogan1, A. D. Melin2 and L. M. Fedigan1 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada, 2Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri The dietary and nutritional signiﬁcance of ﬂowers is often assumed to be negligible, yet many primates consume them, occasionally at high frequencies. For some primates ﬂowers may be fallback foods during fruit dearth, in which case ﬂower eating rates should increase during periods of ripe‐fruit scarcity but not change based on ﬂower availability. To determine what role ﬂowers play in the diet of white‐ faced capuchins we observed three groups of monkeys for 107 days between May 2013 and March 2014 (1158 observation hours). Any visit by a monkey to a plant that resulted in ﬂower consumption was recorded as a “ﬂower patch visit” (FLPV), regardless of the number of monkeys involved, the amount of ﬂowers consumed, or the duration of the visit. Bi‐weekly phenological data were collected on known plant foods to determine how ﬂower foraging varied with fruit and ﬂower availability. Flower eating occurred on 31.7% of observation days and was strongly seasonal: 88.2% of days with FLPVs were in the dry season between mid‐December and March. The overall availability of ﬂowers did not affect whether FLPVs occurred on a given day [logistic regression, b ¼ 0.03, df ¼ 1, P ¼ 0.944], but ripe‐fruit food availability had a signiﬁcant positive effect [b ¼ 0.169, df ¼ 1, P ¼ 0.000]. These results provide mixed support for the fallback foods hypothesis and suggest other factors such as preference or nutrition may inﬂuence ﬂower eating behaviour. 15. WHY DO RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) EAT SOIL? B. P. Marriott1, R. L. Jones2, J. Roemer, IV3, C. J. Sultana4, H. M. Habermann (dec.)5 and J. C. Smith, Jr.6 1 Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA, 2University of Illinois,Urbana, IL 61801, 3Roemer Ecological Services, Parkton, MD 21120, 4Weil‐Cornell OB/GYN,New York, NY 10038, 5Goucher College, Towson, MD 21204, 6ARS, USDA (ret.),Beltsville, MD 20705 Data on geophagy (soil eating) among nonhuman primates dwelling in many locations have been compared to test hypotheses related to nutrient insufﬁciency, amelioration of digestive distress, parasitic infestation, and learned cultural behavior, among others. While data on the chemical composition of ingested soils have been assessed from a number of locations, one comprehensive review pointed out that comparative behavioral data on social patterns related to geophagy remained lacking. We report on 15 months of observations over ﬁve years across three climatic seasons of dietary intake among one group (N ¼ 125) of wild rhesus monkeys in Nepal and compare this data with 12 consecutive months of dietary intake from one group (N ¼ 96) of Cayo Santiago (CS) rhesus. Eating behavior and levels of speciﬁc nutrients in gathered plant foods, commercial diet (CS), and soil were compared. Soil composition analysis from both sites found relatively high levels of iron, zinc, and copper in clay, sand and humus rich soils. Twenty‐minute focal animal samples coupled with location mapping and activity scans indicate systematic visits to soil “caves” within troop/group home ranges. Behaviors indicative of gastric distress, as described for other primate species, were not observed proximate to soil ingestion. The study did not examine parasitic load. Soil intake is discussed within the context of overall maternal‐guided, learned, food acquisition patterns and nutrient intake for the species.
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16. VITAMIN D METABOLITES; VALUE COMPARISONS IN THREE LABORATORY PRIMATE SPECIES: COMMON MARMOSET, RHESUS AND CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUE T. E. Ziegler1,2, A. Kapoor1,2, C. J. Hedman1,2,3 and J. W. Kemnitz1,2,4 1 Wisconsin National Primate Res. Ctr., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53715, USA, 2Institute of Clinical and Translational Research, University of Wisconsin, 3Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 4Department of Cell and Regnerative Biology, University of Wisconsin Vitamin D, in its various forms, has many roles in the body, especially in bone health, immune response, cancer prevention, endocrine function and neuroprotection. New methods have increased the sensitivity and selectivity for measuring human vitamin D metabolites, 25‐hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) while few comparisons have been performed for nonhuman primates. Here we compare the major vitamin D metabolites in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), to human values by tandem mass spectrometry. Serum samples collected from twenty‐ﬁve monkeys of each species were assayed for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 values. Signiﬁcant differences in 25(OH)D3 concentrations were found between species [F ¼ 38, df ¼ 3.84, P ¼ 0.0001] with marmoset values higher than all other species [P < 0.05] and the macaques had signiﬁcantly higher values than humans [P < 0.05]. Values for 1,25(OH)2D3 showed the same pattern of signiﬁcant differences [F ¼ 84, df ¼ 3.88, P ¼ 0.0001]. Female marmosets had lower 25(OH)D3 levels than males, and male rhesus showed a signiﬁcant decrease with age. The most striking aspect was the high variability of values within the marmosets and macaques for both metabolites as the laboratory primates have a controlled diet, consistent UV exposure, and even similar genetic constraints. The data suggest new research questions to determine the factors inﬂuencing the within‐species variability. Support from NIH RR000167 and UL1TR000427.
17. NEONATAL CAREGIVER‐INFANT SOCIAL EXCHANGES AFFECT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NURSERY‐REARED RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE E. A. Simpson1,2, A. Paukner2, S. J. Suomi2 and P. F. Ferrari1 1 Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Parma, Parma, 4300, Italy, 2Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, USA Although early mother‐infant social exchanges appear important for primate infant social and cognitive development, our goal was to test this experimentally through manipulating nursery‐reared macaques’ social interactions with caregivers and following them longitudinally for the ﬁrst months of life. Infants were randomly assigned to either standard‐rearing control (N ¼ 15) or face‐group (N ¼ 12), in which human caregivers engaged in face‐to‐face communicative exchanges using lipsmacking directed at infants in 5 min sessions, four times a day, from birth through 28 days. We predicted that infants in the face‐group would exhibit stronger social skills than infants in the control group. Consistent with our prediction, only the face‐group showed lipsmack imitation at 1 week [increases in lipsmacking from baseline to stimulus; paired‐samples t‐test: P ¼ 0.002], and a preference for social compared to non‐social videos at 1 month [56% of time looking at social vs. 50% chance; one‐sample t‐test, P ¼ 0.030]. At 2 months, when tested on working memory, both groups recalled a nonsocial stimulus [>47% anticipatory looks vs 33% chance; one‐sample t‐test: Ps < 0.05], but only the face‐group recalled the social stimulus [50% anticipatory looks vs 33% chance; one‐sample t‐test: P ¼ 0.001]. In summary, early social experience – being held, mutual gaze, and communicative exchanges – may increase social interest and abilities. Acknowledgements The Division of Intramural Research, NICHD, NICHD P01HD064653 supported this research.
18. SEX AND BIRTH ORDER PREDICT JUVENILE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) C. L. Nunez1,2, M. N. Grote4, M. Wechsler2 and K. J. Hinde2,3 1 University Program in Ecology, Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, 107 Biological Sciences Building, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, USA, 2Brain, Mind, & Behavior Unit, California National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 4Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis Female mammals may begin to reproduce before achieving somatic maturity. As a result, primiparous mothers face tradeoffs between allocating energy to reproduction or their own continued development. Constraints on primiparous females are associated with greater reproductive failure and ﬁrst‐born infants often have slower growth and higher mortality and morbidity than do infants born to multiparous females. Effects of deﬁcits in early life maternal investment may persist even after weaning when juveniles are no longer dependent on maternal care and mother’s milk. We investigated the long‐term outcomes of both ﬁrst‐born and later‐born offspring, as a proxy for maternal investment, in a large sample of Macaca mulatta assigned to the outdoor breeding colony at the California National Primate Research Center (N ¼ 2724). A joint Bayesian model for growth and mortality over the ﬁrst three years of life allowed us to explicitly connect growth rates to the likelihood of survival. As expected, we found that males are born heavier and grow faster than females. However, contrary to expectations, later‐born males face substantially lower survival probability during the ﬁrst three years, while ﬁrst‐born males survive at higher rates that are similar to females of both parity classes. These ﬁndings suggest that differential levels of maternal investment shaped by life history evolution have a tangible inﬂuence on the growth and survival of offspring, even within a captive context.
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19. NEUROPEPTIDE MANIPULATION MODULATES RESPONSES TO INFANT STIMULI IN MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) J. H. Taylor1,2,3 and J. A. French1,2,3,4 1 University of Nebraska ‐ Omaha, Department of Psychology, AH 524, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska, 68182, USA, 2 Callitrichid Research Center, 3Endocrine Bioservices Lab, 4Department of Biology The ﬁrst, and perhaps most important relationship in an individual’s life is between the infant and the caregiver, and this relationship serves as the benchmark for future relationships. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) offer a valuable model of human familial relationships; male marmosets participate in infant care, and are highly interested in infants. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been implicated in a wide range of social behavior, including parental behavior in humans and rodents. This study examined the neuropeptide and sex steroid mechanisms of parental behavior in marmosets. We hypothesized that if neuropeptides facilitate parental behavior, then OT and AVP would increase, and receptor antagonists (OTA/AVPA) would decrease responsiveness to infant stimuli. Also, we hypothesized that if AVP has a sex‐speciﬁc effect in marmosets, then males will show greater sensitivity to AVP administration than females. Marmosets (6M, 6F) were treated with OT, AVP, or receptor antagonist, and then exposed to a simulated abandoned infant paradigm. Neuropeptide treatment signiﬁcantly affected investigation of the infant stimuli, and this depended on recent experience with infant stimuli [F (4,40) ¼ 2.69, P ¼ 0.044]. Marmosets investigated infant and control stimuli equally during the ﬁrst trial, but during the second trial marmosets treated with AVP and OTA investigated infant stimuli signiﬁcantly more [t (11) ¼ 2.58, 3.17, P < 0.05]. This indicates that neuropeptide manipulations affect parental responsiveness in marmosets, and that there may be important interactions with short‐term experience. Supported by NIH(HD042882) and UNO(GRACA).
20. HOW RESEARCH WITH CHIMPANZEES INFORMS HUMAN HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR: WHAT THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND NIH IGNORED IN THEIR DELIBERATIONS W. D. Hopkins1,2 1 Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA, 2Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center Chimpanzees have held a particular fascination and history in psychological theory and research. Watson, Skinner, Kohler and many others had much to say about the relevance and signiﬁcance of chimpanzees in psychological research. Recently, based on an Institute of Medicine report, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have decided to retire most chimpanzees. This decision largely applies to biomedical research but all research, including psychological research, will be scrutinized much more in the future. In this talk, I discuss the value of chimpanzees in psychological research and argue that the ﬁndings have been extremely valuable and been instrumental in advancing human health. I further argue that there is a continued need for chimpanzees in behavioral, cognitive, genomic and neuroscience research and that these areas should continue to be supported by the NIH through a nationally funded research initiative.
21. THE MANY INFLUENCES OF ONE PRIMATOLOGIST: DR. TERRY MAPLE M. Bloomsmith Yerkes National Primate Res. Ctr., Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA The ﬁeld of primatology is broad, with work taking place in a variety of settings including zoos, laboratories, research centers, sanctuaries and the ﬁeld. Many primatologists concentrate their work in one of these settings, while others make important contributions to primatology in multiple arenas. Dr. Terry Maple is the latter type of primatologist. While best known for his work as a zoo leader, he has studied primates in many settings, has helped to improve their welfare in laboratories, has worked to protect them in the wild, and has educated others about primates. He believes that science‐trained primatologists are essential in solving many of the complex problems surrounding the care and protection of primates. This session will provide updates from former graduate students of Dr. Maple, showing how his inﬂuence persists in areas of endeavor such as conducting behavioral and cognitive research in zoos, promoting the welfare of laboratory primates, using behavior analysis in captive primate management, promoting primate conservation efforts, and integrating ﬁeld and laboratory research. Expected participants are Evan Zucker, Michael Hoff, Bonnie Perdue, Mollie Bloomsmith, and Allison Martin.
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22. SOMETHING IMPORTANT THAT TERRY TAUGHT ME: CAREER COLLABORATION M. Hoff1,2 1 Dalton State College, Department of Social Sciences, 650 College Dr., Dalton, Georgia, 30720, USA, 2Zoo Atlanta From the beginning of my academic relationship with Terry Maple, I was impressed with his emphasis on collaboration and sharing – time, data, relationships and publications. In this presentation, I am going to overview how collaboration has impacted the work I’ve done with captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Yerkes Primate Center and Zoo Atlanta. I began my academic career at a small teaching junior college in NW Georgia where research was tolerated but not encouraged. When I got to the college, I was actively involved in gorilla research, focusing on mother‐infant interactions and infant development. I would not have been able to engage in longitudinal gorilla research without the collaborative relationships that I have had over the years. While my college has changed dramatically over the years and now research is embraced, I still need collaborative relationships to continue my research while undertaking more administrative responsibilities at my college. I will examine the beginnings of my gorilla work through the present time, noting the critical collaborative relationships that I have enjoyed through the years that have allowed my research to continue. Additionally, I will overview the way I have been able to bring to my academic career what I learned from Terry about collaboration and sharing.
23. INTEGRATING COGNITIVE RESEARCH AND ANIMAL WELFARE B. M. Perdue Agnes Scott College, Psychology Department, 141 E. College Avenue, Decatur, GA, 30030, USA Throughout his career, Dr. Terry L. Maple’s work has been characterized by a seamless integration of research from many different areas. He has applied his ideas and insights in a variety of settings with an impressive range of species. Animal welfare is one of the areas that he has consistently focused on in his own work and raised awareness of welfare throughout the world. His approach to animal welfare – whether it be in a laboratory, zoo or other setting – is always grounded in scientiﬁc research. His dedication to optimizing animal welfare, or wellness, has been inspirational to many in the ﬁeld. Personally, I have been inspired by his approach and have attempted to apply those lessons to my own research. Here I will present work that attempts to integrate ﬁndings from animal welfare and cognitive research. Cognitive research includes a variety of questions relating to how an animal perceives, remembers, learns, and solves problems in the world. These all have relevance to creating environments that are properly suited and ideally stimulating to different species. I will present work focused on nonhuman primate cognition and its relation to welfare. Bridging the gap between these ﬁelds will ultimately encourage and allow for optimal wellness for primates in captivity.
24. IMPROVEMENTS IN LABORATORY PRIMATE WELFARE: DR. TERRY MAPLE’S INFLUENCE M. Bloomsmith Yerkes National Primate Res. Ctr., Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA As many zoos have transitioned to housing and caring for animals in ways that promote animal welfare, a somewhat similar process has taken place in laboratory facilities that house primates. Some laboratory primates are housed in large groups with complex social structures, are living in outdoor enclosures, are receiving stimulating enrichment opportunities, and are being trained to cooperate using positive reinforcement training. This presentation will detail some of the changes that have taken place in primate laboratories, and will describe some of the mechanisms for change, including the role that Dr. Terry Maple has played in inﬂuencing some of these improvements. There are many complex problems surrounding the care of laboratory primates, and trained primatologists are a part of the solution to those problems. Dr. Maple has been instrumental in deﬁning this role for primatologists and in promoting the importance of primatologists working in primate laboratories.
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25. THE ROLE OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN CAPTIVE PRIMATE MANAGEMENT: DR. TERRY MAPLE’S INFLUENCE A. L. Martin1,2 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Behavior Management, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA, 2School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology The incorporation of behavior analytic principles and technologies into the care of nonhuman primates has greatly enhanced the ﬁeld of captive primate management. Basic classical and operant technologies such as desensitization and positive reinforcement‐based training systems have increased the welfare of captive primates by reducing fear and increasing cooperation with husbandry and veterinary procedures. Beyond these basic technologies, the ﬁeld of applied behavior analysis offers primatologists a wealth of literature that can be applied toward goals such as increasing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment and evaluating and treating abnormal behaviors in this population. This presentation will outline the still‐developing role of behavior analysis in captive primate management, highlighting the signiﬁcant contributions of Dr. Terry Maple throughout his career. These contributions include training a generation of PhD curators with a strong behavior analytic background, promoting the development of strong research within zoos and laboratories, and advocating for increased collaboration between the ﬁelds of applied behavior analysis and primatology.
26. TO THE FIELD OR NOT TO THE FIELD? WHAT IS THE RESEARCH QUESTION? E. L. Zucker Department of Psychological Sciences, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, 70118, USA Nonhuman primate research occurs in settings ranging from laboratory to ﬁeld. From the outset of working with Terry Maple, he emphasized the value of data from all settings; laboratory and ﬁeld were not opposites, but necessary complements in understanding behavior. Our initial work centered on zoo‐living orangutans, but the importance of ﬁeld data was a constant theme. Maple’s networking facilitated my initial ﬁeld research opportunity, studying free‐ranging patas monkeys in southwestern Puerto Rico, which prepared me well for future ﬁeld studies. In this presentation, I will focus on how questions raised about social and environmental inﬂuences on reproductive outcomes in wild mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica led me to analyses of breeding colony records, available in sufﬁcient detail only for captive monkeys (Macaca mulatta at the Caribbean Primate Research Center). This, in turn, led me back to the ﬁeld to collect urine samples from black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in southeastern Mexico to further address questions about social and environmental inﬂuences on reproduction. For my interests (and career), research in a ﬁeld setting raised questions that could be addressed only by research in a laboratory setting, which in turn, led to questions best addressed in a ﬁeld setting. The appropriate setting for nonhuman primate research clearly depends on the research questions asked.
27. DIFFERENT INSIGHTS ABOUT SOCIAL PROCESSES IN PRIMATES M. S. Gerald Division of Behavioral and Social Research, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892‐9205, USA The purpose of this symposium at the American Society of Primatologists is to foster an interdisciplinary dialogue about social processes associated with health and aging among experts who share an interest in primate social behavior, but from fundamentally different perspectives. The overarching goal of this symposium is to ascertain the potential utility, viability, and resource value of translating comparative insights into the creation of novel strategies for promoting social connectedness in humans. Speciﬁc objectives of this symposium are to identify: (1) social processes that inﬂuence health outcomes across the lifecourse; and (2) critical knowledge gaps and limitations of current approaches with which researchers are faced in their respective ﬁelds. By achieving these objectives, this could lay the foundation for establishing new collaborations, opening new research avenues and exploring potential solutions for eliminating translational roadblocks.
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28. CONNECTIONS MATTER: INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS AND THEIR PERTURBATIONS ON KEY INDICATORS OF HEALTH IN RHESUS MACAQUE SOCIETIES B. McCowan1,2 1 Population Health & Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2 California National Primate Research Center Patterns of health and well‐being within and across animal societies represent emergent global patterns whose underlying social dynamics must be understood to better tackle complex health issues at both the individual and population levels. Our focus on this problem has been to employ an evolutionary social network approach on a nonhuman primate model using an interdisciplinary framework comprised of computational biology, genomics, epidemiology and behavioral biology. We seek to understand how spatial and mathematical relations of networks relate to the content and quality of relationships and how such variation inﬂuences a diversity of health outcomes. Using the natural variation of multiple large ﬁeld corrals of rhesus macaque populations at CNPRC, our unique research program investigates the interplay of biobehavioral organization, early/current experience, and social network dynamics on health in nonhuman primates across the lifespan. Results from experimental perturbations to social network structure in these systems indicate that stressors from the social environment interact with individual and family characteristics such as personality and rank to inﬂuence the expression of multiple biomarkers of stress and disease such as cytokines, c‐reactive protein, fecal pathogen load and viral shedding. We will discuss how this social network approach on large captive groups fosters biomedical applications in wild primate populations and provides a critical translational model for understanding and intervening on important health trajectories, speciﬁcally aging, in human populations.
29. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN COGNITION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN S. F. Brosnan1,2, M. J. Beran3, L. E. Williams2 and B. J. Wilson4 1 Departments of Psychology & Philosophy, Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30303‐5010, USA, 2 Michale E. Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, 3Language Research Center, Georgia State University, 4Economic Science Institute, Chapman University One critical barrier to quality of life among elderly people is that cognitive function often dramatically declines as individuals age. One question that we are only beginning to understand is the source of this variability: why do some individuals start to decline decades earlier than others? While controlled experiments are difﬁcult in humans, in primates we have the opportunity to understand how cognition changes across the lifespan. In particular, studying captive primates with known histories who have lived in similar environments and had similar life experiences removes much of the social and cultural component of variability in cognitive decline so we can focus on the factors of interest. One emerging factor related to cognitive decline, or the lack thereof, is the quality of individuals’ social relationships. We are interested in how relationship quality inﬂuences cognition, as measured through a battery of cognitive and decision‐ making tasks, across the lifespan and what the hormonal and immunological correlates of these changes are. Primates, due to their extended life histories as compared to most other animals, are a necessary model to explore how to shape healthy aging outcomes in humans, a line of research that will become only more important as people live to older ages and the mean age of the population continues to increase.
30. ‘UNUSUAL’ ANIMAL MODELS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND EARLY EXPERIENCE IN HEALTHY AGING K. L. Bales Dept of Psychology and California National Primate Research Center, UC‐Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA Social bonds in non‐human primates and humans are crucial for normal development and healthy aging. Rhesus monkeys, the primary biomedical primate model, give the advantage of complex social structure and social relationships such as friendships and alliances. In contrast, socially monogamous New World species such as coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) allow us to study attachments between adults and, particularly, strong social bonds in males. In this talk I will discuss our ﬁndings on the neurobiological basis of pair‐bonds in captive titi monkeys, the role of early parenting received on later outcomes including healthy expression of adult social behaviors, developmental manipulations including chronic intranasal oxytocin, and their long‐term effects on titi monkey health and social relationships. These ﬁndings hold relevance for the interpretation of ﬁeld data on social behavior in titi monkeys, as well as for our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social bonds in primates in general (including humans). As strong social bonds are one of the best predictors of healthy aging, an understanding of their mechanism is important. This research was funded by HD053555, HD071998, and ODP51OD01107.
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31. LONELY MONKEYS: WHEN SOCIAL DESIRE AND SOCIAL ATTAINMENT CLASH J. Capitanio California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA Loneliness, the perception of not being socially connected, results from a discrepancy between desired and actual social experience, and there is no fundamental reason why it might be speciﬁc to humans. As the ﬁrst step of an ongoing study, we sought to determine whether basic elements of loneliness underlie known variability between adult male rhesus macaques in their tendency to afﬁliate. We recorded behavior of animals in their half‐acre cages, rated animals on a well‐validated scale of Sociability, and identiﬁed low‐Sociable (LS) and high‐Sociable (HS) males. Behaviors of LS animals that reﬂect tentative social interest (proximity and walk‐by) were cluster‐ analyzed, and two groups were identiﬁed: those that show low interest (truly LS, TLS), and those that show higher interest (manifestly LS, MLS). While MLS animals’ levels of tentative interest were more similar to those of HS animals, their levels of complex interaction (proximity, contact, grooming) were more similar to those of TLS animals. Further analyses revealed that MLS animals’ preferred targets of interaction were “safe” targets (e.g., juveniles), and subsequent experimental probe tests conﬁrmed that MLS animals seem to have higher social interest than do TLS animals. Together, these data suggest that nonhuman primates may provide a valuable animal model to better understand how chronic loneliness contributes to poor health as people age.
32. INSIGHTS FROM PRIMATE MODELS FOR HUMAN SOCIALITY: SYNERGIES BETWEEN STUDIES IN CAPTIVITY AND THE FIELD J. Tung Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Box 90383, Durham, NC, 27708, USA Nonhuman primates are vital model systems for understanding the effects of social adversity on health, with important insights stemming from research conducted both in captivity and in wild populations. Here, I present two examples from our research on social environmental effects and gene regulation to illustrate ways in which these settings can be mutually informative. First, studies in captivity can provide strong indications about what biological phenomena are affected by social environmental variation. For example, links between dominance rank and DNA methylation in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have helped motivate our current work on early social environmental effects on DNA methylation in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Second, comparisons between data from both settings can contribute to understanding the context‐dependent nature of social stressors, including their persistence over time. For instance, our data suggest that male dispersal – a stressful event that disrupts existing social ties – is tied to changes in gene expression in free‐ranging rhesus macaques. However, unlike the effects of some social stressors studied in captivity, these changes are transient, becoming undetectable outside of the peri‐dispersal period. Thus, social stressors that are a natural part of a species’ life history may carry different long‐term consequences than those that have fewer ethological parallels, emphasizing the need for comparative study in both captive and wild populations.
33. PRIMATE SOCIAL STATUS AND GLUCOCORTICOID PRODUCTION: COSTS AND BENEFITS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS S. A. Cavigelli Pennsylvania State University, Department of Biobehavioral Health, Center for Brain, Behavior, and Cognition, 219 Biobehavioral Health Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA Primate social systems involve a complex array of dynamic afﬁliative and agonistic relationships. In many group‐living primate species, group mates develop distinct social hierarchies that persist through relatively long periods. Given these relatively long‐term social ranks in primate groups (including humans), many studies have examined the potential costs and beneﬁts of these different positions. Early studies with captive populations indicated that low‐ranking individuals experienced greater physiological stress and suffered negative health consequences relative to high‐ranking individuals. This canon was challenged by study results with free‐ranging primates (and other social species) indicating elevated glucocorticoid stress hormones in certain high‐ranking group members. In the current talk, I will review recent studies on the relationship between social status and glucocorticoid production in primates and other group‐living species, with a speciﬁc comparison between captive vs. free‐ranging populations. I will propose basic methods to best quantify glucocorticoid production to enhance our understanding of the functional relationship between physiological stress and health/ﬁtness in high‐ vs. low‐social ranking individuals. This includes a speciﬁc focus on long‐term glucocorticoid monitoring to best understand health and ﬁtness implications of social status, particularly cumulative inﬂuences on aging and age‐related health and disease. Accurate quantiﬁcation of long‐term physiological stress proﬁles, in captive and free‐ranging populations, is vital to understanding the role of physiological stress in primate social status, health, ﬁtness, and aging (including humans).
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34. ENERGETIC AND SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE LIFE HISTORIES OF CHIMPANZEES M. Emery Thompson1,2, M. N. Muller1,2, A. V. Georgiev3, Z. P. Machanda2,4 and R. W. Wrangham2,4 1 University of New Mexico, MSC01‐1040 Anthropology, 500 University Blvd, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA, 2Kibale Chimpanzee Project, 3University of Chicago, 4Harvard University The vast majority of information on primate aging arises from captive environments, where individuals experience enhanced energy availability and constrained social environments. Research on wild primates can complement and extend this work by evaluating the relative contributions of psychosocial stress versus energetic stress as mediators of healthy aging in naturalistic environments. To demonstrate this, we draw from the 27‐year study of 60 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kanyawara community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Our studies demonstrate that reproductive behavior in both sexes produces measurable physiological costs, such as increased cortisol and decreased energy balance [e.g., Emery Thompson et al. 2010, Georgiev 2012, Muller & Wrangham 2004]. The costs are largely mediated by group members, who both constrain energy intake and produce stressful behaviors. However, wild chimpanzees have greater ﬂexibility in modifying their social afﬁliations than their captive counterparts. While the costs of reproduction are expected to compromise long‐term health, Kanyawara chimpanzees experience remarkably low mortality during peak reproductive years [Muller & Wrangham 2014]. We hypothesize that healthy aging in wild chimpanzees depends on effective management of the energetic costs of reproduction over time, as well as strategic negotiation of the costs and beneﬁts of associations with other group members. Our ﬁndings offer insight into selective pressures that have shaped primate life histories and contributed to relationships between social processes and health trajectories.
35. VARIATION IN PERFORMANCE OF CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS APELLA), RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) AND CHILDREN (HOMO SAPIENS) IN A FORCED‐CHOICE DECISION‐MAKING PARADIGM L. Pretot1,2, R. Bshary4 and S. F. Brosnan1,2,3 1 Georgia State University, Language Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, 30303‐5010, USA, 2Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, 3Department of Philosophy & Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, 4University of Neuchatel, Department of Behavioral Ecology, CH‐2000 Neuchatel Although often overlooked in laboratory experiments, a species’ ecology may exert a profound inﬂuence on their behavior. In a previous study, cleaner ﬁsh (Labroides dimidiatus) outperformed capuchin monkeys and two ape species in a decision‐making task that was ecologically relevant to ﬁsh, but not primates. In this task, subjects had to choose between an ephemeral option that will “leave” if not chosen ﬁrst and a permanent option that is available no matter which option is chosen ﬁrst. Here, we extended this to tasks designed to be more relevant to primates. We ﬁrst designed an explicitly social task where subjects chose between two humans (rather than two trays). Capuchins did not learn the task more efﬁciently [Fisher’s test: one‐tailed, P > 0.05], whereas children performed better in the social task than in the original, non‐social, task [one‐tailed, P ¼ 0.05]. We then tested capuchins and rhesus macaques in a computerized version of the same task that allowed us to introduce a series of procedural modiﬁcations to explore which aspects of the original task made it difﬁcult for the monkeys (e.g., subtle differences in food size, experimenter behavior, prepotent response). Overall, capuchins learned the task more effectively using the computerized procedure with these modiﬁcations than in the original test [two‐tailed, P < 0.05]. This research paradigm provides a template for cross‐taxon comparative research and demonstrates the power that such procedures have for teasing apart the degree to which ecology and cognition inﬂuence decision‐making.
36. CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES’ (PAN TROGLODYTES) RESPONSES TO TWO ECONOMIC GAMES K. Hall1,2,3, M. J. Beran2,3, B. J. Wilson4, S. P. Lambeth1, S. J. Schapiro1 and S. F. Brosnan1,2,3 1 Michale E. Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, 650 Cool Water Dr, Bastrop, TX, 78602, USA, 2Georgia State University, 3Language Research Center, 4Economic Science Institute, Chapman University We tested multiple pairs of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in two economic games to determine how ﬂexibly they can switch strategies during games with different payoffs. Each pair participated in ten 60‐trial sessions of Chicken game (hawk and dove choices), followed by ten alternating sessions of Chicken and Assurance (stag and hare choices) games. Subjects must coordinate (Assurance) or anti‐coordinate (Chicken) their responses to obtain maximum rewards. Pairs of subjects were tested indoors. Attached to the inside of the cage were two buckets, each ﬁlled with ten pairs of colored tokens. Each game utilized a unique pair of tokens. Subjects exchanged tokens with an experimenter; tokens were placed on a suspended tray, and then appropriate numbers of grapes were simultaneously distributed to each subject in full view of the other. Currently, three pairs have completed the Chicken game, with one showing a consistent strategy [anti‐coordination: x2 ¼ 36.507, df ¼ 1, P < 0.0001]. Of the four remaining individuals, only one showed a consistent choice [hawk: binomial test, P < 0.05]. The ﬁrst two of those pairs have completed the alternating Assurance and Chicken games and neither pair’s choices differed from chance for either game, possibly indicating the challenge of maintaining a strategy in a shifting environment. We therefore have not found evidence that chimpanzees ﬂexibly switch between strategies to maximize payoffs, but continue to explore whether this may occur with additional experience.
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37. EXAMINING CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES’ NAVIGATIONAL DECISION‐MAKING STRATEGIES IN VIRTUAL SMALL‐ AND LARGE‐SCALE SPACE F. L. Dolins1,2, C. R. Menzel2, C. G. Klimowicz3 and J. Kelley2 1 Dept. of Behavioral Sciences, University of Michigan, Dearborn, Michigan, 48128, USA, 2Language Research Center, Georgia State University, 3Center for Global and Intercultural Study, University of Michigan‐Ann Arbor Foraging primates localize resources across ecologically complex landscapes, exploiting feeding sites of varying spatial dimensions to balance navigational efﬁciency and energy costs with nutrient intake, seasonal availability, competition, and group size. Generation of navigational strategies and internal spatial representations in large‐ and small‐scale space were predicted to differ by distance between landmarks, geometric features, and associations encoded. According to Poucet  it was predicted that navigators in small‐scale space would apply strategies based on metric maps, whereas large‐scale space would be associated with topological mapping strategies. Comparing cross‐species’ navigational strategies in environments of varied spatial scale, with multiple types of landmark information, presents signiﬁcant methodological challenges. In order to address these challenges, this study compared captive chimpanzees’ (Pan troglodytes) and humans’ (Homo sapiens) navigation in virtual environments that varied in scale but displayed parallel landmark information and goal þ resource sites. Results indicate that chimpanzee and human participants similarly applied topological strategies in both small‐ and large‐scale space, not supporting predicted outcomes. Neither species demonstrated shifts in spatial strategy in relation to scale or resource location.
38. CHIMPANZEE MEMORY FOR FOOD TYPE, LOCATION, QUANTITY, AND TIME K. Sayers and C. R. Menzel Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur, GA, 30034, USA Nonhuman memory has frequently been examined in the context of the what, where, and when of an event. This likely underestimates the complexity of memory, which could involve multiple what, where, and when components, as well as a plethora of other information. We investigate memory for complex events with three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), two of them lexigram‐proﬁcient, at the Language Research Center. While the apes observed, various foods were hidden in unique locations in a wooded test area. On any given trial, the hidden items varied by type, distance from chimpanzee, quantity, and/or perishability over time. In certain variations, some items decreased in value over time, or increased in value over time. In another variation, a subset of the foods increased in value while another subset simultaneously decreased in value. The chimpanzees were allowed to recover the items after delays ranging from 5 minutes to greater than 24 h. It was found that the chimpanzees could weigh multiple variables concurrently, including, in some cases, information about time elapsed since cue‐giving, to approximate an optimal recovery sequence. These results suggest a rich memory base, and are discussed in relation to the selective advantage such abilities would offer primates foraging in the wild. Supported by the Leakey Foundation, Wenner‐Gren Foundation, R01 HD‐056352, 1F32HD061177, and P01 HD‐060563.
39. THE HYBRID DELAY TASK AND ASSESSMENTS OF SELF‐CONTROL IN CAPUCHINS (SAPAJUS SPP.) AND CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) M. J. Beran1, T. A. Evans1, W. D. Hopkins1, E. Addessi2 and F. Paglieri2 1 Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Rome, Italy Inter‐temporal choice (ITC) tasks present smaller‐sooner (SS) and larger‐later (LL) options to assess self‐control. Traditionally, the choices are presented as arbitrary stimuli. However, some research teams have instead presented food arrays as the choice options, and this introduces two problems: (1) selection of the LL option could result from difﬁculty in pointing to smaller amounts of food rather than reﬂecting self‐control; (2) there is no way to verify whether subjects would abandon their choice of the LL option at any time during the ensuing delay. The hybrid delay task combines the initial ITC choice with a subsequent accumulation phase in which selection of the SS option leads to its immediate delivery, but selection of the LL option leads to one‐by‐one accumulation of items that continues only as long as the subject does not eat the accumulated items. Choice of the LL option therefore reﬂects self‐control only when the number of items obtained during the accumulation phase is higher than what was available in the SS option. Data from capuchin monkeys (N ¼ 18) indicate that previous ITC tasks may have overestimated their general self‐control abilities whereas data from chimpanzees (N ¼ 19) demonstrated that their choices for the LL option in the ITC phase of the task often were matched by their ability to sustain delay of gratiﬁcation during the accumulation phase.
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40. IMPLICIT LEARNING OF MULTIPLE STRUCTURES BY RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) L. A. Heimbauer1, T. Qian2, R. N. Aslin2 and D. J. Weiss1 1The Pennsylvania State University, The Comparative Communication Laboratory, 107 Moore Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA, 2University of Rochester To effectively track the statistical regularities of the environment, learners must distinguish when a single underlying causal structure rather than multiple underlying structures generates the observed statistics. That is, when encountering variance, learners must decide whether to expand the currently assumed model or infer that the input emanates from a new causal structure. In a series of implicit learning experiments modeled after research with humans [Qian, Jaeger, & Aslin, in review], we examined whether nonhuman primates are capable of inferring and retaining new structures to the same extent as human learners. Using a symmetrical‐response serial reaction time task, we tested four rhesus macaques for their response to change in underlying statistical probabilistic structures. Structures were produced using four stimuli locations – one with a 70% occurrence rate and the others with a 10% rate. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated four monkeys learned the underlying probability schedule of one structure [t‐tests: P < 0.01]. In Experiment 2, there were multiple alternating structures (i.e., the probabilities in individual locations changed). Two of the four monkeys succeeded in this task while the other two monkeys needed a correlated contextual cue (screen background color change) to learn. Experiments with four variable structures, without and with contextual cues, are currently being conducted. Findings shed light on how nonhuman primates track statistics in complex environments when variance more closely approximates real‐world input.
41. CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) MISPERCEIVE FOOD QUANTITIES IN CERTAIN CONTEXTS A. E. Parrish1,2 and M. J. Beran1,2 1 Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2Language Research Center, Atlanta, GA, USA Chimpanzees are highly proﬁcient at making quantity discriminations, including when they choose between food sets. However, errors in quantity judgment sometimes emerge because of non‐quantitative properties of alternative sets. For example, the presentation style in which foods are presented can alter their perceived amount. In Study 1, chimpanzees (N ¼ 3) chose between food quantities that were presented on different sized plates. Chimpanzees were highly accurate in control trials, selecting the larger of two food portions when both were presented on equal‐sized plates [P < 0.001]. However, they erroneously judged same‐sized and smaller food portions to be larger in amount when they were presented on a small plate compared to an equal or larger food portion presented on a large plate [P < 0.01]. In Study 2, chimpanzees (N ¼ 4) chose between two amounts of food presented in different sized cups. When different quantities were presented in the same‐sized cups or when the small cup contained the larger quantity, chimpanzees were highly accurate in choosing the larger food amount [P < 0.01]. However, when different‐sized cups contained the same amount of food or the smaller cup contained the smaller amount of food (but looked relatively fuller) chimpanzees showed a bias to select the smaller but fuller cup [P < 0.05]. Thus, chimpanzees misperceived food quantities in these contexts, and such errors match those reported in human consumption behavior.
42. ARE CHIMPANZEES TRAPPED IN THE “PERMANENT PRESENT?” EVIDENCE FROM FORAGING TASKS C. R. Menzel and K. Sayers Language Research Center, Georgia State Univ., Decatur, GA, 30034, USA During daily ranging, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are motivated to look at their surroundings and are acute at detecting changes in the layout of resources. An interesting possibility is that chimpanzees notice unripe foods on day 1 and return there on day 1 þ x when the foods are ripe, based on some form of memory of elapsed time and of whether the foods appreciate or depreciate in value over time. An alternative possibility is that chimpanzees return to food locations based on factors other than temporal cues. For example, an ape may recall the location and state of the food as last seen and discriminate whether it is more proﬁtable than other current alternatives. We review the results of a series of delayed‐response experiments that examined memory for temporal information in conjunction with other variables relevant to foraging efﬁciency. Three captive chimpanzees shown multiple foods in a small forest prioritized their recovery of the hidden foods by proximity, quantity, and quality, in a ﬂexible manner. When the time span of cue giving (showing and hiding the foods) was substantially expanded, they additionally used temporal cues, placing signiﬁcant weight on the recency of the event [Friedman tests alpha ¼ 0.05]. The relative importance attached to recency compared to other variables differed sharply according to the perishability of the objects. Supported by the Leakey Foundation, Wenner‐Gren, HD056352 and HD060563.
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43. EXPLORING THE AFFECTIVE ASPECTS OF FUR RUBBING IN CAPTIVE BROWN CAPUCHIN (CEBUS APELLA) J. P. Jefferson1, A. Riddle2, A. Paukner2 and S. J. Suomi2 1 Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Poolesville, MD Capuchin monkeys fur rub by vigorously biting and rubbing stimulating materials into their pelage. A discrimination task was used to infer the affective state of ﬁve captive brown capuchins during fur rubbing. Monkeys were trained to choose between two food wells baited with nothing on one side and either a high (grape) or low (apple) reward on the other. Monkeys could infer the quality and location of the reward based on a visual stimulus (long/short rectangle) displayed for each trial. An ambiguous stimulus (medium rectangle) with no reward was presented randomly throughout a testing session. Monkeys were tested following ﬁve minutes with: (a) no stimulus (neutral); (b) a marshmallow‐ﬁlled toy (positive); (c) an onion (fur rub). A series of chi‐square tests (alpha ¼ 0.05) revealed that on test trials, one capuchin had a signiﬁcant ‘pessimistic‐like’ (low reward) bias, and three showed an ‘optimistic‐like’ (high reward) bias. Per individual, cognitive bias increased in the marshmallow condition (ranging between 8–42%), suggesting that the positive control may have intensiﬁed both negative and positive emotions. However, a chi‐square test‐for‐independence indicated that this relationship was only signiﬁcant for monkeys with ‘pessimistic‐like’ bias. Conversely, monkeys with ‘optimistic‐like’ judgment that fur rubbed increased their positive choices between 0–25% and monkeys with ‘pessimistic‐like’ judgment did so by 33% and 16%. Preliminary ﬁndings suggest that fur rubbing may increase positive affective states in capuchin monkeys.
44. HANDEDNESS INFLUENCES INTERMANUAL TRANSFER IN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) BUT NOT RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) E. R. Boeving1, A. Lacreuse2, W. D. Hopkins3,4, K. A. Phillips5,6, M. A. Novak2 and E. L. Nelson7 1 Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 3Neuroscience Institute and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 4Division of Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, 5Department of Psychology, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX., 6Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, 7Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL. Intermanual transfer refers to an effect whereby training one hand to perform a motor task improves performance in the opposite untrained hand. We tested the hypothesis that handedness facilitates intermanual transfer in two species: rhesus monkeys (N ¼ 13) and chimpanzees (N ¼ 51). Subjects were randomized to test conditions using a 2 2 (Handedness: left‐handed or right‐handed x Training: dominant or non‐dominant hand) design. Intermanual transfer was measured using the bent‐wire task where subjects removed a Life Saver candy (monkeys) or a washer (chimpanzees) from metal shapes. Transfer was measured with latency by comparing the average time taken to solve the task in the ﬁrst session with the training hand compared to the ﬁrst session with the untrained hand. Intermanual transfer occurred regardless of whether monkeys trained with the dominant hand [DOM: t(5) ¼ 3.110, P < 0.05] or the non‐dominant hand [NDOM: t(6) ¼ 4.867, P < 0.01]. However, in chimpanzees, intermanual transfer was observed only in individuals that trained with the dominant hand [DOM: t(28) ¼ 3.269, P < 0.01; NDOM: P > 0.05]. When handedness groups were compared separately, the effect of intermanual transfer only remained signiﬁcant for right‐handed chimpanzees, t(34) ¼ 3.200, P < 0.01. These results may be related to neurophysiological differences in motor control as well as differences in handedness patterning between rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. Supported by grants NS‐070717‐01 (K.A.P.) and NS‐42867 and HD‐60563 (W.D.H.).
45. TOOL‐USE COMPREHENSION IN LION‐TAILED MACAQUES (MACACA SILENUS) S. E. Haverly and P. G. Judge Program in Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, USA Tool‐use requires the manipulation of an object in the environment to achieve a goal, and the ability to relate one object to another. We used a two‐choice tool task to test for comprehension of tool use in three lion‐tailed macaques. First, we investigated their comprehension of tool‐object relations by presenting a choice between two hook‐shaped tools, one of which was baited with a food reward inside the hook (the correct choice) and the other had the reward outside the hook. Two of the three subjects reached criterion (10 out of 12 correct, in two consecutive sessions) in 20 sessions, and the third reached criterion in 40 sessions. The second experiment introduced parabola‐shaped tools to test whether the subjects could generalize to new tools. All subjects reached criterion in 12 sessions. The third experiment introduced barriers to determine if animals understood the relation between a tool, an object (the reward) and another object in the environment. Subjects needed to choose the tool that was not impeded by a barrier. Two of the three subjects reached criterion in 50 sessions, and the third did not reach criterion in 50 sessions. Results indicate that lion‐tailed macaques understand the causal relations between tools and the objects on which they acted. The present study design provides a standardized means to compare tool use comprehension across many primate species.
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46. EXPERIMENTAL REMOVAL OF HIGH‐RANKING NATAL MALES ALTERS THE STRUCTURE OF SILENT‐BARED‐ TEETH DISPLAY NETWORKS IN CAPTIVE GROUPS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) B. A. Beisner1,2 and B. McCowan1,2 1 University of California ‐ Davis, Department of Population Health & Reproduction, Davis, 95616, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA In captivity male rhesus macaques often reside in their natal groups because facilitating natural dispersal behavior is difﬁcult. Previous work by our research team suggests that the presence of high‐ranking natal males negatively impacts group stability – high‐ ranking natal males receive agonistic support from female kin and attain sufﬁciently high rank to challenge alpha males. The patterning of subordination signaling (i.e., silent‐bared‐teeth displays in peaceful contexts, pSBT) appears to be a good measure of group stability, as frequency and diversity of signals received predicts policing ability and the loss of hierarchical structure in the pSBT network was associated with social collapse in a captive rhesus group. We hypothesized that experimental removal of young, high‐ranking natal males would improve group stability by increasing the hierarchical complexity of the SBT network and improving policing success. Aggressive and submissive interactions were recorded in four social groups of rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center for six weeks before and after removal of a single natal male. Removal of natal males who occupied a similar network position as the alpha male increased SBT network complexity (i.e., more ﬁrst‐ and second‐order pathways) and improved overall policing success [b ¼ 1.14, P ¼ 0.02]. We suggest that natal males that have attained a network position that structurally mimics the alpha male indicate a challenge to the alpha position, which may contribute to instability.
47. SINGING AND SWINGING: THE EVOLUTION OF PRIMATE CALL STRUCTURE AS A FUNCTION OF SUBSTRATE USE D. M. Schruth and C. N. Templeton Box 353100, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA Several related hypotheses on the origins of primates attribute their derived morphological traits (e.g., grasping limbs, orbital convergence, reduced olfactory apparatus, and enlarged cranium) as adaptations to the behavioral demands of arboreal ecologies such as angiosperm terminal branch feeding or acrobatic grasp‐leap locomotion. Arboreal habitats are also suggested to have selected for sensory shifts from close‐range olfaction to longer‐distance auditory based communication and, in some cases, sophisticated acoustic signals. We merge and extend these classic theories by hypothesizing that song‐like acoustic displays evolved as signals of ’dimensional precision’ in sensory‐motor tasks required for locomotion via aerial trajectories through complex canopy habitats. To test this hypothesis we compiled spectrographic vocal repertoires and behavioral data from ﬁeld studies of 51 extant primate species (including 15 of 16 families) and performed phylogenetically controlled regression analyses. Here we report signiﬁcant correlated evolution [PGLM: P < 0.001] between vocal‐unit clustering (a measure of song complexity) and prevalence of aerial locomotion (leaping and suspensory arm swinging). Other factors such as mating system and diet showed less strong associations with complex calls while arboreality and climbing alone were non‐ signiﬁcant. Our analysis suggests that primate songs could serve as honest signaling mechanisms in species that frequently traverse via aerially discontinuous paths through gapped canopy habitats.
48. COMMON MARMOSETS’ (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) RESPONSES TO SNAKE CHARACTERISTICS J. R. Wombolt, S. Neal, M. G. Rice and N. G. Caine California State University San Marcos, 333 S. Twin Oaks Valley Rd., San Marcos, CA, 92096‐0001, USA Because snakes have always been important predators of primates, sensory and perceptual abilities that allow for quick detection of and response to snakes is likely to have evolved. Research suggests that the snake’s unique shape allows primates to quickly detect them, but it is not known what basic visual characteristics of the snake elicit defensive responses. In this study we examined whether pattern is a visual cue that evokes anti‐predator reactions in two groups of common marmosets (N ¼ 10). Six brown clay models served as stimuli. Three models were serpentine‐shaped and etched with scales or other line markings. The fourth serpentine model was patternless. The other two models were triangle‐shaped controls, one of which was etched with scales. Preliminary analyses with Friedman’s rank tests revealed a signiﬁcant difference in looking time by shape [x2 ¼ 14.27, df ¼ 5, P ¼ 0.01]; the marmosets looked at the snake with scales the longest (M ¼ 25.71 s, SD 13.51 s) and the plain triangle the least (M ¼ 6.57 s, SD 4.83 s). There was also a trend for marmosets to continue to monitor the area more after removal of models etched with patterns than after removal of the unpatterned models [x2 ¼ 8.65, df ¼ 5, P ¼ 0.12]. Finally, the marmosets alarm‐called more to the patterned serpentine models than to the triangles or plain snake [x2 ¼ 12.98, df ¼ 5, P ¼ 0.02]. These results suggest that patterns are visual cues that evoke anti‐predator reactions to snakes in common marmosets.
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49. HAND PREFERENCE IN SIAMANGS (SYMPHALANGUS SYNDACTYLUS) AT THE EL PASO ZOO IN TEXAS D. O. Spence and B. Beneﬁt Department of Anthropology, Breland Hall, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, 88003, USA Hand preference was assessed in a family of siamangs at the El Paso Zoo between September 2013 and March 2014, totaling 45 hours of observation over 18 days. One adult male, one adult female, and their two female offspring (6 and 2 years old) were observed and photographed while foraging for food in the public exhibit. Which hand each individual used in reaching for food, bringing food to the mouth, bug catching, and dipping for drinking water was recorded. The data were used to test for hand preference in each individual and whether handedness differed according to the age and sex of the individual. The adult female was found to exhibit the highest degree of handedness, using her left hand an average of 87.5% of the time for feeding activities, and 100% of the time for bug catching and water dipping. The adult male showed ambidextrous tendencies using either his right or left hand for speciﬁc tasks. The juveniles maintain variation, including using feet to bring food to the mouth, and the younger female switching hands during a single behavior but exhibiting a slight left hand preference (62.5%). This study of lateralized behavior in S. syndactylus suggests females may exhibit greater handedness than males, and handedness may not become established until adulthood. Whether handedness is related to female masculinization and/ or reﬂects cerebral specialization is discussed.
50. VALIDATION OF A PARTNER PREFERENCE TEST IN COPPERY TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) E. S. Rothwell1,2,3, S. B. Carp2, S. M. Freeman2, E. Ferrer1,4 and K. L. Bales1,2,3,4 1 University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center, 3Animal Behavior Graduate Group, 4Psychology Department The partner preference test is a behavioral paradigm used in rodents to quantify social preference. An analogous testing paradigm for socially monogamous primates has not yet been developed and validated. The goal of this study was to establish an adapted primate partner preference test using socially monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus). Twelve pairs of monkeys were tested in a three‐ chambered apparatus for three hours. The test subject was placed in the middle chamber with its pair‐mate on one side and an opposite sex stranger on the other. The test animal was separated from the two stimulus animals by a grated window and we recorded the duration of time that the test animal spent in proximity with and touching each window. All monkeys spent signiﬁcantly more time near the partner’s window compared to the stranger [t ¼ 3.88; P < 0.001] but time touching either window did not differ [W ¼ 335; n.s.]. A dyadic mixed model analysis revealed partner preference did not change during the test. We found that females, but not males, spent signiﬁcantly more time near the stranger’s window as the test progressed [t ¼ 2.43; P ¼ 0.017]. Partner preference was not inﬂuenced by the stimulus animals’ proximities to the windows. This validated partner preference test can now be utilized to quantitatively measure social preference in a variety of primate species.
51. CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (SAPAJUS LIBIDINOSIS) HANDLE STONE TOOLS SKILLFULLY D. M. Fragaszy1, K. Smith1, R. Baldree1 and M. Haslam2 1 Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA, 2Oxford University Skill is deﬁned as ﬂuid, effective performance under variable circumstances. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys habitually crack hard nuts by placing them on an anvil and striking them with stone hammers. Previous studies at the EthoCebus ﬁeld site in Brazil have shown that monkeys are skillful in aspects of nut‐cracking including stone and nut selection, placing the nut on the anvil, and producing appropriate striking force. We asked if monkeys handled the hammer stone skillfully during nut‐cracking. Four adult monkeys were videotaped voluntarily cracking nuts using two stones (1042 gm, moderately asymmetric and 1100 gm, more symmetric). A 3‐D digital reconstruction was made of each stone. For each strike, from video playback we coded nut striking behaviors, accuracy, and the location on the stone that struck the nut. For each stone, at least 14 and up to 20 strikes by each subject were analyzed. All four monkeys struck straight down onto the nut on 90% or more of strikes. The hands moved to the top of the stone during the downward strike. Each monkey struck the nut within 2 cm of the asymmetric stone’s center of mass on 81% of strikes on average. The ﬁndings indicate that bearded capuchin monkeys adjust their grips and their actions to achieve consistently accurate strikes. Supported by the European Research Council, the National Geographic Society, and the University of Georgia.
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52. THE EFFECT OF PAIR HOUSING ON THE AYE‐AYE (DAUBENTONIA MADAGASCARIENSIS) F. G. McCrossin Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, USA Aye‐ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are thought to be solitary animals and are often housed alone in captivity. However, sociality is known to play a major role in psychological well‐being for many primates and captive animals can develop psychological issues related to conditions of housing. To determine whether being housed alone or in pairs is better for aye‐ayes, observations on 14 aye‐ayes were collected from 2012 to 2014 at the Duke Lemur Center. Each observation period lasted from 30–60 minutes and each individual was observed for an average of 6 periods. Two separate groups of aye‐ayes were observed, those housed alone, and those that are pair‐housed. Some aye‐ayes fell into both categories during the duration of this study and their behavior while pair‐housed was compared to their own behavior while solitary, as well as being factored in to the average activity pattern of either group. The activity patterns of pair‐housed and solitary aye‐ayes were compared using a chi‐square test and it was determined that aye‐ayes exhibit different behavioral patterns when they are pair‐housed than while alone with P < 0.001. The results of this study show that behavior indicative of psychological issues, pacing, was signiﬁcantly reduced in pair‐housed individuals and that pair‐housed individuals were more active than solitary ones. This suggests that aye‐ayes may be more social than is often assumed and has important implications for aye‐aye husbandry.
53. STRUCTURE UTILIZATION BY INDOOR GROUP‐HOUSED JUVENILE PIGTAILED MACAQUES (MACACA NEMESTRINA) G. H. Lee, R. Kroeker, D. M. Christie, R. U. Bellanca and J. M. Worlein Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA, 98195‐7330, USA A key goal of environmental enhancement programs is to promote a broad range of species‐typical behaviors while limiting unwanted behaviors. Information regarding utilization of structural furnishings can be used to aid in the evaluation of these objects in meeting these goals. We observed 17 (16 females, 1 male) juvenile pigtailed macaques (1.0–2.9 years) housed indoors in three peer groups. Enclosures had 1–2 sides composed of fencing, 146.5‐188 ft2 ﬂoor space covered with bedding, and contained identical furnishings: a large Ferris wheel, ﬁxed elevated shelf, barrel, and Boomer Ball® bobbin. Observations were conducted over four weeks; 3 hours/day, split evenly between morning and afternoon, for a total of 42 hours. Scan sampling was used to instantaneously record the behavior and location (structure) of each animal at 75‐second intervals. Animals utilized structures at signiﬁcantly different rates [x2 ¼ 5,129.8, df ¼ 4, P < 0.001] spending most time on the shelf (42.6%) followed by wheel (25.1%), ﬂoor (15.9%), fence (13.5%), and barrel or bobbin (2.8%). Behaviors also occurred at signiﬁcantly different rates (repeated measures ANOVAs: P < 0.005) on the different structures. Huddle, eat, passive, social and abnormal behaviors occurred most on the shelf. Environmental explore occurred most often on the ﬂoor; locomotion most often on the fence. Results indicate that animals preferentially use some structures and that behavioral proﬁles vary for each structure. Support: NIH grants P51 OD010425, R24OD01180‐15.
54. DOES NEARBY CONSTRUCTION INCREASE AGGRESSION IN OUTDOOR, SOCIALLY HOUSED MACAQUES? D. H. Gottlieb, K. Andrews, K. Coleman, C. L. Johnson, C. M. Lender, K. Prongay and K. Taylor Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, 97006, USA While construction activity is known to increase stress in indoor‐housed macaques, its effects on outdoor, socially housed monkeys is less understood. Recently, a building was erected in close proximity to multiple groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Shortly after construction onset, an adjacent group became socially unstable. The goal of this project was to examine the effects of noise and vibration from the construction on the behavior of this unstable group, as well as two additional groups of macaques (approximately 150 individuals each). Behavioral observations were performed using all occurrence and instantaneous scan sampling up to 15 times a week for 20 weeks, totaling 276 hours. Magnitude of vibration and peak sound pressure from construction activity were recorded 24 hours/day at 60‐second intervals from ﬁve microphones strategically placed near the enclosures. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects modeling. Contrary to expectations, increased average construction noise at the time of observation, and prior to observation was associated with reduced aggressive interactions [P < 0.001]. Increased average construction vibration at the time of observation was also associated with reduced aggression [P < 0.001]. While we are unable to determine if the initial onset of social instability was related to the construction, these results indicate that daily construction noise and vibration magnitude did not increase daily frequency of aggression.
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55. TORPOR IN A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED PRIMATE: CLIMATE EFFECTS ON JAVAN SLOW LORIS (NYCTICEBUS JAVANICUS) BEHAVIOR K. D. Reinhardt1,2, D. Spaan1,2, I. Wirdateti3 and K. A. I. Nekaris1,2,4 1 Kathleen Reinhardt, Oxford Brookes University, Department of Social Sciences and Law, Gipsy Lane, Oxford, OX3 0BP, United Kingdom, 2The Little Fireface Project, 3Research Centre for Biology‐LIPI, 4The Nocturnal Primate Research Group Listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Redlist and thrice included in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates, the Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) ﬁnds itself increasingly restricted to various environmental constraints. Increased agriculture and fragmented forest area force this endemic species to adapt to habitat restrictions of increased elevation with lower temperatures—a process characterizing much of the remaining geographic range of seven other loris species, historically found in lowland forest area. Lorises of unknown geographic origin are currently being reintroduced to high altitude forested areas with no knowledge of their adaptive abilities. Examining the adaptive behavior of N. javanicus, this study was conducted on wild lorises in the agroforests of Cipiganti, Garut District, West Java, Indonesia. Three loris pairs with home ranges at different altitudes (800 m, 1000 m, 1200 m) were examined for three months through use of activity and skin temperature loggers to determine effects of climate and altitude on 24‐hour activity budgets; both ambient and skin temperature loggers to determine effects of climate on thermoregulation (torpor use); vegetation plots to determine effects of anthropogenic disturbance on activity and home range use. By use of general linear regression, we examined presence of a correlation between torpor use and habitat structure as well as climatic factors. We present a strategy for conservation of habitat in relation to these results.
56. INTERPRETING CENSUS VARIATION IN PLATYRRHINES: DECADAL AND SEASONAL REPEATED CENSUSES AT BROWNSBERG NATURE PARK, SURINAME M. A. Norconk1, B. W. Wright2, J. W. Moore1 and J. A. Ledogar3 1Dept. of Anthropology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA, 2Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, 3 University at Albany ‐ SUNY The ability to collect accurate information about species presence and relative abundance quickly is critical for conservation efforts where time constraints and cost prohibit long‐term assessments. Census techniques have become standardized, but there has been less discussion of the inﬂuence of species‐speciﬁc behaviors on primate census accuracy (e.g., Type I error—overestimating group abundance or Type II errors—failing to detect a group when present). We conducted decadal (2003 and 2013) and seasonal (2013‐wet season; 2013‐dry season) censuses at Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname, using standard techniques to record the presence, size, and composition of primate groups (7 species). Census effort (i.e., distance walked) ranged from 208 km in 26 days (2003) to 219 km in 15 days (2013‐wet) to 93 km in 6 days (2013‐dry). We calculated standard deviations of observed number of groups to compare sample periods. Alouatta macconnelli, Saguinus midas and Pithecia pithecia had relatively high standard deviations (3.6 to 7.0) suggesting the possibility of inaccurate group counts. Sapajus apella, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Cebus olivaceus had low values (0 to 1.2) suggesting conﬁdence in repeated measures. We avoided Type I errors in the latter species because we had prior knowledge of the site, but Type II errors are difﬁcult to avoid in high‐density conditions where groups may be missed. Research supported by IPS‐Jacobsen Award, Primate Conservation, Inc., Primate Action Fund (CI).
57. CONNECTING PEOPLE WITH PRIMATES TO CONNECT THE HABITAT F. Vidal‐Garcia1, J. C. Serio‐Silva1, L. M. Ayala‐Camacho2 and C. Oliva‐Uribe2 1 Instituto de Ecología AC., Carretera Antigua a Coatepec No. 351, El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, USA, 2Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Huixquilucan Mexican primates are endangered due to habitat fragmentation and practices like agriculture and raising livestock. It is necessary to work intensively with people in communities so they understand the importance of primates and protect them. The aim of this project was to establish practices for restoring the habitat of primates in places where they naturally/normally range/inhabit. We visited communities in Natural Protected Areas and their transition regions in the states of Veracruz, Tabasco and Chiapas and collected information about perceptions of primates and habitat restoration activities before and after workshops in which we taught people the advantages of using live fences, and provided native trees which could be beneﬁcial for both people and primates. Additionally, we located nearby habitat fragments with suitable characteristics for primates to record groups of primates and characteristics of the habitat fragments in which they were present.. We proposed to people places for planting and connecting fragments (in accord with previous observations), and people chose species they wanted to plant. We developed 87 workshops which were attended by 5200 people (children and adult). 155 hectares were reforested and 5600 meters of live fences were planted, connecting 16 fragments and letting 35 groups of primates move among them. This project reﬂects that for conserving primates it is necessary to encourage people to know them.
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58. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN HUMANS, WILDLIFE, AND LIVESTOCK IN AND AROUND GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA D. Elchouﬁ1, M. Parsons1, D. Travis2, E. V. Lonsdorf3, I. Lipende4, S. Kamenya4 and T. R. Gillespie5 1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 3Department of Psychology, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA, USA, 4The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania, 5Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University Our research established the prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in humans, livestock, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and baboons (Pabio anubis) living in and around Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We examined risk factors in antimicrobial resistance (AR) acquisition, hypothesizing that the Mitumba chimpanzee community would have higher AR prevalence than the Kasekela community due to its proximity to Mwamgongo, a village bordering the park. From March 2010 to February 2011, fecal samples were collected from humans (N ¼ 178), livestock (N ¼ 98), and wildlife (N ¼ 131) of the greater Gombe ecosystem. All samples were screened for sul1 and sul2 AR genes. Previously collected data on SIV and Cryptosporidium prevalence were tested as possible risk factors for chimpanzee analyses. Chi‐square tests of independence, Fisher’s Exact Tests, and McNemar’s tests were used for associations between risk factors and sul positivity. Kasekela had the highest prevalence of AR genes for human and chimpanzees (93.2% and 28.8%, respectively). All wildlife and livestock had resistance (26.2% of chimpanzees, 36.2% of baboons, 77.8% of dogs, 7.1% of sheep, 12% of goats). Humans residing in Kasekela were four times more likely to have AR than Mitumba. Positivity for sul1 related to positivity for sul2 in humans [P < 0.001] and chimpanzees [P ¼ 0.0253]. Humans seem to be the likely reservoir for AR genes to wildlife, regardless of human density.
59. ARE TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF FRUIT AVAILABILITY DRIVING OWL MONKEY (AOTUS AZARAE) REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS AND SEASONALITY? B. J. Finkel1, G. van der Heide2, A. Di Fiore3 and E. Fernandez‐Duque1,4,5,6 1 Fundación ECO, Proyecto Mirikiná, Casa 100, Ciudad de Formosa, Formosa, 3600, Argentina, 2The University of Texas at San Antonio, 3University of Texas at Austin, 4CECOAL‐Conicet, Corrientes, Argentina, 5University of Pennsylvania, 6Yale University Seasonal, annual, and supra‐annual phenology cycles generate periods of low and high food availability considered to drive primate reproductive success and timing. Owl monkeys (Aotus azarae azarae) of northern Argentina inhabit markedly seasonal subtropical forests. We explored the relations between fruiting phenology and reproduction by analyzing 11 years of monthly data on ﬁve species important to owl monkey diet (Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Eugenia spp., Ficus spp., Guazuma ulmifolia, Myrcianthes pungens, Syagrus romazofﬁana, N ¼ 22–197 ind./month) and annual births (N ¼ 17–22 groups/year). The percentage of groups having infants ﬂuctuated widely (41–82%), and 72% of births occurred in Oct‐Nov (N ¼ 241). We found a positive correlation [Spearman’s rank coefﬁcient: P < 0.05, N ¼ 11 years] between infant production and Chrysophyllum fruit availability during fall [r2 ¼ 0.3] and winter [r2 ¼ 0.4]. Later birth seasons (i.e. more births in Nov‐Dec) positively correlated with the abundance of Eugenia in summer [r2 ¼ 0.05] and fall [r2 ¼ 0.4], Myrcianthes in fall [r2 ¼ 0.5] and Ficus in winter [r2 ¼ 0.07]. We suggest that Chrysophyllum drives reproductive success as a key resource during Mar‐Aug when females resume cycling and conceive. Unusual Myrcianthes and Eugenia fruiting periods in fall rather than summer may delay weaning and push back the birth season. Multivariate analyses that consider fruiting stage will be necessary to investigate these patterns further. Upcoming nutritional analyses may bolster our conclusions and provide insights regarding the energetic importance of potential key fruit resources.
60. THE EFFECTS OF EXTRACTION METHOD AND FREEZE/THAW CYCLES ON FECAL CORTISOL METABOLITES MEASUREMENTS IN SULAWESI CRESTED BLACK MACAQUES AT THE BUFFALO ZOO D. A. Bertrand2,3, M. Heistermann3, S. W. Margulis1 and C. M. Berman2 1380 MFAC, Ellicott Complex, North Campus, University at Buffalo ‐ SUNY, Buffalo, NY, 14261, USA, 2University at Buffalo ‐ SUNY, 3Endocrinology Laboratory, German Primate Center Collecting feces is the least invasive way to measure average daily stress responses in wild primates. Fecal steroid metabolites can degrade quickly; freezing samples immediately and keeping them frozen until extraction slows this process. However, this can be difﬁcult at ﬁeld sites without reliable electricity. Currently validated methods for extracting Macaca nigra samples involve freezing at the ﬁeld station followed by lyophilizing. This study aimed to test a method to extract fecal glucocorticoid metabolites directly in the ﬁeld using ethanol. We asked whether metabolite levels in a captive group of M. nigra at the Buffalo Zoo differ: (1) between samples extracted after lyophilizing vs. extracted directly via 80% denatured ethanol or via 80% pure ethanol; and (2) after being subjected to multiple freeze/thaw cycles. An ANOVA indicated a signiﬁcant difference between lyophilized samples and both ethanol samples [F(2, 14) ¼ 6.48, P < 0.005]. However, all extraction methods produced concordant results [Kendall’s W ¼ 0.937, P < 0.006]. Thus while ethanol extraction methods may not be suitable for measurement of absolute hormone concentrations, they are suitable to measure concentrations at an ordinal level. Additionally, an ANOVA indicated no overall signiﬁcant difference between immediately lyophilized samples and freeze/thaw cycle samples. However there was a signiﬁcant contrast between the control and one cycle [F(1, 14) ¼ 17.49, P ¼ 0.001], suggesting caution. These results argue for the use of ethanol extraction when conditions in the ﬁeld may result in frequent inadvertent thawing of samples.
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61. THE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN ON RESPONSE TO NOVELTY IN JUVENILE TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) T. A. R. Weinstein1, S. P. Mendoza1, W. A. Mason1, M. Solomon2, S. Jacob3 and K. L. Bales1,4 1 California National Primate Research Center, University of California ‐ Davis, Davis, CA, USA, 2MIND Institute, University of California ‐ Davis, Sacramento, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 4Department of Psychology, University of California ‐ Davis, Davis, CA The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates many important behaviors including attachment relationship formation, sexual behavior, social recognition, and stress reactivity. We examined how chronic intranasal OT administration affects juvenile coppery titi monkeys’ response to novelty. Four females and four males housed in indoor family groups at the California National Primate Research Center received daily treatment with either 0.8 IU/kg OT dissolved in 50 ul saline (N ¼ 4) or saline alone (N ¼ 4) from 12–18 months of age. We measured latencies to retrieve banana pieces placed in front of novel patterned backgrounds at months 15, 17, and 19. Testing involved six 30‐second trials repeated across four days: trial one consisted of the baseline solid background, followed by four novel patterned backgrounds escalating in complexity, followed by baseline. A linear mixed model tested the effects of treatment, sex, age, test day, and pattern complexity on retrieval latencies. We found a signiﬁcant interaction between treatment and sex [P < 0.001]: OT‐treated females retrieved the banana more quickly than did saline‐treated females, while OT‐treated males retrieved the banana more slowly than did saline‐treated males. Treatment also interacted with age [P ¼ 0.017]: over development, retrieval latencies declined more sharply in OT‐ treated animals than in saline‐treated animals. Our results suggest that chronic intranasal OT’s effect on titi monkeys’ response to novelty is sex‐dependent and changes over developmental time. Funding: NIH HD071998, P51OD011107, and the Good Nature Institute.
62. SOCIAL SUBORDINATION, 5‐HT TRANSPORTER GENE POLYMORPHISMS, AND BONE MASS AMONG OVARIECTOMIZED, SOCIALLY‐HOUSED FEMALE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) A. Mummert1,2, M. Sanchez1,2, Z. Johnson1,2 and M. E. Wilson1,2 1 Emory University, 207 Anthropology Building, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center Alterations to the serotonergic system mechanistically explain epidemiological associations between depression and osteoporosis through stress‐induced disruption of serotonin (5‐HT) transporter activity in bone cells. 5‐HT transporter gene polymorphisms (5‐ HTTLPR) may mediate these effects, with the short (s) allele being less transcriptionally active and reducing bone mass accrual. Previous research documents a low bone mass phenotype among subordinate rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), leading us to test the hypothesis that subordination and the s allele interact to result in diminished accumulation of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) and bone mineral content (BMC; g) during mid‐adulthood. Subjects were 33 ovariectomized, adult female Rhesus macaques at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center who were previously genotyped. Whole body and trunk BMD and BMC were assessed in 2009 and 2011 using dual‐ energy X‐ray absorptiometry. Dominant and subordinate rank were determined by observations of agonostic behavior. Overall, the interaction between rank and 5‐HTTPLR polymorphism did not have a statistically signiﬁcant effect on whole body BMD accumulation [Mixed ANOVA, F(1, 29) ¼ 1.484, P ¼ 0.233, h2p ¼ 0.049]. There was, however, a signiﬁcant main effect of time [F(1, 29) ¼ 9.638, P ¼ 0.004, partial h2p ¼ 0.249], with a mean increase of 0.032 g/cm2 over the two year study period. Results were similar for the trunk and BMC. These results indicate that 5‐HTTLPR polymorphisms may not interact with subordination to inﬂuence mid‐adult skeletal health.
63. CHIMPANZEE SOCIAL TOLERANCE AND POSSIBLE GENETIC INFLUENCES OF THE VASOPRESSIN V1A RECEPTOR GENE S. L. Bogart1,2, J. L. Russell2,3, L. A. Reamer4, M. C. Mareno4, S. J. Schapiro4 and W. D. Hopkins2,3 1 Lawrence University, Department of Anthropology, 711 E. Boldt Way, Appleton, Wisconsin, 54911, USA, 2Neuroscience Institute and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302, 3Division of Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, 4Department of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, Texas 78602 Recent research has revealed an association between social behaviors in mammals and the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A). Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a polymorphism in the RS3 region with some individuals recessive (DupB/) or dominant for the DupB allele. Dominant homozygous individuals are rare and lumped with heterozygotes as subjects that express the dominant genotype (DupBþ). Here, we examined the association between the DupB polymorphism and social tolerance variables in a chimpanzee prosocial experiment with 99 subjects (58 females and 41 males, 55 DupB/ and 44 DupBþ). Each focal subject was provided a sharable resource (bag of carrots) while in their social groups. Over the course of each subject’s trial the number of subjects within touching distance (proximity) to the focal was recorded every 30 seconds and an average was calculated. DupBþ males had a signiﬁcantly higher tolerance of more individuals within proximity than all other chimpanzees, F(1, 99) ¼ 4.06, P < 0.05. However, DupB/ males tolerated food theft from a greater number of individuals signiﬁcantly more than all other subjects, F(1, 98) ¼ 4.19, P < 0.05. This latter ﬁnding was not expected but implies that other factors may play a role in prosocial behaviors, such as dominance. In conclusion, our results suggest that chimpanzees with the DupB dominant genotype are more socially tolerant, at least as deﬁned by social proximity.
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64. MAOA GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND INFLUENCE ON MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTER FUNCTIONING IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) LIVING IN LARGE OUTDOOR CORRALS D. G. Loveland1, B. E. Dent1, M. A. Skidmore1, A. N. Sorenson1, M. L. Schwandt2, S. G. Lindell2, S. J. Suomi2, C. S. Barr2 and J. D. Higley1 1 1042 SWKT, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, Provo, UT, 84602, USA, 2National Institutes of Health, NICHD, and NIAAA Variants of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOa) gene are associated with psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety, excessive alcohol consumption, and violence in both humans and rhesus monkeys. Previous research has primarily focused on behavior associated with the MAOa gene, however this study examines genotype and environmental effects (rearing) on central monoamine functioning. We tested the hypothesis that MAOa genotypes would interact with maternal presence/absence (GxE) over time to modulate the monoamine systems. Methods: Cisternal cerebrospinal ﬂuid (CSF) was obtained from 116 male infant rhesus macaques on days 14, 30, 90, 120, and 150 of life and assayed for HVA, MHPG, and 5‐HIAA (metabolites of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, respectively). Subjects were reared either as controls with their mothers or in mother‐absent, peer‐only groups. Results: There were main effects for rearing [P < 0.0009, P < 0.001] and genotype [P < 0.0009, P < 0.010] for the norepinephrine and serotonin systems. Repeated measure ANOVAs also showed signiﬁcant three‐way GxE by time interactions for both systems [P < 0.012 and P < 0.040 respectively]. There was a main effect of genotype [P < 0.004], as well as a GxE interaction for the dopamine system [P < 0.013]. Conclusions: These results largely conﬁrmed our hypothesis. To the extent that various forms of psychopathology are modulated by the monoamines, our ﬁndings show a GxE interaction that increases in effect size over time possibly leading to behavioral disorders such as aggression, depression, alcoholism, and anxiety.
65. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE WEANING STRATEGIES OF CAPTIVE FEMALE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) USING STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS K. A. Partrick and L. J. Reitsema The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA Weaning is a critical life history stage because nursing is energetically costly and suppresses ovulation. A female must wean her offspring to resume sexual receptivity without compromising infant survival. Behavioral observations can be biased due to comfort nursing, which falsely identiﬁes an infant as nursing. We employed stable isotope analysis to track the transition from a breast fed to self‐ fed diet in rhesus macaques. We tested the threshold weight hypothesis (that infants wean upon reaching 2/3 adult body size) and investigated factors (dominance rank, parity, and infant sex) known to inﬂuence weaning. Plasma samples were collected from eight mother‐infant dyads housed at Yerkes Primate Research Center and assayed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Mother samples at infant age: 2 and 5 months and infant samples at: 2, 5–8, and 10 months. Infant’s d15N and d13C values were indistinguishable (7.01‰ .39‰) from their mothers between 5–8 months of age, sooner than predicted by the threshold weight hypothesis. Male infants weaned sooner (age 6 months versus age 8 months). A strong relationship was found regarding rank, with low‐ranking mothers weaning sooner [r2 ¼ 0.628, P ¼ 0.019]. No relationship was found for parity [r2 ¼ 0.249, P ¼ 0.208]. Results contrast those of behavioral studies suggesting these components need to be objectively proven. Inadequate nutrition compromises infant vitality; therefore, understanding optimal weaning strategies sheds light on developmental health and maternal ﬁtness. 66. THE ONTOGENY OF SPONTANEOUS LIPSMACKING IN INFANT RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) IN RESPONSE TO VISUAL STIMULI S. P. Perkins1,2, E. Feczko1, S. Huskisson1 and L. A. Parr1,3 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Rd., Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA, 2Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Lipsmacking is an afﬁliative behavior present in macaques in the ﬁrst few days of life. Tracking the expression of this social signal can help us understand the development of monkeys’ socio‐emotional behavior. Cohorts of 11 (2012) and 10 (2013) infants were tested from the ﬁrst week through 3 and 6 months, respectively. Infants were videotaped as they viewed static images and videos (10‐20s) of conspeciﬁcs while their eye‐movements were tracked. The frequency of lipsmacking and the stimuli eliciting this behavior were then scored. Results identiﬁed two peaks in the expression of lipsmacking, the ﬁrst occurring around the 3rd week, and the second between the 15–17th weeks. Chi‐squared analyses assessed whether these peaks in behavior exceeded that expected by chance, while controlling for the number of subjects tested each week. Signiﬁcant differences were observed in the development of lipsmacks for both cohorts, e.g., 2012, x2 ¼ 69.7, df ¼ 11, P < 0.001, and 2013, x2 ¼ 26.5, df ¼ 13, P < 0.05. The bimodal distribution of lipsmacking might suggest the emergence of two systems involved in social communication, one early system that is reﬂexive and involuntary and a later system that is more volitional. Subsequent analyses will examine the type of stimuli that elicited lipsmacking during these periods, e.g., static and dynamic faces, familiar vs unfamiliar faces, and same vs other species’ faces.
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67. SPEED OF SKIN AND COAT COLOR CHANGES INDICATE MATERNAL EFFECTS ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT IN LANGURS (SEMNOPITHECUS SCHISTACEUS) A. Koenig and C. Borries Department of Anthropology and Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794‐4364, USA Growth processes in mammals are subject to nutrient availability. It is therefore likely that especially early infant development reﬂects maternal condition which depends on ecological (food availability) and social factors (e.g., dominance rank). Here we investigate the effects of maternal rank and seasonal ﬂuctuations in food availability on the speed of infant development in Nepal Gray langurs (Semnopithecus schistaceus) using color changes as proxies. Infant Gray langurs are born with a pink skin and black coat, which gradually assumes adult coloration (black skin, grey coat). We predicted that infants of high ranking mothers and those born later in the season (higher food availability) develop and, thus, change color faster. Data were collected between 1992 and 1994 on 14 infants in two groups (P, O) assessing color status weekly or biweekly. Skin color changes were completed within 8 weeks while coat color changes took more than 6 months. In group P, in which maternal condition depended on dominance rank, speed of development was signiﬁcantly affected by maternal rank [multiple Mann‐Whitney U‐tests, Ps < 0.05]. Seasonal [Ps < 0.05] but no rank effects [Ps > 0.1] were found in group O. These results suggest maternal effects mediated by rank and food availability. Future studies will show if these effects translate into differential reproductive success among females. Data collection supported by the Alexander von Humboldt‐Foundation and the German Research Council.
68. GROUP DIFFERENCES IN COMMON MARMOSET (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) ALARM CALL SIGNATURES M. G. Rice1, M. M. Petracca2 and N. G. Caine1 1 California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, CA, 92096, USA, 2University of Nebraska‐Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 Previous research has shown group‐speciﬁc differences in the contact calls of only a few species of primates. While it has been suggested that the vocal convergence of contact calls may be beneﬁcial for the location and recognition of groupmates, limited research has investigated whether this is true for other call types. We were interested in whether alarm calls of common marmosets differed by family group. We recorded the alarm calls of seven captive adult marmosets (N ¼ 3 and N ¼ 4) in response to a snake model. We used acoustic software to measure four parameters: duration, and starting, maximum, and ending frequency. A discriminant function analysis conﬁrmed that duration and starting frequency distinguished among the two marmoset groups [x2 (2) ¼ 183.15, P < 0.001]. A jackknifed classiﬁcation process was run using sample proportions as prior probabilities. This process correctly classiﬁed 262 out of 301 (87%) alarm calls, which is signiﬁcantly more than would be correctly classiﬁed by chance alone [152(50.6%); x2 (1) ¼ 155.01, P < 0.05]. The stability of the classiﬁcation process was checked by cross‐validation, in which again 86.4% (260) of the alarm calls were correctly classiﬁed. These results show that common marmoset alarm calls elicited by a snake model are distinguishable by family group. Additional research is needed to determine whether genetic relatedness or social bonds account for these differences.
69. DEVELOPMENT OF A COGNITIVE TESTING APPARATUS FOR SOCIALLY HOUSED MOTHER‐PEER‐REARED INFANT RHESUS MONKEYS A. M. Dettmer, A. M. Murphy and S. J. Suomi Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, Poolesville, Maryland, 20837, USA Although the cognitive development of nursery‐reared (NR) infant monkeys is well described, nothing is known about the typical development of mother‐peer‐reared (MPR) infants. We developed a cognitive testing apparatus for socially‐housed, MPR infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, N ¼ 5) that allowed infants to freely return to their mothers for contact comfort as needed, and compared their training and performance on an object detour reach (ODR) task to that of NR infants (N ¼ 11), which were tested in their home cages via a cage‐side apparatus. MPR and NR infants did not differ on the number of days or sessions to reach criterion for training, indicating the MPR infants’ comfort and willingness to engage in and learn the task. Performance on the task differed between rearing groups: overall, MPR infants balked more [U ¼ 533.0, P < 0.001], got fewer trials correct [U ¼ 1230.0, P < 0.001], and took longer to complete trials [U ¼ 549.5, P ¼ 0.012] than NR infants. However, further analysis revealed that these differences existed only in the ﬁrst 1‐2 days of testing and then disappeared, suggesting that MPR infants are likely initially performing more poorly than NR infants due to their lack of intensive experience with human experimenters. These are the ﬁrst cognitive data in freely‐performing MPR rhesus monkeys less than one year old, and they underscore the utility of our apparatus for comparing cognitive development in a normative population of infant monkeys to other populations.
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70. USING MAQFACS TO MEASURE FACIAL MOVEMENT CHANGES DURING MPTP TREATMENT IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) T. R. Heitz1, A. Galvan1,2,3, T. Wichmann1,2,3 and L. A. Parr1,4,5 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2Morris K. Udall Center of Excellence for Parkinson’s Disease Research, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 3Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 4 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 5Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Monkeys treated with the neurotoxin 1‐methyl‐4‐phenyl‐1, 2, 3, 6‐tetrahydopyridine (MPTP) are the most common way to model the gross motor deﬁcits associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). In humans, partial facial paralysis is common but this is not commonly measured in monkeys. This study used MaqFACS, a biologically‐based facial movement coding system for the rhesus macaque, to measure the onset of facial paralysis associated with the progression towards PD in monkeys. Prior to treatment, we videotaped 11 monkeys (baseline) over a 4‐week period and coded the frequency and duration of spontaneous facial movement using MaqFACS. Only two movements (AUs) showed instability across the baseline: AU17 (chin raiser) increased over the ﬁrst three sessions and decreased in the ﬁnal session, F(3, 15) ¼ 3.49, P < 0.05, and AU45 (blinks) increased steadily, F(3, 15) ¼ 4.34, P < 0.05. Changes from baseline in the frequency of each AU during MPTP treatment were then assessed in seven of these monkeys. This revealed signiﬁcant decreases in the majority of AU’s, particularly those in the upper face, e.g., AU1 þ 2 (brow raise), F(1, 6) ¼ 13.11, P < 0.01, but signiﬁcant increases in other movements, particularly those associated with the lower face, e.g., AU25 (lips part), F(1, 6) ¼ 8.79, P < 0.03. These results indicate that MaqFACS could be a useful tool to track the progression of PD in a monkey model.
71. MU AND KAPPA OPIOID RECEPTOR BINDING IN THE FOREBRAIN OF THE MONOGAMOUS TITI MONKEY (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) B. J. Ragen1,2, S. M. Freeman2, S. A. Laredo1,3, S. P. Mendoza2 and K. L. Bales1,2,3 1 University of California, Davis, Department of Psychology, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA 95616, 3University of California, Davis, Animal Behavior Graduate Group, Davis, CA, 95616 The opioid system is involved in infant‐mother attachment as well as pair‐bonding in adults. Mu opioid receptor (MOR) manipulation in the monogamous titi monkey alters cortisol and vasopressin levels, and the presence of a pair‐mate ameliorates the negative effects of opioid blockade. Furthermore, the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) aids in pair‐bond maintenance in titi monkeys and the monogamous prairie vole. The goal of the present study was to map MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey. The brains of nine adult titi monkeys (N ¼ 3 paired males; N ¼ 3 paired females; N ¼ 3 unpaired males) were removed and ﬂash frozen. Autoradiography was performed using [3H]DAMGO to examine MOR binding and [3H]U69,593 to examine KOR binding. Tissue used for MOR and KOR binding was exposed to ﬁlm for 21 weeks. Strong MOR binding was found in the nucleus accumbens, medial amygdala, medial septum, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and mediodorsal thalamus. Binding was in other amygdalar nuclei, hypothalamic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septum, diagonal band, hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and cingulate gyrus. KOR binding was found in the claustrum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex with light binding in the striatum. These data provide information on where pharmacological manipulations are acting and which opioid‐dependent brain areas may be involved in pair‐bonding. Funding: Good Nature Institute; NICHD: HD053555; Ofﬁce of Research Infrastructure Programs: Grant P51OD01107.
72. TRACTOGRAPHY OF THE SPIDER MONKEY CORPUS CALLOSUM (ATELES GEOFFROYI) USING DIFFUSION TENSOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING. D. A. Platas‐Neri1, S. Hidalgo‐Tobón 2,3, B. da Celis Alonso 4, F. Chico2, J. Muñoz‐Delgado 5,6 and K. A. Phillips7 1 Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Campus Sur, Jojutla Morelos, 62900, Mexico, 2Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, México, D. F., 3Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F., 4Benemérita Universidad de Puebla, Puebla, México, 5Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, México, D.F, 6Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., 7Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas, USA. The objective of this research was to describe the organization, connectivity and microstructure of the corpus callosum of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion‐tensor imaging were obtained from three subjects using a 3T Philips scanner. We hypothesized that the arrangement of ﬁbers in spider monkeys would be similar to that observed in other nonhuman primates. A repeated measure (N ¼ 3) of fractional anisotropy values was obtained of each subject and for each callosal subdivision. Measurements of the diffusion properties of corpus callosum (CC) ﬁbers exhibited a similar pattern to those reported in the literature for humans and chimpanzees. No statistical difference was reached when comparing this parameter between the different CC regions [P ¼ 0.066]. The highest fractional anisotropy values corresponded to regions projecting from the corpus callosum to the posterior cortical association areas, premotor and supplementary motor cortices. The lowest fractional anisotropy corresponded to projections to motor and sensory cortical areas. Analyses indicated that approximately 57% of the ﬁbers project to the frontal cortex and 43% to the post‐ central cortex. While this study had a small sample size, the results provided important information concerning the organization of the corpus callosum in spider monkeys.
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73. SOCIABILITY IS RELATED TO LOWER BASELINE IMMUNE ACTIVITY IN RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) J. J. Vandeleest, J. Jin and B. McCowan California National Primate Research Center, University of California‐Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA The personality trait Sociability has been shown to be related to immune activity in response to infection. Unknown, however, is whether personality characteristics are related to immune activity in healthy, socially living individuals. The current study assessed personality on 55 animals living in a large half‐acre enclosure housing a total of 133 animals at the California National Primate Research Center. Personality was assessed by observing animals in their social groups for 12 10‐min focal sessions and then rating each individual on 29 adjectives. Factor analysis of the 24 reliably rated adjectives with direct oblimin rotation yielded a 3 factor personality structure: Sociable, Excitable, and Conﬁdent. Cytokines (IL‐6, IL‐8, TNF‐alpha) were assayed from serum collected from anesthetized animals during a roundup. Multiple regression controlling for relevant demographic variables (i.e., sex and age) as well as the other personality factors indicated that animals that were more Sociable had signiﬁcantly lower levels of IL‐6 [b ¼ 11.02, P < 0.05] and TNF‐alpha [b ¼ 85.98, P < 0.05] and a trend indicating lower levels of IL‐8 [b ¼ 411.49, P < 0.1]. These results suggest that Sociable animals may be less likely to suffer from health conditions associated with greater systemic inﬂammation at baseline conditions.
74. PERSONALITY AND BLOOD CHEMISTRY ASSOCIATIONS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH IN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) D. M. Altschul1, D. Sinn2 and A. Weiss1 1 7 George Square, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, EH8 9JZ, USA, 2University of Texas Comparative models of hematological risk factors stand to augment our understanding of primate ﬁtness. In humans, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders have rapidly become a worldwide public health issue. With the recent development of factor models of animal personality, we can investigate associations between chimpanzee personality, blood levels of implicated organic macromolecules including triglycerides, cholesterols and white blood cells, and physical measures such as blood pressure, BMI, age, and sex, as informed by research conducted with humans. To this end, personality was assessed in 196 chimpanzees via the 43‐item Chimpanzee Personality Questionnaire, using a mixed‐effect models with hematological data and physical characteristics, gathered during regular check‐ups. Controlling for age, sex, & BMI, associations [a ¼ 0.001] were found between blood pressure and the chimpanzee personality domains of extraversion [b ¼ 7.764, SE 1.907] and openness [b ¼ 3.963, SE 1.103], as well as triglyceride levels and agreeableness [b ¼ 24.138877, SE 6.710]. Chimpanzee and human metabolic health appear to have much in common. By further developing evolutionary models of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, we can improve general health for primates. Additionally, health and mortality are linked to personality in humans, and diet has been implicated in the rise of metabolic disorders. Captive primates subsist on industrial diets, as do many wild primates who have come to rely on human food, revealing immediate medical and behavioral targets for improving nonhuman primate health.
75. TALK TO THE HAND: HAMADRYAS BABOON (PAPIO HAMADRYAS) HAND PREFERENCE IN GESTURAL COMMUNICATION R. Vagell Animal Behavior and Conservation (ABC) Program, Hunter College (CUNY), 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA Gestural communication is thought to be a precursor to the origin of human language. Since human language is lateralized between brain hemispheres, this study seeks to elucidate whether there is also a lateralization in nonhuman primate gestural communication. One way to investigate brain asymmetry is by observing species‐speciﬁc behaviors for lateralized hand preference. In this preliminary study, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) were observed at Prospect Park Zoo in Brooklyn, New York. Two types of gestural communication were examined to determine if they exhibit hand preference: hand slapping and muzzle wiping. An all occurrence sampling was completed in three weeks totaling 24 hours of observation and data collection. From these data, we calculated a Handedness Index (HI) and tested individuals for right or left hand preference using chi‐squared tests. This study revealed that 42.9% of individuals exhibit a right hand preference for hand slapping [x2 ¼ 17.04, P < 0.001]. 71.4% of individuals exhibit a right hand preference for muzzle wiping [x2 ¼ 10.50, P < 0.05]. These results are consistent with previous studies on olive baboons (Papio anubis) [Vauclair et al., 2005; Meguerditchian & Vauclair, 2006; Meguerditchian & Vauclair, 2009]. Results from this preliminary study can contribute to the study of nonhuman primate handedness, and the evolution of language.
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76. AFFILIATIVE USE OF THE BARED TEETH DISPLAY IN OUTDOOR CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES K. R. Finn1, B. A. Beisner1,2, E. Bliss‐Moreau1 and B. McCowan1,2 1 California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2Department of Population Health & Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis In Macaca mulatta the bared teeth display (BT) is thought to be a uni‐directional signal about dominance relationships, communicating immediate submission in conﬂict and long‐term subordination in peaceful contexts. We also document evidence of BTs used in mating contexts (mBT) accompanied by afﬁliation such as lip‐smacking, jaw thrusting, consort behavior, and sex mounting. Status signaling interactions were recorded with event sampling four hours/week in one group. Of the 191 BTs observed September to December 2013, 13 were mBTs, 100% given from males to females, compared to only 2 (1.1%) male‐to‐female non‐mBTs. Further, from data collected ad libitium in two additional groups we report 34 instances of “ﬂirtatious” BTs from 7 males, 145 BTs with sex mounting from 11 males, and 2 bidirectional BTs captured on video. Of all observed BTs in ﬂirtatious or sex mount contexts respectively, 86.5% and 56.1% were given by alpha or beta males, suggesting that mBTs are not communicating subordination. These data appear to contradict the power asymmetry hypothesis—that species having high power asymmetry have distinct submissive and afﬁliative signaling, whereas more power symmetric species have contextual overlap and bidirectional use of signals. However, we argue that power between rhesus in mating pairs may be more symmetric because female mate choice and promiscuity create greater uncertainty in these relationships.
77. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) THROUGH STEPS OF PAIR CAGING INTRODUCTION M. A. Truelove1, A. L. Martin1,2, J. E. Perlman1 and M. A. Bloomsmith1 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA, 2School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology Assessment of social interactions is the foundation of compatibility evaluation for newly paired laboratory monkeys. Identiﬁcation of behaviors key to decision‐making in introductions is essential for maximizing personnel efﬁciency and for pair management. Data from 24 successful introductions of isosexual rhesus macaque pairs (6 male, 16 female; 2–25 years old) were examined. The presence or absence of social behaviors was noted during three phases of the introduction: visual, limited contact, and paired contact. Progression through the phases was dependent upon behaviors observed. More pairs displayed grooming [P ¼ 0.001] and other non‐aggressive contact behaviors [P ¼ 0.006] in the paired phase (79%, 84%) than in the limited contact phase (33%, 42%) as measured by a related‐samples McNemar Test. Aggressive contact did not differ between phases. The number of pairs displaying each non‐contact behavior across all three introduction phases was compared using a related‐samples Cochran’s Q test. Increasing numbers of pairs displayed social enlisting [P < 0.001] as the introduction phases progressed. The number of pairs displaying avoidance or withdrawing behavior changed across phases [P ¼ 0.001]; the highest proportion was observed in the limited contact phase. There was no observed change in the number of pairs displaying lip‐ smacking, presenting, or lunging across the introduction phases. Results will be useful in understanding common patterns of behavioral change in successful rhesus pairs; these can better inform socialization program decisions.
78. PERSONALITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN FRIENDSHIPS AFTER SOCIAL SEPARATION IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) J. Jin1, B. A. Beisner1,2, J. J. Vandeleest1 and B. McCowan1,2 1 California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2Population Health & Reproduction, University of California, Davis Social support plays a crucial role in physical and mental well‐being. Following disruptions to one’s afﬁliative network, an individual adjusts its afﬁliative relationships by making new friends and/or strengthening existing relationships. To understand whether personality is associated with different social adjustment strategies after social separation, we extracted data on personality and afﬁliation from a 20‐week matriline defragmentation experiment in which 20 rhesus macaque individuals were permanently removed from their captive social group to improve matrilineal cohesion. Subjects were rhesus macaques (N ¼ 55) living in a half‐acre outdoor enclosure at the California National Primate Research Center. Personality was assessed by adjective ratings based on 12 10‐min focal observations. Factor analysis with direct oblimin rotation yielded 3 personality factors: Conﬁdence, Excitability and Sociability. Afﬁliation (huddle, groom) was recorded using scan‐sampling. Controlling for demographic variables (e.g. age, sex) in all models, we found more sociable animals huddled with and groomed smaller proportions of new partners, [Bs < 0.07, Ps < 0.05], and also groomed more old partners [B ¼ 0.09, P ¼ 0.04]. More Excitable animals groomed a higher proportions of new partners [B ¼ 0.13, P ¼ 0.02]. Finally, more Conﬁdent individuals received more grooming [B ¼ 0.11, P ¼ 0.09]. These results suggest that individuals differed in how they adapted to social separations, and personality may underlie differential strategies of social adjustment, which potentially affects outcomes of coping with social separations.
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79. PROMOTING WILD POSTURES: THE USE OF GUM‐BASED ENRICHMENT IN INCREASING THE NATURAL BEHAVIORS OF RESCUED SLOW LORISES (NYCTICEBUS BENGALENSIS, N. PYGMAEUS AND N. COUCANG) IN THAILAND S. A. Poindexter1,2 and K. A. I. Nekaris 1,2 1 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2The Little FireFace Project Nycticibus spp. are regularly found within the exotic pet trade throughout the world. Their growing popularity has continued to deplete wild populations and increase the number of slow lorises kept in captivity. Many slow lorises rescued from the pet trade are without their toothcomb, this prevents wild reintroduction and impedes the captive management of this largely exudativorous species. From a welfare perspective, strategies need to be implemented to not only increase the quantity of exudates provided, but to offer those without a toothcomb an opportunity to emulate the behaviors used by their intact counterparts in accessing exudates. I sought to assess the effectiveness of providing acacia gum on promoting species‐speciﬁc behaviors and postures. To accommodate individuals with and without a toothcomb, gum was offered wrapped in banana leaves and as an additive to existing branches in eight enclosures. Instantaneous scan sampling was used to collect 360 hours of behavioral data for 20 rescued Bengal, greater, and pygmy slow lorises. By providing gum‐based enrichment observed slow lorises were encouraged to utilize a wider range of postures and behaviors. Using a paired‐ sample t‐test we found a signiﬁcant decrease in the passive posture of sitting and its associated behaviors [t ¼ 8.15, df ¼ 19, P < 0.001]. These ﬁndings shed light on an often overlooked aspect of captive loris care, postural range, and also emphasize the beneﬁts of providing exudates in captivity.
80. DECIPHERING THE SOURCES OF DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS: CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN COSTA RICAN CAPUCHINS L. Fedigan Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada Why do some individuals, groups and populations reproduce better than others over time? How do male and female primates co‐exist, compete and collaborate in order to live and reproduce successfully in year‐round social communities? These are the central questions that drive my research. My team has tracked the behavioral ecology and life histories of Costa Rican white‐faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) for 31 years and examined many possible predictors of reproductive success. Dominance rank explains much of the reproductive skew exhibited by male capuchins, but not that seen in females. Therefore, we have examined other factors that can inﬂuence differential reproductive success in females, such as maternal age, longevity, sensory acuity, timing of reproductive events, sex ratio of groups, and availability of kin. Sexual conﬂict is prominent in capuchin society and male takeovers followed by infanticide appear to confound the effects of female dominance hierarchies on reproductive success. I will provide examples of the strategies and counter‐strategies of male and female capuchins as they compete for control over reproduction. At the same time, capuchins can be described as communal breeders in which multiple breeding females and resident males cooperate in the care of infants born in the group—exhibiting extensive carrying, protecting, allonursing and tolerance of food taking by immatures, all of which enhance the reproductive success of individual group members.
81. HUMAN‐PRIMATE INTERFACES: VARIED ROLES FOR HUMAN‐PRIMATE INTERACTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS J. J. Smith York University, 4700 Keele Street, Behavioral Science Building Rm 101, Toronto, ON, M3J 2S5, USA Discussion of the human‐primate interface has often focused on the major problem of human‐primate conﬂict (e.g., competition for space, resources). Consideration of other aspects of this interface is leading to the recognition that managing human‐primate interconnections is about more than competition and conﬂict. The human‐primate interface spans all contexts in which humans and nonhuman primates come together and can potentially interact, including settings in which humans and free‐ranging primates co‐exist peacefully, captive primate research laboratories, zoos, sanctuaries, rehabilitation and projects. Human‐primate interactions and their outcomes differ across these contexts. This symposium brings together speakers from diverse disciplines, research areas, and settings to help develop a broader view of the human‐primate interface, especially the qualities of human‐primate interactions and their costs and beneﬁts for the primates and humans involved. Speakers will discuss the qualities, roles, and implications of human‐primate interactions for free‐living primates in range countries (Anne Russon) and captive primates in zoos (Joshua Smith), research settings (Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Kim Bard, Kate Baker), and sanctuaries (Sarah Baeckler Davis). Symposium aims include: (1) broadening understanding of the human‐primate interface by bringing together experts from disciplines and areas that do not typically overlap or communicate; (2) highlighting the nature and quality of human‐primate interactions appropriate for each context; (3) stimulating discussion and debate that may inform and improve primate conservation, research and welfare.
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82. PRIMATE TOURISM: THE PROS AND CONS OF HUMAN‐PRIMATE ENCOUNTERS A. E. Russon1 and J. Wallis2 1 Dept. of Psychology, Glendon College of York University, Toronto, ON, M4N 3M6, USA, 2Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Environment,University of Oklahoma This paper assesses the impacts of human‐primate encounters in primate tourism. Primate tourism, now a major form of the human‐ primate interface, is considered one of the most important issues facing primatology in the 21st century. It has often been promoted as a conservation tool on the view that it offers high gains and low impact, with controlled human presence being a major protective factor. Human presence is also responsible for some of primate tourism’s major costs to the primates visited, however, notably conﬂict, disease transmission, and behavioral disruption. This paper aims to assess and weigh the impacts of humans on the primates visited, based on our review of empirical studies on the frequency and nature of these encounters and primates’ responses to them. Findings represent tourism with primates living free in native habitat, for a broad sample of the world’s living primates (19 species: 8 New World and 5 Old World monkeys, 3 prosimians, 3 great apes). We report the nature of the primate‐human encounters that commonly occur in the primate tourism context and their known impacts on the primates visited. Discussion concerns the patterns that emerge and recommendations for managing primate tourism to control and limit the adverse effects.
83. APE‐HUMAN INTERACTIONS IN THE ZOO: IMPLICATIONS FOR APE WELFARE AND ZOO RESEARCH J. J. Smith York University, 4700 Keele Street, Behavioral Science Building Rm 101, Toronto, ON, M3J 2S5, USA Zoo environments are deﬁned, in part, by the chronic presence of humans and human‐animal interactions (HAIs). However, a recent review of the literature reported a dearth of HAI studies in zoos, particularly studies of interactions with humans other than unfamiliar visitors [Hosey & Melﬁ, 2014]. This is changing as researchers recognize the importance of understanding zoo animals’ HAIs with a wider range of humans (i.e., keepers/caretakers, other zoo professionals, researchers, and familiar visitors) and the resultant human‐animal relationships (HARs) that may develop [Chelluri et al 2013; Hosey, 2013; Hosey & Melﬁ, 2012; Smith, 2014]. Primates are among the most frequently studied zoo animals [Melﬁ, 2005] and have traditionally accounted for the majority of HAI studies in zoos in the form of visitor impact studies [Hosey, 2000]. Recent research has questioned the nature and implications of primates’ HAIs/HARs with a wider range of humans and produced results that call to question traditional practices and beliefs for both primate welfare and research (e.g., negative impacts of zoo visitors; beneﬁts vs. costs of “positive” primate‐keeper interactions; pooling data across species, behavior types, or social targets). Using recent research as a focal point, this presentation will provide a brief overview of HAIs/HARs in zoo primates and discuss their implications for primate welfare as well as for the design and outcomes of zoo research.
84. A PARALLEL EFFORT OF STUDYING CHIMPANZEES IN THE LABORATORY AND IN THE WILD T. Matsuzawa Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, 484‐8506, Japan Conducting research in laboratory and wild settings concurrently allows studies in each environment to beneﬁt the other. In 1978 the Ai project began at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University to know the chimpanzee mind through cognitiveexperiments. Ai, a female chimpanzee, is the principal subject who lives with her son in a community of 13 chimpanzees. Field studies of wild chimpanzees have occurred in Bossou‐Nima, Guinea, West Africa since 1986. The two different approaches complement each other. Observation of chimpanzees in their natural habitat gives two important pieces of information: normative behavioral repertoire and activity budget. Such ﬁeld data provides standards to keep the captive community of chimpanzees in an appropriate and healthy condition. For example, wild chimpanzees usually feed 6–8 times a day with each bout lasting about 30 minutes. Thus in the laboratory, cognitive experiments can be used to simulate comparable feeding opportunities. The activity budget clearly shows the necessity of social interaction. In captivity, the chimpanzees interact with each other and with humans too. This intimate relationship helps us to conduct the face‐to‐face test. Utilizing a naturalistic approach keeps captive chimpanzee healthy and makes it possible to follow life‐time cognitive development. Experimental manipulation can also be applied in the ﬁeld. For example, ﬁeld experiment has revealed the learning process of tool use, such as manipulating stone hammer and anvil to crack open oil palm nuts. Taken together, the holistic approach may help us to understand the mind of chimpanzees and to know the evolutionary basis of human mind.
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85. THE ROLES THAT HUMANS CAN PLAY IN ENHANCING SOCIAL, COMMUNICATIVE, COGNITIVE, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG NURSERY‐REARED CHIMPANZEES K. A. Bard Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, King Henry Building, King Henry I Street, Portsmouth, PO1 2DY, United Kingdom Newborn chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in captivity are not always adequately cared for by their biological mothers. In laboratory conditions, this results in their placement into a great ape nursery to optimize survival. In most nursery settings, infants are housed with a group of same‐aged peers, which is a vast improvement over isolation rearing or rearing in dyads and triads. However, in these standard care nurseries, infant chimpanzees may have poor social skills, poor species‐typical communication, poor cognitive outcomes, and often do not form organized attachments with adult caregivers (72% disorganized attachment), which may have long lasting consequences on health. In a Responsive Care (RC) nursery at the Yerkes Primate Research Center, specially trained human adults nurtured infant coping and species‐typical development. The RC infants experienced nurturing of motor skills, social and communicative skills, and autonomy during their ﬁrst year of life. RC signiﬁcantly reduced the amount of disorganized attachment (to 41%), signiﬁcantly enhanced infants’ social cognition, and positively inﬂuenced their species‐typical gestural communication compared to the chimpanzees raised under the standard nursery conditions. In captive conditions, including laboratories and sanctuaries, specially trained people can be a positive inﬂuence for young chimpanzees that, through no fault of their own, are not being raised by their biological mothers. Funded, in part, by NIH grants (RR‐00165, HD‐07105, RR‐03591, and RR‐06158), the European Commission (FP6‐IST‐045169), and The Leverhulme Trust.
86. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RESPONSE OF SINGLY HOUSED RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) TO HUMAN INTERACTION K. C. Baker Tulane National Primate Res. Center, 18703 Three Rivers Rd., Covington, LA, 70433, USA The response of caged laboratory primates to people may be an underutilized metric for well‐being. The response to the offer of food treats from unfamiliar people was documented in 255 singly‐housed adult rhesus macaques born in breeding groups at the Tulane National Primate Research Center, 222 assigned to research protocols and 33 housed in the same manner but not undergoing research procedures. Three response characteristics were recorded: treat acceptance, retreat to the upper back corner of the cage, and attempts to ﬂee. Among animals caged 12–48 months, there was a trend toward a smaller percentage of research subjects accepting the treat (45%) than other individuals [78%; x2 ¼ 3.67, P ¼ 0.06]; no difference was found with shorter tenure. When tenure was less than 12 months, more research subjects retreated [57% vs. 19%; x2 ¼ 5.41, P ¼ 0.02]; only research subjects retreated after 12 months. Only research subjects (4%) ﬂed; this response occurred only among subjects caged for over 12 months. A subset of research subjects received ﬁve extra minutes/week of treat feeding/human interaction due to a history of abnormal behavior. No individuals receiving intervention ﬂed and fewer retreated in comparison to subjects not receiving this intervention [11% vs 35%; x2 ¼ 4.86, P ¼ 0.03]. Relatively high levels of potentially stressful procedures or activity in research rooms may hinder habituation to people, suggesting that focused intervention is necessary for reducing fear and improving well‐being.
87. IMPLICATIONS OF CAREGIVER RELATIONSHIPS IN PRIMATE SANCTUARIES S. Baeckler Davis North American Primate Sanctuary Alliance, 3435 NE 45th Ave, Suite G, Portland, OR, 97213, USA Keeping nonhuman primates in captivity presents various challenges, both for the nonhuman primates and the humans providing care. As social mores and understanding of the complex needs for both physical and psychological well‐being in nonhuman primates change, the focus of caring for captive apes will trend more and more toward sanctuaries. This presentation focuses on the issues around caring for great apes in sanctuaries. Although sanctuary philosophies revolve around meeting the needs of sanctuary residents, caregivers must carefully control the residents’ lives. This makes the caregiver/sanctuary‐resident relationship critical to resident primates’ well‐ being. Trends in care and case studies will be discussed in regard to how positive ape‐human interactions and relationships can improve this wellbeing as measured through a decrease in behavioral concerns associated with captivity and an increase in positive social integration with other apes. Other ape‐human interactions with implications for captive care will also be brieﬂy addressed, including the use of nonhuman primates in entertainment and as pets.
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88. CHRONIC HORMONES AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: CENTER‐WIDE STUDIES ON NONHUMAN PRIMATE WELL‐BEING A. M. Dettmer1 and M. A. Novak2 1 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Poolesville, MD, 20837, USA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA Primate centers are increasingly focusing their efforts on enhancing outcomes reﬂecting well‐being in their animals, including minimizing hair loss, self‐injurious and anxious behavior, and poor reproductive outcomes. To this end, the identiﬁcation of risk factors related to these indices of welfare are critical for the design and implementation of protocols geared toward improving nonhuman primate well‐being. This symposium will highlight recent research from several primate centers and laboratories across the country (including the California, Oregon, Southwest, and Washington National Primate Centers, as well as primate labs at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the National Institutes of Health) that, in pilot studies, have identiﬁed demographic variables (e.g., facility, genetic, age, sex, and veterinary effects) and chronic hormone proﬁles (e.g., cortisol) associated with anxious and self‐injurious behavior, alopecia, and reproduction. Speakers will discuss their ﬁndings with respect to the potential for maximizing nonhuman primate well‐being through the development of effective interventions and protocols.
89. RISK FACTORS FOR ALOPECIA AND HAIR CORTISOL IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA): PRELIMINARY FINDINGS C. K. Lutz1, K. Coleman2, J. S. Meyer3, D. Arnold3, A. Hamel3, K. Rosenberg3 and M. A. Novak3 1 Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX, 78245‐0549, USA, 2Oregon National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Alopecia is a multifaceted condition that occurs in nonhuman primates. The etiology of this condition is poorly understood given the numerous and diverse potential factors contributing to hair loss. The purpose of this study was to survey the extent of alopecia and hair cortisol in captive rhesus monkeys and to identify potential risk factors. Subjects were 103 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 60 females and 43 males, aged 3.5–21 years (M ¼ 9.6 4.3) housed at two primate facilities. Photographs (left side, right side, back) and hair samples were collected from the animals while they were sedated for routine physicals. Photographs were analyzed using Image J software to calculate total hair loss, and hair samples (N ¼ 92) were assayed for cortisol. Hair cortisol was signiﬁcantly correlated with alopecia [r(90) ¼ 0.535, P < 0.001]. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic variables. There was a signiﬁcant facility effect for both alopecia [b ¼ 12.36, P < 0.005] and hair cortisol [b ¼ 20.09, P < 0.01], and females had signiﬁcantly higher levels of hair cortisol than did males [b ¼ 18.76, P < 0.005]. Average number of sedations per year was positively associated with both alopecia [b ¼ 1.75, P < 0.05] and hair cortisol [b ¼ 4.28, P < 0.05], but single housing and age were not related to either. These results suggest that alopecia can be affected by both intrinsic and environmental variables, but further research needs to be conducted. Supported by grants R24OD01180‐15 and P51OD011133.
90. FACILITY OF ORIGIN AFFECTS LATER ALOPECIA IN RHESUS MACAQUES R. Kroeker, G. H. Lee, R. U. Bellanca, J. P. Thom and J. M. Worlein Washington National Primate Research Center, HSB I‐421, Box 357330, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA Alopecia affects a signiﬁcant percentage of laboratory macaques. A recent multi‐site survey reported 49% of rhesus macaques were affected overall, with large differences in rates noted among facilities [Lutz et al., 2013]. In most cases the etiology remains unidentiﬁed, but differences in husbandry practices or alopecia recording procedures have been proposed to explain differences in alopecia rates among facilities. In this study, we examined the relationship between alopecia and an animal’s facility of origin from ratings taken quarterly at the Washington National Primate Center (WaNPRC) over a two‐year period. Subjects were 147 rhesus (Macaca mulatta) adults who were not pregnant or postpartum, who had resided at the WaNPRC for over one year, and whose origin was known to be from one of ﬁve primary suppliers for WaNPRC. Results of a sex x facility ANCOVA with animal age and length of residence at WaNPRC as covariates, revealed that an animal’s mean alopecia rating was signiﬁcantly related to facility of origin [F(4, 136) ¼ 2.6, P ¼ 0.04]. Alopecia was not signiﬁcantly related to age, or length of residence at WaNRPC. Our ﬁndings suggest that previously reported facility differences in alopecia cannot be wholly explained by differences in husbandry practices or recording procedures, as origin differences persist even when animals are housed at our facility under similar conditions. Funded by NIH grants P51 OD010425 and R24OD0118015.
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91. MATRILINE FRAGMENTATION AND ALOPECIA IN CAPTIVE OUTDOOR SOCIALLY‐HOUSED RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) D. Hannibal1, B. Beisner1 and B. McCowan1,2 1 California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2Population, Health, and Reproduction, UC Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA Alopecia is common in captive primates with multiple possible etiologies, including psychosocial stress. Matriline fragmentation (low matriline relatedness coefﬁcients) can occur as captive groups age and older females die or are removed from groups. Matriline fragmentation is an established source of group instability in rhesus macaques with potential effects on psychosocial stress and health outcomes. We investigate whether experimental removal of matriline fragments to increase relatedness of remaining members (defragmentation) is associated with increased stability and improved alopecia. 103 subjects aged 3 to 29 from a vasectomized group were scored for alopecia every two weeks during 7 week pre‐removal, 7 week post‐removal, and 7 week follow‐up phases from March 2013 through July 2013. During the entire study, grooming and hairplucking scans were conducted weekly. Males from defragmented matrilines showed no change in the post‐removal period [b ¼ 0.56, P ¼ 0.283], but improved during the follow‐up period [b ¼ 1.69, P ¼ 0.001]. Grooming and hairplucking variables were not signiﬁcant for males. Females from matrilines with fewer removals exhibited modest improvement during the follow‐up [follow‐up x proportion of matriline removed: b ¼ 1.93, P ¼ 0.088]. Females that engaged in more hairplucking had worse alopecia scores in the post‐removal [b ¼ 0.01, P ¼ 0.05] and follow‐up period [b ¼ 0.49; P ¼ 0.025]. For most animals in the group, alopecia improved after the manipulation, but sex and relationship to removed animals are important factors.
92. INFLUENCE OF PREGNANCY ON HAIR LOSS AND CHRONIC HORMONE PROFILES IN RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) A. M. Dettmer1, K. Rosenberg2, M. T. Menard2, M. A. Novak2, J. S. Meyer2 and S. J. Suomi1 1 Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, Poolesville, Maryland, 20837, USA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA While previous reports have found greater hair loss in pregnant vs non‐pregnant rhesus monkeys, the relationship between hair loss, pregnancy, and chronic hormone circulation has not been well studied. We studied female rhesus monkeys (N ¼ 48) in 2013, examining cortisol and progesterone in hair measured in April (pregnancy), July (postpartum 1), and October (postpartum 2) with respect to pregnancy status and hair loss. Pregnant monkeys (N ¼ 42) had a higher incidence of hair loss in July [x2 ¼ 6.55, P ¼ 0.038] whereas non‐ pregnant monkeys (N ¼ 6) showed no change in frequency across the year. Independent of pregnancy status, monkeys with observed hair loss at each time point exhibited higher contemporaneous hair cortisol [t‐tests, all Ps < 0.05]. Amongst pregnant females, hair cortisol in April was positively correlated with severity of hair loss in July [r ¼ 0.40, P ¼ 0.01]. Amongst mothers with hair loss in July, but not control mothers, higher hair cortisol in April and July positively correlated with infant growth rate in the ﬁrst 30 days of life [0.65 < r < 0.88, Ps < 0.05]. These ﬁndings implicate hair cortisol as a biomarker for chronic HPA axis activation in pregnancy, and suggest that mothers showing hair loss may be diverting more resources to their offspring than those without hair loss. Future studies will rely on hair cortisol to examine pre‐ and postpartum health issues in rhesus monkeys as models for human pregnancy.
93. THE CORRELATION OF ALOPECIA AND ANXIETY BEHAVIOR IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) K. Coleman1, D. H. Gottlieb1, C. K. Lutz2, J. M. Worlein3, E. Peterson4, G. H. Lee3, K. Rosenberg4, M. T. Menard4 and M. A. Novak4 1 Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR, 97006, USA, 2Southwest National Primate Research Center, 3Washington National Primate Research Center, 4University of Massachusetts Amherst Alopecia is a ubiquitous, multifaceted problem at facilities caring for captive rhesus macaques. We examined whether anxiety behaviors correlated with alopecia in indoor‐housed rhesus macaques. We assessed alopecia in 56 male and 62 female subjects at 4 different primate centers. We utilized a cage side version of the Human Intruder test (HIT), a commonly used test for anxiety, to assess response to four conditions: no human present, human stranger standing next to the cage without making eye contact (NEC), stranger making direct eye contact (stare) and stranger with back turned. All videos were coded at one facility. Males and females differed with respect to several variables and were thus analyzed separately. There were facility differences with respect to several variables including reactivity to the stranger [males: Kruskal‐Wallis H ¼ 12.4, P < 0.01, females: H ¼ 7.5, P < 0.02], as well as amount of time spent in the back of the cage [males: H ¼ 14.8, P < 0.001; females: H ¼ 7.7, P ¼ 0.02]. We used generalized linear modeling to examine the relationship between the behaviors and alopecia, with facility and age as covariates. For males, time spent in the back of the cage (away from the human) in NEC positively predicted alopecia [P < 0.02], although this was not found for the females. While more work is needed to validate these results, they suggest that behavior on the HIT test may predict alopecia, at least for males.
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94. HAIR CORTISOL PHENOTYPE PREDICTS RHESUS MONKEY (MACACA MULATTA) BEHAVIOR DURING THE HUMAN INTRUDER TEST A. F. Hamel1, C. K. Lutz2, K. Coleman3, J. M. Worlein4, E. J. Peterson1, K. L. Rosenberg5, J. S. Meyer1,5 and M. A. Novak1,5 1 Neuroscience and Behavior Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA, 2Southwest National Primate Research Center, 3Oregon National Primate Research Center, 4Washington National Primate Research Center, 5 Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst In the Human Intruder Test (HIT) monkeys are exposed to an unfamiliar experimenter and their reactivity is assessed. The HIT paradigm is composed of four consecutive, two‐minute phases: a Baseline phase (no intruder) and three experimental phases which vary the orientation of the experimenter to the subject (Proﬁle, Stare, and Back). The HIT was administered twice to 145 (55% male) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed at four national primate centers, with a three‐week inter‐trial interval, during which time hair samples were collected. All trials were videotaped and hair samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. Videotapes were scored for presence and duration of speciﬁc target behaviors (inter‐observer reliability >90%). Hair cortisol concentrations were used to stratify subjects into three equal groups: high, intermediate, and low cortisol phenotypes. Behavior of high (mean ¼ 80.77 pg/ml) and low phenotypes (mean ¼ 41.53 pg/ml) were compared using a repeated measures ANOVA (between subjects variable: cortisol phenotype; within subjects variable: HIT phase). High cortisol phenotypes were more reactive to the presence of the intruder, spending signiﬁcantly more time at the back of the cage during the Proﬁle phase [F(3) ¼ 3.261, P ¼ 0.022] and threatening the intruder signiﬁcantly more during the Stare phase [F(4) ¼ 4.019, P ¼ 0.034] than low cortisol phenotypes. Monkeys responded to the presence of the intruder as expected yet those with higher levels of HPA axis activity are correspondingly more behaviorally reactive.
95. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SOCIAL STRESS EFFECTS ON HEALTH C. A. Shively1, M. E. Wilson2, M. M. Sanchez2, Z. P. Johnson2, G. N. Neigh2, M. G. Silverstein1, S. L. Willard3 and V. J. Michopoulos2 1 Dept Pathology, Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston‐Salem, NC, 27157‐1040, USA, 2Emory University, 3 University of Pennsylvania Social subordination stress in female macaques has profound effects on health. The behavioral and biological effects of this stressor will be examined from multiple perspectives in this symposium. Social subordination affects the development of neural circuitry involved in emotional behavior and the regulation of stress responses. Social subordination results in different patterns of inﬂammatory gene expression, and alters immune responses that result in higher viral load in chronic infection. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), prescribed for a wide array of disorders, have differential effects on dominants and subordinates, suggesting that preexisting physiology associated with chronic stress modulates neural and systemic responses to these ubiquitously prescribed medications. In an environment of over‐nutrition social subordination results in greater caloric intake, likely contributing to obesity in laboratory‐housed nonhuman primates (NHPs) and human beings. Finally, emerging data suggest that consuming a typical American diet enriched in cholesterol, with fats and proteins derived mainly from animal sources, results in exaggerated physiological stress responses which are far more pronounced in subordinates than dominants. These observations emphasize the important role of social stress in the health of human beings and laboratory‐housed NHPs.
96. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FEMALE MACAQUE MODEL OF SOCIAL SUBORDINATION STRESS M. E. Wilson Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA As the moderator of the symposium Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Social Stress Effects on Health, I will present an overview of the female macaque model of social subordination. Previously published data from a number of laboratories using either rhesus or cynomolgus monkeys will be presented showing that social subordination impairs the regulation of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐ adrenal axis, characterized by a loss of glucocorticoid negative feedback, and produces a proinﬂammatory condition. As an introduction to the symposium, data will be presented showing that a consequence of this chronic stress is the emergence of a number of physiological and neurobehavioral phenotypes that mimic stress‐induced disorders in girls and women. This information will provide the necessary background for each of the talks in the symposium illustrating the utility of this macaque model to better understanding mechanisms by which chronic social stress impacts health in people. Supported by DK 0969083, MH 081816, HD 46501, HD 077623, and OD P51OD11132.
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97. SOCIAL SUBORDINATION ALTERS NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE MACAQUES: FOCUS ON PREFRONTAL CORTEX, AMYGDALA AND EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY DURING ADOLESCENCE M. Sanchez, B. Howell, J. Godfrey and M. Wilson Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory Ujniversity, and, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA We are investigating the neurodevelopmental effects of social subordination in peri‐pubertal female macaques, particularly on prefrontal‐amygdala circuits important for emotional and stress regulation. We will present current ﬁndings using structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting state functional MRI techniques and will integrate the discussion of the effects of social experience on brain maturation with those caused by developmental increases in estradiol during adolescence. Our ﬁndings suggest that social subordination affect neurodevelopment of juvenile subordinate animals, who have bigger amygdala volumes consistent with structural effects of chronic stress in the literature, as well as altered prefrontal cortex structural and functional connectivity with limbic regions, including amygdala and ventral striatum. The alterations in tracts connecting prefrontal, sensory processing, motor and association cortices are associated with increased emotional reactivity in subordinate animals, particularly with higher submissive and fear behaviors.
98. ACUTE STRESSOR EXPOSURE POTENTIATES THE CONSEQUENCES OF CHRONIC STRESS ON INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION J. Kohn, M. Wilson and Z. Johnson Yerkes NPRC, 2409 taylor lane, lawrenceville, ga, 30043, USA We have previously shown that subordinate and thus chronically stressed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), have an upregulation of expression of numerous inﬂammatory genes within peripheral blood when compared to dominant cage mates. In this study we examine the effects of an acute stressor upon peripheral blood gene expression in ten dominant and ten subordinate group‐housed female rhesus monkeys. We extracted total RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and built mRNA sequencing libraries from each sample. We generated 15 million sequencing reads for each library. Reads were mapped to the rhesus genome (rheMac2) using STAR, and differential expression measured using the Cufﬂinks software suite. Results show that subordinate animals have an impaired ability to downregulate the normal proinﬂammatory expression patterns that results from acute stress. These data provide some of the ﬁrst evidence of how acute stress and chronic stress have differing effects on peripheral gene expression in female rhesus monkeys.
99. LOW SOCIAL RANK PRIOR TO SIV OR SHIV INFECTION ASSOCIATES WITH HIGHER VIRAL LOAD IN CHRONIC INFECTION OF INDIVIDUALLY HOUSED RHESUS MACAQUES G. N. Neigh1,2,3,4, T. Hayes1,4, R. Trible1,4, T. H. Vanderford1,4, D. G. Carnathan1,4, K. Easley1, M. Paiardini1,4 and G. Silvestri1,4 1 Emory University, 615 Michael Street, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, 2Department of Physiology, 3Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, 4Yerkes National Primate Research Center The tempo of disease progression in HIV‐infected humans and SIV‐infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is variable among individuals. Prolonged exposure to stress alters immune system function and shortens survival time in SIV‐infected macaques. Macaques establish a matriarchal hierarchy in which subordinate animals consistently demonstrate elevated markers of chronic stress compared to dominant ones. We tested the hypothesis that stress history, as dictated by subject’s social rank prior to study assignment, predicts plasma viral load (PVL) and disease progression during chronic SIV infection. Retrospective individual animal meta‐analysis was conducted on PVL and CD4 data across acute and chronic phases of infection. PVLs were measured by RTPCR as copies of SIV RNA/ml of plasma. From blood absolute CD4þ T‐cell counts and Ki‐67 expression were measured by ﬂow cytometry. Sixty‐two infected macaques were stratiﬁed based on the pre‐infection social rank and evaluated longitudinally. In the acute phase of infection, neither virus replication nor absolute CD4þ T‐cell count were predicted by social rank prior to study assignment [P > 0.05]. During chronic infection, social rank prior to study assignment inﬂuenced the level of virus replication and absolute CD4 count [P < 0.05]. These data demonstrate that social history prior to SIV/SHIV infection inﬂuences PVL and CD4 count in chronic disease, with increased exposure to stress associated with higher levels of virus replication, increased depletion of CD4þ T‐cells, and increased activation of CD4þ T‐cells.
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100. EFFECTS OF SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS AND SOCIAL STRESS ON BODY COMPOSITION AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN FEMALE CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) M. G. Silverstein, T. C. Register, S. E. Appt and C. A. Shively Department of Pathology‐Comparative Medicine, Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology Graduate Program, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston‐Salem, NC, 27157, USA Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women, there is a scarcity of information regarding systemic effects of chronic use. To determine the effects of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl (Zoloft®), on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism we conducted a controlled, prospective, randomized, preclinical trial in socially dominant and subordinate adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; N ¼ 42). Following a 1‐month baseline phase of single housing, monkeys were randomly assigned social groups. After an 18‐month pretreatment phase, monkeys were assigned sertraline (20 mg/kg) or placebo treatment for 18 months. Agonistic interactions were recorded (on average 33.3 hours/monkey across the pretreatment and treatment phases) and used to derive social status. Fasting blood samples, body weights, and dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry scan data was obtained at the end of each phase. Body weight, body fat, lean mass, leptin, glucose, and triglyceride data was analyzed by 2 (Sertraline, Placebo) X (Dominant, Subordinate) x 3 (Phase) analysis of variance. Sertraline treated animals had lower body weights [P ¼ 0.03], lower % body fat [P < 0.001], higher % lean mass [P < 0.001], and reduced leptin concentrations [P ¼ 0.05] compared to placebo‐controls. Subordinate animals had elevated glucose [P ¼ 0.01] and triglyceride [P ¼ 0.03] concentrations compared to dominant animals. These ﬁndings indicate that SSRIs and social stress may inﬂuence body composition and carbohydrate metabolism in women.
101. MODULATION OF STRESS SIGNALING PATHWAYS BY CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS AND ANTIDEPRESSANT TREATMENT IN OLFACTORY NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS FROM SOCIALLY‐HOUSED FEMALE MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) S. L. Willard1, K. E. Borgmann‐Winter1,2, C. A. Shively3 and C. G. Hahn1 1 University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA, 2Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Wake Forest School of Medicine Impaired functioning of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis, speciﬁcally glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling, is associated with increased stress vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Antidepressants are thought to normalize glucocorticoid dysregulation and alter nuclear translocation of GR (GRT) when administered in vitro. Since GRT is central to GR function, we hypothesized that social status and in vivo antidepressants would differentially affect GRT in neural cells of living subjects. GRT was measured in olfactory neuroepithelial cells biopsied from 24 adult female cynomolgus macaques treated for 18 months with 20 mg/kg oral sertraline or vehicle (treatment counterbalanced by social status). Cells were incubated with 1 mM dexamethasone, enriched for nuclear and cytosolic fractions, and probed for GR by Western blotting. GRT was calculated as the ratio of nuclear to cytosolic GR, and ANOVA used to determine the effects of social status and sertraline on GRT [alpha ¼ 0.05]. Preliminary analysis of N ¼ 5 dominants and 11 subordinates revealed no signiﬁcant interaction between social status and treatment, though the average GRT was higher in sertraline‐treated compared to vehicle‐treated dominants. Subordinates tended to have lower GRT than dominants, regardless of treatment [P < 0.10]. These preliminary results suggest that GRT may be attenuated in subordinate animals, though analysis of cells from remaining subjects is necessary. These results also demonstrate that assessments of neuronal signaling are possible in vitro instead of postmortem, thus eliminating the need to sacriﬁce subjects.
102. EMOTIONAL FEEDING AND NEUROADAPTATIONS TO SOCIAL STRESS V. Michopoulos, C. Moore, D. Toufexis, Z. Johnson and M. Wilson 954 Gatewood Dr., Yerkes National Primate Research Ceneter, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA Social subordination in female macaques produces a number of stress‐related phenotypes, including bouts of anhedonia and periods of inappetence. However, when maintained in a rich dietary environment in which a prudent, laboratory chow diet and a high fat, high sugar diet are available, these free‐feeding monkeys double their caloric intake, eating signiﬁcantly more than more dominant animals. Because chronic social stress produces a hypofunctional reward system, we assessed whether social subordination would result in decreased dopamine (DA) 2 receptor (D2R) using PET neuroimaging. Additionally, because signals from the stress hormone axis alter this DA pathway and sustain emotional feeding in subordinate females, we determined whether administration of the CRFR1 antagonist Antalarmin would reduce this augmented caloric intake and increase D2R levels. Our results indicate that social subordination was associated with widespread reductions in D2R, and administration of Antalarmin increased D2R in the left amygdala only in subordinate females. This change in D2R upon Antalarmin was coincident with a reduction in stress‐induced caloric intake in subordinate females. The consumption of these calorically dense diets exacerbates stress hormone reactivity that likely functions to feed forward to further promote emotional feeding in adult females. Taken together, these data indicate that activation of CRFR1 may sustain stress‐induced emotional feeding in subordinate females. Supported by NIH grants DK096983, MH081816, OD P51OD11132.
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103. DIETARY MODIFICATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSES C. A. Shively2,3, T. C. Register3, M. Z. Vitolins2, M. E. Wilson1 and S. E. Appt2 1 Dept Pathology, Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston‐Salem, NC, 27157‐1040, USA, 2Wake Forest School of Medicine, 3Wake Forest School of Medicine Emerging clinical data suggest an association between the consumption of a Western diet and increased self‐reported stress. Emerging experimental data suggest that certain characteristics of a Western diet may acutely exacerbate physiological and behavioral stress responses. Our preliminary data suggest that the consumption of a Western diet exaggerates physiological responses to the chronic stress of social subordination. 24 hour heart rates (HRs) were recorded via telemetry from 42 adult female Macaca fascicularis at three time points: after Prudent diet consumption for 6 months and after consuming a Western diet for 18 and 34 mos. Data were analyzed with a mixed model ANOVA. Subordinate HRs were higher on average while consuming the prudent diet but not statistically different [P ¼ 0.34]. Social status differences emerged with time consuming the Western diet [18 months P ¼ 0.13, 34 months P ¼ 0.002]. Subordinates also lost much of their HR circadian rhythm by 34 months [time x status interaction P ¼ 0.005]. In contrast, dominant HRs changed very little with changing diet. These data suggest the Western diet may deleteriously affect the autonomic nervous system in chronically stressed subordinate but not dominants. Data will also be presented suggesting similar effects of Western versus Prudent diet on the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis. Together these observations support the hypothesis that a Western diet exacerbates physiological responses to chronic stress that may deleteriously affect health.
104. CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION BETWEEN HUMAN AND NONHUMAN PRIMATES: ONLINE SURVEY RESULTS M. Baker1, P. Pebsworth 2 and S. Radhakrishna3 1 Rhode Island College, Anthropology Department, Providence, RI, 02908‐1991, USA, 2University of Texas, San Antonio, 3National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India In the “Sharing Spaces” symposium held at the 2012 International Primatological Society’s meetings held in Cancun Mexico, it was noted that there was a paucity of published information on effective management of conﬂict between human and nonhuman primates. All members of the American Society of Primatologists were invited via email to complete a survey. The online survey focused on identifying the species, typical conﬂict patterns, direct and indirect interventions undertaken and the effectiveness of such interventions in three key areas where nonhuman primates are found: Urban Areas, Rural or Agricultural Areas and/or Protected Areas. Of the 192 people that began the survey, 95 ﬁnished most or all of it. There were clear differences in the species identiﬁed and kinds of conﬂict occurring in each of the three areas. Both nonhuman primates and humans were identiﬁed as being the source of conﬂict. There were also clear patterns regarding which interventions work the best, as well as which interventions people are most willing and able to work on. While most respondents had strong opinions about what does and does not work, few had systematically studied interventions. There were surprisingly few respondents for several well‐studied species including the great apes.
105. THE EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCE ON PARASITE INFECTIONS IN BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) IN SOUTHERN MEXICO R. Martinez‐Mota1, P. A. Garber1 and T. R. Gillespie2 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, 2Departments of Environmental Studies and Environmental Health, Emory University, GA, Atlanta It has been suggested that in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes, parasite transmission rates increase and threaten the health and survival of primate hosts. In this study, we examined the effects of forest disturbance on gastrointestinal parasite prevalence and richness in an endangered population of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting a fragmented landscape in Campeche, Mexico. During a 12 month period (1,097 observation hours), we collected 673 fresh fecal samples from 15 individually‐recognized adult males, 15 adult females, and 12 immatures, belonging to seven social groups distributed in ﬁve forest fragments characterized by different degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. In each fragment, disturbance was quantiﬁed by measuring fragment size and shape, stump‐to‐tree ratio (a general index of wood extraction), percentage of canopy closure, and tree basal area. Rainfall data also were recorded. Parasite eggs and cysts were recovered using ﬂotation and sedimentation techniques. Three nematode (Trypanoxyuris sp., Parabronema sp., Strongylidae), two trematode (Controrchis sp., an unknown trematode) and two protozoan (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba sp.) parasites were recovered. Generalized linear mixed models indicate that parasite prevalence was negatively affected by the stump‐to‐tree ratio [b ¼ 17.6, P < 0.05] and rainfall [b ¼ 0.003, P < 0.001]. Parasite species richness was not affected by any predictors. Overall, these data indicate that anthropogenic habitat disturbance decreased gastrointestinal parasite infection rates in this black howler monkey population.
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107. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE ASP CONSERVATION SMALL GRANT PROGRAM: TOWARD ANOTHER 25 YEARS OF EFFECTING PRIMATE CONSERVATION E. P. Riley and A. A. Zak Department of Anthropology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA, 92182‐6040, USA Since 1989, ASP has provided funding in support of research and education projects aimed at promoting and effecting primate conservation. A total of 170 projects on 66 primate species have been supported in 40 countries. In an effort to assess the conservation impact of the ASP Conservation Small Grant program, the ASP Conservation Committee developed and administered a voluntary survey to former grant recipients from the years of 1997–2012. Of the 106 people contacted, 42 completed the survey, yielding a response rate of approximately 40%. Seventy‐nine percent of respondents reported at least one conservation outcome. Increased support for conservation and research, and collection of baseline data were the two most common outcomes. Eighty‐one percent of respondents reported that their projects resulted in capacity building through the training and employment of students, local people, and protected area staff. Fifty percent of respondents reported publishing project results in scholarly journals. Project results were also disseminated via newspapers, local radio and TV, scholarly presentations at conferences, and presentations to local schools and communities. The top ﬁve factors impeding conservation outcomes were: limited funding, limited time, illegal resource extraction, changes in local government, and lack of support from local people. The top three suggestions for ensuring more successful outcomes were: develop partnerships with local governments and NGOs; establish a long‐term research presence; and secure follow‐up funding.
108. MEAN DOMINANCE RELATIONSHIP CERTAINTY IS BETTER THAN RANK AT PREDICTING DIARRHEA INCIDENCE AND WOUNDING IN CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) B. A. Beisner1,2, J. J. Vandeleest1,2, F. Hsieh3, K. Fujii3 and B. McCowan1,2 1 University of California ‐ Davis, Department of Population Health & Reproduction, Davis, 95616, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA, 3University of California ‐ Davis, Department of Statistics Social rank has often been thought to be a source of stress, yet studies on the presence and direction of this relationship in animal societies are equivocal. We hypothesized that the certainty vs. ambiguity of one’s dominance relationships that may have a greater impact on health than rank itself. We evaluated the inﬂuence of both rank and mean dominance certainty on: (1) frequency of diarrhea; (2) frequency of trauma; (3) severity of trauma in two captive groups of rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center from behavioral and health data collected March‐October 2013. Using a new social network method developed by our team, we calculated dyadic dominance potentials that combine direct win/loss data with information from multiple indirect dominance pathways in the network (via common third parties). Dominance pathways were used to infer missing data and modify the certainty from direct interactions. We ﬁt multilevel models, using AIC scores to select the best‐ﬁt models. We found that individuals with higher average dominance relationship certainty had fewer bouts of diarrhea [N ¼ 173 individuals; B ¼ 5.1, P ¼ 0.01], received fewer injuries [N ¼ 469; B ¼ 1.10, P ¼ 0.004] and had milder severity of trauma [N ¼ 460 wounds from 127 individuals; B ¼ 7.5, P ¼ 0.02]. Rank did not affect diarrhea or trauma frequency. Certainty about rank, rather than rank itself, may be a more important variable in understanding both physical health and psychological stress.
109. EFFECTS OF ENHANCED ENRICHMENT IN RUN‐HOUSED SOOTY MANGABEYS J. Crast, T. J. Jones and M. A. Bloomsmith Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Experimentally assessing enrichment is necessary for effectively enhancing the psychological well‐being of nonhuman primates. We studied the effects of enhanced enrichment on the activity and behavior of run‐housed sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), including the addition of substrate/bedding (hay) and extra perching, manipulanda, foraging devices, and food items. We observed 54 mangabeys using focal sampling and an ABA design (A ¼ baseline; B ¼ enhanced enrichment). Each subject was observed for a total of two hours across two‐week phases. We analyzed the duration and frequency of locomotion, eating, object manipulation, riﬂing the substrate, self‐grooming, afﬁliative, agonistic, tension, and abnormal behaviors across ABA phases using repeated‐measures MANOVA with follow‐up pairwise t‐ tests at a ¼ 0.002. Eating and object manipulation increased signiﬁcantly during Phase B, both associated with use of the extra enrichment. Self‐grooming, afﬁliative, and agonistic behaviors declined in Phase B (the latter marginally so), while locomotion, tension, and abnormal behaviors were unchanged. Consistent rates of locomotion across phases may be due to the available space in run‐housing; tension and abnormal behaviors may have occurred at rates too low to detect a difference across phases. Overall, the magnitudes of signiﬁcant behavioral changes were small but consistent and in species‐appropriate directions; e.g., the time devoted to feeding doubled, from six minutes to 12 minutes per hour. Thus, the enhanced enrichment had a positive effect on run‐housed mangabeys by increasing enrichment‐related activity and decreasing aggression.
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110. DOMINANCE, GLUCOCORTICOIDS, AND SPATIAL COMPRESSION IN A CAPTIVE GROUP OF BACHELOR GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA) L. Torgerson‐White1, M. McGuire2, S. Allard1 and C. Bennett3 1 Detroit Zoological Society, 8450 W. 10 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI, 48067, USA, 2Oakland University, 3Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science The Detroit Zoo is home to three male gorillas who have recently become silverbacks and are housed outdoors, indoors, or with access to both spaces depending on the weather. In order to examine the impact of housing on stress, 519 hours of behavioral data, 658 fecal samples, and 2248 saliva samples were collected from January 2012–March 2014. Behavioral data was collected using continuous sampling for social behaviors and scan sampling for activity budget behaviors. Generalized linear models revealed lowest levels of agonism when the gorillas were outside; with a 10% increase when inside and a 29% increase when given access to both habitats [P < 0.001 and P < 0.01]. Dominance began to shift during the study and linear models revealed increasing fecal glucocorticoids in the newly dominant individual as agonism and his dominance status increased [P ¼ 0.001 and P ¼ 0.04]. Salivary cortisol was higher when the gorillas were inside [ANOVA: P ¼ 0.0005], a trend driven by subordinate males. Furthermore, the two gorillas who were vying for dominance experienced elevated salivary cortisol during months of higher agonism [Spearman’s correlations: P ¼ 0.006 and P ¼ 0.04]. Preliminary analysis of data comparing the three conditions within the same month suggests that the trends are not tied to season, but do depend on the individual. These results suggest that gorilla welfare may increase when given prolonged outdoor access, but that dominance status mediates this impact.
111. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF ENTAMOEBA SPP. AND THE DIFFERENTIATION OF NON‐COMMENSAL ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA TO UNDERSTAND HEALTH RISKS TO ENDANGERED MOUNTAIN GORILLAS IN RWANDA W. Eckardt1,2, D. H. Ryu2,3, T. S. Stoinski1,4, A. J. Williams‐Newkirk3, J. R. Hensley2, D. Abavandimwe1, J. P. Mucyo1 and T. R. Gillespie2,3 1 Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA, 2Department of Environmental Studies, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia USA, 3Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 4Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Although most Entamoeba species are harmless to humans and nonhuman primates, E. histolytica causes 100,000 human deaths from diarrhea annually in developing regions. E. histolytica can cause non‐symptomatic and symptomatic infections in Old and New world nonhuman primates. The risk for pathogenic transmission between humans and closely related great apes is particularly high in areas like the protected Virunga massif in Rwanda where 480 of the remaining 880 mountain gorillas are surrounded by one of the densest human populations in Africa. This study investigated the prevalence of E. histolytica in the Virunga mountain gorillas during the short rainy season (October‐November 2011). Utilizing microscopy, we identiﬁed Entamoeba‐like cysts and trophozoites in 151/303 formalin‐ preserved fecal samples from 82/101 gorillas. To test whether E. histolytica was present in the 82 gorillas identiﬁed as suspect for Entamoeba cysts or trophozoites, we ran PCR assays for E. histolytica using DNA extracted from RNAlater samples from the same feces. We utilized the primers from Foo et al.  with adjusted variables. Preliminary results show no indication of E. histolytica presence, but 3 of 10 samples screened thus far were positive for Entamoeba spp. Because small populations are more vulnerable to the emergence of new pathogens, researching the presence of E. histolytica in the endangered mountain gorilla is critical to ensuring the implementation of conservation practices minimizing risk for both humans and gorillas.
112. PROVIDING CHIMPANZEES WITH OPPORTUNITIES TO VOLUNTARILY PARTICIPATE IN THEIR OWN CARE: CHOICE OF MEDICATIONS S. J. Schapiro, L. A. Reamer, M. C. Mareno and S. P. Lambeth Department of Veterinary Sciences, UTMDACC, Bastrop, TX, 78602, USA Captivity often limits a primate’s ability to make meaningful choices on a daily basis. Effective captive (behavioral) management programs should provide primates with opportunities to make meaningful choices. In the present study, arthritic chimpanzees were allowed to choose which of two arthritis medications they preferred. A total of six chimpanzees were given meloxicam or ibuprofen in either blue‐ or green‐colored Gatorade (three received ibuprofen in the blue‐colored liquid and the other three received meloxicam in blue‐colored liquid). An ABBA design was used, with each subject receiving both medications in the appropriate color of Gatorade. Each phase lasted for two months, and the ﬁnal phase was followed by a two‐month ‘choice phase’ in which each animal could choose which color of Gatorade, and therefore, which medication, it wanted each day. Four animals made it to the choice phase and all four chimpanzees signiﬁcantly preferred meloxicam to ibuprofen [x2(1) ¼ 52.0, P < 0.05], regardless of the color of Gatorade in which the medication was dissolved. Preliminary behavioral analyses suggest that behavioral proﬁles were more species‐typical when chimpanzees could choose their medication, implicating the choice process as an important factor in welfare. Since wild chimpanzees self‐medicate (active participation in their own care), choice procedures, like the one employed in the present study, should be an extremely valuable tool that provides chimpanzees with naturalistic opportunities to actively participate in their own care.
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113. HIGH GENETIC HERITABILITY OF OBESOGENIC GROWTH IN CAPTIVE VERVET MONKEYS (CHLOROCEBUS SPP.) C. A. Schmitt1,2, S. Service1, R. M. Cantor1, A. J. Jasinska1, M. J. Jorgensen3, J. R. Kaplan3 and N. B. Freimer1 1 University of California ‐ Los Angeles, Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Gonda Building, Room 3554, 695 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA, 2University of Southern California, 3Wake Forest University School of Medicine Increasing evidence highlights the importance of early development to adult obesity, yet few studies have undertaken developmental aspects of adult obesity risk. This research investigates the genetics of obesogenic growth in a genetically well‐characterized model under controlled diet and environment: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus spp.) in the Vervet Research Colony. Measures of body composition— body weight (BW), crown‐to‐rump length, waist circumference (WC) —were collected thrice yearly in a population of 560 vervets from 2000 through 2013. In all, 59 adults (8 M and 51 F), showed chronic abdominal obesity—an adult WC above 40.5 cm for more than three successive measurements. Growth was modeled with three‐parameter logistic growth curves using nonlinear mixed effects, with parameters modeled as ﬁxed effects and subject and sex/obesity modeled as random effects. We assessed heritability of growth parameters using maximum likelihood variance components analysis in SOLAR. We found marked effects of both sex and obesity status on all parameters of growth in BW. For both traits, growth parameters were highly and signiﬁcantly heritable, with sex as a signiﬁcant covariate [e.g., BW: u1, h2 ¼ 0.71, P < 0.0001; u2, h2 ¼ 0.69, P < 0.0001; u3, h2 ¼ 0.26, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that adult obesity is, in part, the outcome of developmental processes driven by heritable bimaturism in BW growth within sex.
114. DIFFERENCES IN SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER DENSITY IN THE AMYGDALA OF BONOBOS (PAN PANISCUS) AND CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE REGULATION OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR C. D. Stimpson1, W. D. Hopkins2,3, J. P. Taglialatela3,4, N. Barger5, P. R. Hof6 and C. C. Sherwood1 1 The George Washington University, 2110 G St., NW, Washington, DC, 20052, USA, 2Georgia State University, 3Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 4Kennesaw State University, 5University of California, Davis, 6Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Despite diverging only around two million years ago and sharing over 99% of their genetic material, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differ greatly in social behavior. Speciﬁcally, chimpanzees are more likely to display aggression in the context of intragroup interactions and during encounters between communities. Bonobos, however, are generally regarded as more tolerant and tend to mediate conﬂicts through sexual behavior rather than aggressive interactions. Recent studies have demonstrated anatomical differences between the two species in the amygdala, an area of the brain that serves a role in decision making, memory, attention and emotional responses. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the amygdala shows a measureable difference in serotonin transporter (SERT) expression between bonobos (N ¼ 6) and chimpanzees (N ¼ 6). SERT is known to regulate the responsiveness of the amygdala to stimuli that provoke fear and aggression. We used immunohistochemistry to label SERT‐containing axons and stereological methods to estimate their length density. We found that bonobos express a signiﬁcantly greater density of SERT‐ immunoreactive axons across the entire amygdala, at levels twice those observed in chimpanzees [Mann‐Whitney U: P ¼ 0.008]. These ﬁndings suggest that variation in serotonin levels in the amygdala mediate, in part, the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. James S. McDonnell Foundation (220020293).
115. OXYTOCIN FACILITATES FIDELITY IN WELL‐ESTABLISHED MARMOSET PAIRS BY REDUCING SOCIOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR TOWARD OPPOSITE‐SEX STRANGERS J. Cavanaugh, A. C. Mustoe, J. H. Taylor and J. A. French University of Nebraska ‐ Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA Behavioral strategies that facilitate the maintenance of social bonds are critical for the preservation of high‐quality social relationships. Central oxytocin (OT) activity modulates the behavioral features of socially monogamous relationships in a number of mammalian species (including marmosets, Callithrix), and plays a vital role in the behavioral maintenance of long‐term social relationships. Two distinct variants of OT have been identiﬁed in some New World primates [Lee et al., 2011]. The marmoset variant of the oxytocin ligand (Pro8‐OT) is structurally distinct from the consensus mammalian variant (Leu8‐OT), due to a proline substitution at the 8th amino‐acid position. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacological manipulations of the OT system on patterns of sociosexual behavior and partner/stranger preferences in well‐established marmoset pairs. Male and female marmosets were pair‐housed throughout the study, and were treated individually 30 minutes prior to testing, during four counterbalanced treatment periods (Pro8‐OT; Leu8‐OT; OT antagonist, vehicle). Marmosets treated with Pro8‐OT spent proportionately less time in proximity with an opposite‐sex stranger [F(3, 30) ¼ 3.13, P ¼ 0.04]. Furthermore, treatment with Pro8‐OT signiﬁcantly delayed the expression of sexual‐ solicitation behavior toward an opposite‐sex stranger, but had no effect on sociosexual behavior directed toward their partner [F(3, 30) ¼ 4.19, P ¼ 0.014]. These results suggest that the OT system is highly involved in reducing ﬁdelity‐threatening behaviors in well‐ established marmoset pairs, and that the effects were only produced by species‐speciﬁc OT ligands.
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116. INFLUENCE OF FRUIT AND INVERTEBRATE AVAILABILITY ON PATTERNS OF SPATIAL ASSOCIATION IN WHITE‐FACED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) IN NORTHEASTERN COSTA RICA E. K. Mallott Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA The inﬂuence of variation in fruit availability on patterns of spatial association in nonhuman primates has been well studied; however, for highly insectivorous primates, such as Cebus capucinus, variation in invertebrate availability is likely equally inﬂuential. To better understand how variation in both fruit and arthropod availability inﬂuences patterns of spatial association in primates, a group of C. capucinus was followed for a 12‐month period (1341 hours of observation) at La Suerte Biological Field Station. Using instantaneous focal sampling, information on activity budget, diet, nearest neighbor distance, and feeding subgroup size and spread were collected for adult female (N ¼ 5), adult male (N ¼ 4), and juvenile (N ¼ 12) individuals. Fruit availability was assessed at 2‐week intervals using 25 100 4 meter transects. Arthropod availability was measured using canopy insect traps (N ¼ 10) and sweep nets (N ¼ 10) every twoweeks. There was no effect of fruit or insect availability on feeding subgroup size or spread [GLM: all P > 0.05]. Periods of high fruit availability had slightly but signiﬁcantly larger nearest neighbor distances than periods of low fruit availability (8.30 7.20 m vs 7.85 7.21 m) and periods of high arthropod availability had slightly but signiﬁcantly smaller nearest neighbor distances than periods of low arthropod availability (7.82 6.98 m vs 8.31 7.39 m) [GLM: F(1, 1590) ¼ 15.774 and F(1, 1590) ¼ 12.515, all P < 0.001]. These results indicate that variation in food availability has minimal effect on C. capucinus patterns of spatial association in this population.
117. PREDATION RATE AND FUTURE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL EXPLAIN HOME RANGE SIZE IN GOLDEN LION TAMARINS S. J. Hankerson1,2 and J. M. Dietz2,3 1 Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN, 55105, USA, 2University of Maryland, College Park, 3Save the Golden Lion Tamarin Recent research indicates that as group size increases, groups travel further and occupy larger home ranges in order to meet basic energetic needs for survival and reproduction. We used 19 years of demographic and ranging data for golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) to examine the inﬂuences of group and population demography on space use. Signiﬁcant variation in rates of predation during the study allowed us to test predation’s inﬂuence on these processes. Predation changed group composition, group size, and population density. These predation‐mediated changes explained 71% of variation in home range size. Increased predation decreased lion tamarin home ranges through the effects of smaller group sizes with fewer adult natal males and reproductive females in groups. The decreased ranging that resulted from group size and composition changes was offset somewhat by lower population density during high predation i. e., reduced pressure from neighbors limited the home range reduction. We also found that groups with high future reproductive potential i. e., multiple breeding females, increased their home range size. This effect was independent of group size. We propose a new hypothesis, that taxa with high rates of reproduction, such as lion tamarins, will increase home range size to accommodate future reproduction rather than current energy needs. No or low production of infants and litters on the smallest lion tamarin ranges in our study supports this new hypothesis.
118. FACTORS INFLUENCING REVISITATION RATES TO FEEDING TREES IN WILD BORNEAN ORANGUTANS (PONGO PYGMAEUS WURMBII) IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA K. E. Markham1,4, M. A. van Noordwijk2 and E. R. Vogel3 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, USA, 2Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Department of Anthropology, Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA, 4Department of Anthropology, Boston University The Bornean rainforests are often viewed as impoverished habitats for vertebrate frugivores, including orangutans. These forests are characterized by unpredictable and overall low fruit availability. Thus, it is likely that orangutans have evolved behavioral mechanisms to maximize energy intake while reducing foraging effort. Revisting feeding trees is one such mechanism. We hypothesized that orangutans would be more likely to visit the most productive trees and those trees that have the highest energetic return. Data from 2005–2010 on wild Bornean orangutans collected in the Tuanan Research Project area were analyzed to determine the frequency at which orangutans (N ¼ 35) revisited feeding trees. We used Vanderploeg and Scavia’s Index of Selectivity as a proxy for preference and used generalized linear mixed effects models and model averaging to determine the best ﬁt model. Orangutans rarely revisited trees after three months from the initial visit, likely because fruit was no longer available. Preliminary results show a positive relationship between both diameter‐ at‐breast height (DBH) and preference with the number of visitations [z ¼ 2.668, P ¼ 0.008, z ¼ 2.534, P ¼ 0.011, respectively], but that monthly fruit availability is also included in the best‐ﬁtting model, despite not reaching statistical signiﬁcance [z ¼ 1.392, P ¼ 0.164]. Preference is also positively correlated with energy intake per patch [P < 0.0001]. Thus, the largest trees with the highest preference scores are revisited most often, indicating individuals revisit the trees with the greatest reward.
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119. ACTIVITY PATTERNS, DIET AND THE EVOLUTION OF COLOR VISION IN ARCHONTA A. D. Melin1,2, G. L. Moritz2, K. Wells3, C. Danosi2, Y. Matsushita4, G. McCracken5, S. Kawamura4 and N. J. Dominy2 1 Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA, 2Dartmouth College, 3University of Adelaide, 4 University of Tokyo, 5University of Tennessee, Knoxville Color vision variation has been linked to activity period and diet, indicating that analysis of opsin genes can reveal insights into the behavior of species. Most mammals have dichromatic vision based on two opsins, although some subterranean, marine and nocturnal mammals have lost this capacity through mutations to the short wavelength sensitive (SWS) opsin, suggesting that low light levels favor cone monochromacy. Uniquely, primates have evolved trichromacy through duplication/divergence of the long wavelength sensitive (LWS) opsin, which has been interpreted as an adaptation to diurnal frugivory. The Archonta occupy a wide range of niches and are a rich group in which to explore the ecological correlates of color vision. We examined the opsins of key members of this group, including the only nocturnal treeshrew (Ptilocercus lowii, N ¼ 1, insectivore/frugivore), a diurnal fruit bat (Pteropus samoensis, N ¼ 11) and the most basal extant tarsier (Tarsius tarsier, N ¼ 3, insectivore). Colugos (Galeopterus variegatus, N ¼ 1, folivore/frugivore) and tarsiers have intact SWS opsins, suggesting functional dichromacy, while mutations to the SWS opsin of the pentailed treeshrew render it completely colorblind. A single, monomorphic LWS opsin was found in diurnal fruit bats. Our results reveal that nocturnality is not sufﬁcient to explain color vision loss and that diurnal frugivory alone cannot explain the acquisition of trichromacy. These results inform our understanding of the factors shaping the evolution of complex traits such as vision.
120. ADAPTING TO FLORIDA’S RIVERINE FLOODPLAINS: THE DIET AND ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) IN SILVER SPRINGS STATE PARK T. W. Wade and E. P. Riley San Diego State University, San Diego, California, 92182, USA The banks of the Silver River have been an unlikely home to a population of free‐ranging rhesus macaques since the 1930 s. Decades of daily provisions (e.g., fruit, monkey chow) from park staff allowed the introduced population to grow from eight individuals to hundreds. Since the 1980 s, ofﬁcial provisioning has ceased but unsanctioned provisioning by park visitors continues. To better understand how this population has persisted in a foreign habitat and determine if humans currently contribute to its success, we investigated the diet (wild and provisioned) and behavior patterns of the four macaque groups living along the Silver River. Behavioral observations were conducted from January–May 2013 using scan and behavior sampling techniques. Data were collected for 29 days, totaling 166.25 hours (570 scans). Results show that macaques subsist primarily on wild foods (88% of behavioral records). However, when visitor attendance is high, consumption of provisioned foods increased from 8.9% to 16.1%. A majority of their time was spent moving (31.7%), followed by resting (27.8%), feeding (19%), social behavior (14.2%) and foraging (7.2%). As more wild foods became available across seasons, their dietary repertoire expanded from seven plant species (January) to 25 species (May). Nonetheless, the proportion of wild versus provisioned foods remained consistent from January to May, suggesting that provisioned foods serve merely as a supplementary or “bonus” resource rather than a primary one.
121. RANGING BEHAVIOR AMONG WILD WHITE‐HANDED GIBBONS (HYLOBATES LAR) IN A MOSAIC FOREST IN HUAI KHA KHAENG WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, WESTERN THAILAND L. E. Light Department of Anthropology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX, 78249, USA The majority of our knowledge of gibbon ranging behavior comes from evergreen forest where fruit availability is fairly consistent over time and space. For white‐handed gibbons, home range area (HR) averages 40 hectares (ha) while daily path length (DPL) averages 1.4km/day. At Huai Kha Khaeng (HKK), wild gibbons occupy a diverse habitat that includes both evergreen forest and highly deciduous mosaic forest with high resource seasonality. This study examines the ranging behavior of gibbons in this unique environment. Speciﬁcally, I hypothesize that gibbons living in mosaic forest will have larger HR and longer DPL. Furthermore, I hypothesize that travel patterns will vary based on seasonal availability of resources. Four gibbon groups were followed intensively from March 2012 to May 2013, two inhabiting evergreen forest and two inhabiting mosaic forest. Home range area was calculated using the minimum convex polygon (MCP), kernel density estimate (KDE), and Local Convex Hull (LoCoH) methods. Regardless of method used, HR area varies substantially between habitat type, with evergreen groups measuring 19.7 and 24.1 ha (MCP) and mosaic groups 32.2 and 62.2 ha, suggesting that subjects in HKK alter their overall ranging patterns to deal with local ecological conditions. Forest quality may be a stronger factor than general forest type in driving behavior, yet these results add to the growing evidence of ecological ﬂexibility among this family of small apes.
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122. CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY OF HYBRIDISING MACAQUES (GENUS MACACA) IN SOUTHERN CHINA AND JAPAN C. Boel and D. Curnoe Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, 2052, Australia The ability to identify primate hybrids based upon skeletal morphology alone has enormous potential for application in primatological, palaeontological and even palaeoanthropological research, but has proven to be notoriously difﬁcult. Hybrid morphology might be intermediate between parents, closer to one or signiﬁcantly different to both, and hybrids might display any combination of heterotic or dysgenetic traits. This research addresses the theory that an increased prevalence of developmental abnormalities in the primate skull may be indicative of hybrid origin. Data are gathered from two collections of Macaca skeletal remains in southern China and Japan and include data from known hybrids of various crosses, known pure species and individuals of unknown ancestry. The sample spans nine species but concentrates on M. mulatta and M. fascicularis (China) and M. fuscata and M. cyclopis (Japan). On each specimen, 67 landmarks on the cranium and 21 landmarks on the mandible are recorded using a microscribe for shape analysis using 3D morphometrics, and the presence or absence of non‐metric developmental abnormalities are recorded. Some developmental abnormalities (predominantly in the sutures and dentition) appear at frequencies above normal population levels in some groups, but the results don’t necessarily support the hypothesis that the appearance of these developmental abnormalities can be linked to hybridity, leading to the development of alternative hypotheses.
124. VIRTUAL FIELDWORK: BRINGING CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) INTO PROVIDENCE, RI CLASSROOMS M. Baker, B. Canning, E. Dayon, R. Lazo and C. LaChance Rhode Island College, Anthropology Department, Providence, RI, 02908‐1991, USA It is well documented that fewer American students pursue expertise in the ﬁelds of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) when compared with those in other developed nations. There is commitment to increasing these numbers and to foster interest and expertise in these areas among students of all age groups. This project pilots the concept of “Virtual Fieldwork” in which a cell phone, signal booster, antenna and international roaming data plan were used to livestream video from the Curú Wildlife Refuge in Costa Rica into a classroom at the Metropolitan Regional Center and Technical Center (MET) high school in Providence, RI. Undergraduate students at Rhode Island College (RIC) carried out a research project designed by the MET students, shared their experiences and answered questions from the MET students in real time as we followed monkeys, observed leaf‐cutter ants and climbed through the mangroves. The MET students became involved in the project: asking questions, directing the camera, and planning the next call‐in. Students who are unable to travel to Costa Rica were provided with exposure to ﬁeld research, primate ecology and sustainable development. After returning to the United States, we joined the MET students in their classroom and discussed our shared experiences. This project serves as an accessible model for engaging STEM education, involving undergraduates in research, international collaboration and communicating science to a lay audience.
125. SOCIAL AND GENETIC FACTORS MEDIATING MALE PARTICIPATION IN COLLECTIVE ACTION IN BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) S. Van Belle1, P. A. Garber2, A. Estrada1 and A. Di Fiore3 1 Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico, 2Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana‐Champaign, USA, 3Department of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, USA In a 28‐month study of ﬁve multimale‐multifemale groups of black howler monkeys at Palenque National Park, Mexico, we examined social and genetic factors mediating the participation of adult (N ¼ 13) and subadult males (N ¼ 5) in naturally occurring howling bouts. For each bout, we recorded each male’s participation (i.e., howling) at 1‐min intervals, and calculated the percentage of time each male participated. Analyses included only bouts (N ¼ 387) for which all males were in view 80% of the time. Paternity for 19 offspring and kinship among males were determined based on genotype data from 21 microsatellite markers. The mean percentage of time males participated during howling bouts ranged between 8.9 ‐ 100%. GLMM analyses revealed that males participated more when they were adults compared to subadults [F(1, 13) ¼ 13.3, P ¼ 0.003], they had sired offspring compared to males without offspring [F(1, 12) ¼ 37.5, P < 0.001], and they frequently spent time within 2 m of adult females [F(1, 10) ¼ 5.9, P ¼ 0.036]. The percentage of time male dyads howled together was not inﬂuenced by kinship [F(1, 16) ¼ 0.1, P ¼ 0.874] or the percentage of time males spent within 2 m of one another [F(1, 16) ¼ 1.1, P ¼ 0.305]. These ﬁndings suggest that collective action in male black howler monkeys is driven by individual or direct ﬁtness gains rather than inclusive ﬁtness.
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127. AUDIENCE EFFECTS IN A GAMBLING TASK WITH CHIMPANZEES D. Proctor, S. Calcutt and F. B. de Waal Emory University, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA, 30043, USA Humans increase their gambling, or risk taking behavior, in the presence of others. There are several potential explanations for this behavior, including wishing to be perceived as a winner and increasing one’s reputation. In order to understand the evolutionary roots of this behavior, we assessed how a social context may inﬂuence chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a gambling style task. We predicted that, like humans, chimpanzees would increase their preference for an option with potential, but unpredictable, large payoffs when with a social partner relative to their performance when alone. In a modiﬁed form of the primate gambling task [Proctor et al., 2014], chimpanzees chose to deposit a token in one of two buckets. One option, the more variable bucket, had the potential for both large gains and zero outcomes, while the consistent option always had a low value reward. Chimpanzees (N ¼ 7) were tested both alone and with a social partner. Chimpanzees, as a group, did not increase their preference for the more variable option in the presence of a social partner [P > 0.05]. However, at the individual level, some chimpanzees did show changes in their preferences, although not always in the predicted direction, making generalizations about their preferences challenging. Our ﬁndings suggest that the presence of others does alter chimpanzee’s choices in a gambling task, although not necessarily in the same way as in humans.
128. MARMOSETS’ RESPONSES TO INEQUITY FOLLOWING OXYTOCIN MANIPULATION A. C. Mustoe and J. A. French University of Nebraska at Omaha, Callitrichid Research Center, Department of Psychology, Omaha, NE, 68182, USA One of the foremost properties of human cooperation is the egalitarian sharing of resources, which provides a foundation for inequity aversion [IA]. Studying IA across many primates will elucidate functions for which IA may have evolved. Across mammals, oxytocin regulates social bonds and interpretation of social signals and is an important neuroendocrine mechanism underlying cooperative behaviors. We examined how oxytocin inﬂuences food sharing and social behavior in opposite‐sex marmoset dyads (Callithrix penicillata). Marmosets performed a prosocial‐choice‐task where donors provision food in both equitable and unequitable outcomes to themselves and their pairmates or strangers. We administered two oxytocin agonists (Pro8 and Leu8), an oxytocin antagonist, and saline to marmoset donors to evaluate the inﬂuence of oxytocin on IA. Marmosets do not differentially provision food to others in equitable [F(2, 6) ¼ 0.82, P > 0.05, h2 ¼ 0.22] or unequitable [F(2, 6) ¼ 0.18, P > 0.05, h2 ¼ .06] outcomes, and this was not inﬂuenced by oxytocin [F(6, 18) ¼ 1.38, P > 0.05, h2 ¼ 0.31]. Marmosets tested with strangers spent increased time in proximity with their homecage pairmate following testing compared to marmoset donors who were tested with their pairmate or tested alone [F(2, 6) ¼ 4.59, P ¼ 0.06, h2 ¼ 0.61]. Overall, marmosets do not show sensitivity to IA, but their social behavior following testing is inﬂuenced differently by the testing partner’s social afﬁliation regardless of oxytocin treatment. Future research will focus on the role of oxytocin on more socially salient cooperative tasks. Supported by NIH‐HD042882 and UNO‐GRACA.
129. FORMATION OF A DOMINANCE HIERARCHY IN TWO NEWLY FORMED GROUPS OF CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) S. E. Calcutt1,2, J. Watzek1,2, M. Suchak1,2,3 and F. B. de Waal1,2,3 1 Living Links Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA, 30043, USA, 2 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 3Canisius College Chimpanzee relocations are increasingly common as institutions transfer individuals to housing with increased space and larger social groups. Although much is known about social behavior during dyadic introductions, there is less information about social behavior and hierarchy formation on the group level. The purpose of our observational study is to investigate the pattern of hierarchy formation in two newly formed groups of chimpanzees (N1 ¼ 15, N2 ¼ 16) housed outdoors at Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia. We recorded all social interactions for 90‐minutes per day over a period of four months (total observation time: 226.5 h). To determine the dominance hierarchy we applied an Elo‐rating calculation per Neuman et al.  to all observed pant‐grunts. We then calculated a stability index by dividing the four month observation period into six‐week time periods. Using Friedman’s Rank Sum test, we found a signiﬁcant increase in stability, x2(2) ¼ 6, P < 0.05 for both groups. Post‐hoc analysis with Wilcoxon signed‐rank tests with Bonferroni correction found that Period 1 was signiﬁcantly less stable than Period 2 and 3 but found no difference between the latter two periods. This implies that each chimpanzee group required six weeks to form a stable dominance hierarchy. In the future we will compare social interactions across time to investigate the impact of hierarchy formation on social behaviors in chimpanzees.
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130. CONTEXTUAL STABILITY OF BEHAVIORALLY ASSESSED PERSONALITY TRAITS IN TWO GROUPS OF CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) J. Watzek, D. Proctor, S. E. Calcutt and F. B. de Waal Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, Georgia, 30043, USA Chimpanzees show consistent individual differences in behavior patterns across time and situations. Although an emerging body of research suggests temporal stability of these ‘personality traits,’ there is no empirical evidence addressing stability across social contexts. In addition, primate personality is primarily assessed with non‐behavioral methods, such as questionnaires. We observed the social interactions of 15 chimpanzees before and after the restructuring of their social groups for management purposes, which included introducing new individuals. We conducted 90‐minute observations on two groups for a total of 174 and 162 hours over a period of two years prior and four months after the new group formations. For reference, we compared data with 16 chimpanzees that did not experience external changes to their group composition. We calculated autocorrelations of each individual’s behaviors as an indicator of stability in personality. A Wilcoxon rank sum test on these correlations indicated no signiﬁcant difference in the change of behavior patterns in a restructured group compared to the change in a stable group, W ¼ 131, P ¼ 0.341. These results complement claims of chimpanzee personality by supporting their stability over time as well as across radically different social contexts. We stress the importance of assessing animal personality behaviorally as it allows ecologically valid conclusions and facilitates a comparative approach across species.
131. MAKE‐UP SEX: THE ROLE OF POST‐CONFLICT SEXUAL CONTACTS IN SEMI‐FREE BONOBOS, PAN PANSICUS Z. Clay1 and F. de Waal2 1 Institute de Biologie, Université de Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 2000, USA, 2Emory University, Atlanta In bonobos (Pan pansicus), sexual contacts are thought to play a key role in regulating social tension, and are especially common following social conﬂicts. Nevertheless, research on the factors determining post‐conﬂict sexual contacts and their effectiveness in reducing social tension remains scarce. To investigate the role of sexual contacts in regulating social conﬂicts, we observed post‐conﬂict afﬁliation in bonobos occurring between former opponents (reconciliation) and offered by bystanders towards victims (consolation). We examined whether post‐conﬂict sexual contacts: (1) alleviate stress; (2) offer reproductive beneﬁts; (3) mediate food‐related conﬂicts; (4) repair valuable social bonds. Thirty‐six bonobos of all ages were observed over six months at Lola‐ya‐Bonobo Sanctuary, DR Congo, using standardized Post‐Conﬂict/Matched Control methods. Across 237 post‐conﬂict events, both consolation and reconciliation were characterized by signiﬁcant increases in sexual behaviours [P < 0.001], with reconciliation almost exclusively characterized as sexual in nature. Adults engaged in post‐conﬂict sexual contacts signiﬁcantly more than younger bonobos [P ¼ 0.019]. Consistent with the stress‐ alleviation hypothesis, victims receiving sexual consolatory contact showed signiﬁcantly lower rates of self‐scratching, a marker of stress in primates, compared to victims receiving non‐sexual contact [P ¼ 0.009]. Post‐conﬂict sexual contacts did not confer obvious reproductive beneﬁts, were not targeted towards valuable social partners; nor were they used to mediate food‐related conﬂicts. Overall, results highlight the role sex plays in regulating tension following social conﬂicts in bonobos.
132. FOOD‐ASSOCIATED CALLING BEHAVIOR IN THE GOMBE CHIMPANZEES: MANAGING THE TRADE‐OFF BETWEEN FOOD AND FRIENDS L. R. O’Bryan and M. L. Wilson University of Minnesota, 100 Ecology, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, MN, 55108, USA Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) produce food‐associated “rough‐grunts” when feeding on high‐quality food and when in the presence of preferred social partners. While there is evidence that these vocalizations can inform party members of discovered food, why signalers should attract potential competitors remains unclear. We hypothesize that, by promoting co‐feeding, food‐associated calling behavior may reduce the trade‐off between feeding and maintaining cohesion with preferred partners. We tested this hypothesis by conducting an observational study of 10 adult male wild chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania from January‐June 2012 and 2013. During 8‐ hour focal individual follows, all occurrences of feeding were recorded, including the duration, the target’s vocal behavior, and the arrival of co‐feeders. In addition, group composition scans were conducted every 15 minutes. Using mixed‐effects regression models to control for repeated sampling of targets, feeding bouts and focal follows, we examined the correlation between rough‐grunt production, feeding duration, co‐feeding and group cohesion. We found that feeding duration was negatively correlated [P < 0.05], and co‐feeding was positively correlated [P < 0.001], with the target’s likelihood of maintaining cohesion with party members. Also, rough‐grunt production was positively correlated with both the target’s feeding duration [P < 0.01] and the arrival of co‐feeders [P < 0.001]. Results suggest there is a trade‐off between prolonged feeding and maintaining group cohesion but, by attracting co‐feeders to preferred food patches, food‐ associated calling may be capable of reducing this trade‐off.
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133. RANK, REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, AND RATES OF AGONISTIC AND AFFILIATIVE BEHAVIORS IN RHESUS MACAQUES K. M. Milich and D. Maestripieri University of Chicago, Institute for Mind and Biology, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA Being the alpha male in a primate group is an effective reproductive strategy; however, recent evidence suggests that numerous factors can inﬂuence this success rate. The size of the group, male‐to‐female ratio, and patterns of aggressive and afﬁliative behaviors can cause variation in reproductive skew across males. In this study, we compare the reproductive success of high ranking males across nine groups of semi‐free‐ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. We test four hypotheses for variation in reproductive success in rhesus macaques: (1) rank is positively correlated with reproductive success; (2) group size and composition are correlated with differences in male reproductive skew; (3) male dominance rank is positively correlated with aggressive behaviors; (4) reproductive success is positively correlated with afﬁliative behaviors within different rank categories. Focal and ad libitum behavioral data were recorded for 21 adult males during the mating season, from mid‐February to mid‐July 2013. All measures were compared using mixed GLMs in SPSS with a signiﬁcance level of 0.05. Rank is positively correlated with reproductive success, but not with rates of afﬁliative behaviors. Furthermore, larger groups do not have lower reproductive skew across males, but high ranking males do show higher rates of aggression. This study suggests that high ranking male rhesus macaques can use different strategies to attract females and maintain high reproductive rates.
134. VISITOR EFFECTS ON CAPTIVE SULAWESI CRESTED BLACK MACAQUES AT THE BUFFALO ZOO D. A. Bertrand1, C. M. Berman1 and S. W. Margulis2 1 380 MFAC, Ellicott Complex, North Campus, University at Buffalo ‐ SUNY, Buffalo, NY, 14261, USA, 2Canisius University Zoos must educate and entertain as many visitors as possible, while ensuring the welfare of their charges. Previous research has shown that unfamiliar humans can be sources of stress for captive primates as evidenced by speciﬁc behavioral indicators. This study explored possible effects of visitor presence, numbers, noise levels, age, and proximity on documented self‐directed behaviors (SDBs), aggression, social behaviors, and the use of space in one group of eight Macaca nigra at the Buffalo Zoo. Two‐hundred‐thirty hours of data were collected via scan sampling and within‐interval sampling. Loglinear and chi‐square analyses indicated that most macaques were signiﬁcantly more likely to display SDBs under certain conditions. Wilcoxon matched‐pairs signed‐ranks tests were used to explore signiﬁcance at a group level. A majority of monkeys displayed more SDBs [T ¼ 1, P < 0.01], use the back of their enclosure [T ¼ 1, P < 0.01], and stay inside [T ¼ 0, P < 0.01], and were less likely to engage in social behavior when visitors were present vs. absent [T ¼ 0, P < 0.01]. Contrary to expectations, six monkeys showed more SDBs when noise levels were low than high [T ¼ 0, P < 0.01]. Few monkeys showed any signiﬁcant responses to other visitor characteristics. Overall the monkeys appeared to be mildly stressed by visitors. Nevertheless, the varied results among monkeys and behaviors indicate that individuals respond in unique ways to potential stressors and that analytical approaches, as well as practical exhibit modiﬁcations, need to take this into consideration.
135. INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON CATHEMERAL ACTIVITY AMONG SOUTHERN BAMBOO LEMURS T. M. Eppley1,2, J. U. Ganzhorn1 and G. Donati2 1 Department of Animal Ecology and Conservation, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, 20146, Germany, 2Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, United Kingdom Although rare among primates, cathemerality (i.e., the ability to be active during the day and night) is prevalent among the strepsirrhine family of Lemuridae, potentially representing one of the earliest adaptations of the lemurid radiation. Thus far, rigorous long‐term studies have involved only the Eulemur and Lemur genera, leaving nocturnal activity observations within the genera Hapalemur anecdotal. Our study sought to understand whether southern bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur meridionalis) exhibited a cathemeral activity pattern in the Mandena littoral forest of south‐east Madagascar, and to identify which abiotic factors may inﬂuence its occurrence. Ten adult H. meridionalis spread across four habituated social groups were captured and ﬁtted with external radio‐ transmitters with an archival tag (ARC400, Advanced Telemetry Systems) that continuously recorded a proportional rate of activity every ﬁfteen minutes throughout the duration of the study, approximately October 2012–December 2013. While controlling for a possible inﬂuence of astronomical twilight and using a monthly diurnal‐to‐nocturnal activity ratio and non‐parametric statistics, our results show a signiﬁcant increase in nocturnal activity during nights of greater lunar luminance. Additionally, there is a signiﬁcant negative correlation between nocturnal activity and increasing temperature. This research provides the ﬁrst ever longitudinal study of cathemerality among the genus Hapalemur with the data conclusively supporting a diel activity pattern signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by lunarphilia and seasonality.
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136. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY COMPOSITION ON GROUP DYNAMICS IN SANCTUARY CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) N. G. Sharpe1, D. R. Davison2 and B. McCowan1,3 1 Animal Behavior Graduate Group, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom, 3Population, Health, and Reproduction, University of California, Davis The role of individuals’ personalities in determining the social dynamics of groups has rarely been systematically investigated in nonhuman primates, perhaps due to difﬁculties inherent in characterizing differences in personality composition between groups. Yet we know that marked differences exist in alpha male dominance style in chimpanzees, which inﬂuence aggression and reconciliation dynamics. This study examines how personalities of key individuals inﬂuence conﬂict patterns in groups of sanctuary‐living chimpanzees. We assessed the personalities of 140 chimpanzees in six groups at two African sanctuaries via trait rating, and recorded conﬂict and afﬁliation patterns using all‐occurrences and scan sampling over approximately 300 hours per group during ﬁve consecutive months. We analyzed these data using generalized linear models with model selection based on AICc scores. Our data demonstrated that alpha male aggressiveness scores on the personality survey matched their behavioral patterns, with males scored as more aggressive receiving more pant‐grunts and initiating more ﬁghts than males with lower scores. Interestingly, groups with alphas scored as more aggressive had fewer ﬁghts per day over all, and models including alpha male aggressiveness had better AICc scores than models including only group size, alpha male age, and average age of group members. This suggests that variance in conﬂict dynamics between groups can be explained not only by demographics but also by the personalities present in the group.
137. EFFECT OF REWARD TYPE ON REINFORCED LEARNING BEHAVIOR IN LABORATORY‐HOUSED COPPERY TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) S. M. Freeman1, N. Rebout2 and K. L. Bales1 1 California National Primate Research Center, University of California‐Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, France We used a two‐object discrimination task to test the efﬁcacy of two types of reward on reinforcement learning in socially monogamous titi monkeys. We hypothesized that titi monkeys would perform more accurately for a social reward (their pair‐mate) than for a food reward (banana). Eleven adult titi monkeys (7 males) were tested for both types of reward, with the colors (black, gray, or white) and shapes (circle, square, or triangle) of the objects counterbalanced across subjects. Trials ended when the subject touched the reinforced shape (Sþ) or after 5 minutes. A correct trial was one when the subject touched Sþ ﬁrst. Subjects switched to the other reward after meeting criteria for success (10 correct trials out of 12) or after 30 trials passed. We analyzed the data using logistic regression. There was no effect of testing order on any outcomes. Subjects took longer to approach the shapes for the social reward [F ¼ 12.68, P ¼ 0.002], although the latencies to touch either shape after approaching were not different between groups. With the social reward, subjects balked more often [F ¼ 9.291, P ¼ 0.006] and had a fewer correct trials [F ¼ 6.887, P ¼ 0.015]. Signiﬁcantly fewer subjects met criteria of success with the social reward [x2 ¼ 4.2177, P ¼ 0.040]. Our hypothesis that this socially monogamous species would perform better for a social reward was not supported. Funding: HD053555; NIH OD P51OD011107; the Good Nature Institute.
138. EVALUATING AND APPRECIATING BEHAVIORAL TRAINING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AFRICAN GREEN MONKEYS (CHLOROCEBUS AETHIOPS SABAEUS) AND CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) J. Makar2, L. R. Hamilton1 and T. M. Myers1 1 Neurobehavioral Toxicology Branch, Analytical Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21010, USA, 2United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense Behavioral analysis in nonhuman primates remains an indispensable tool for examining a variety of human health issues. While macaque species are abundantly used in the laboratory, a proposed suitable substitute is the African green monkey. This species is readily available at a lower cost and may offer safety beneﬁts because of its smaller adult size, more docile temperament, and not being a Macacine herpesvirus 1 carrier. Although these animals may be adequate alternatives there are apparent differences, speciﬁcally in behavioral training, to be considered when selecting an appropriate animal model. We compared African green monkey and cynomolgus macaque performance in pole and collar restraint chair training, target training, and a computerized memory task (DMTS). The data discussed compares number of sessions necessary to reach acceptable levels of accuracy or completion, intermediate steps needed, and overall technique/strategy. Chair training was divided into ten steps, each rated on a 5‐point scale for proﬁciency, measured as consistent scoring of 4 or better. Target training was recorded in narrative form for daily sessions (10 min) evaluating number of sessions to reach three days of appropriate response. DMTS data was evaluated for reaching success on terminal parameters, considered to be two days at 85% accuracy or better. Tests of means revealed that African green monkeys required considerably more intermediate steps and training sessions than did macaques.
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139. FEMALE OLIVE BABOONS (PAPIO ANUBIS) DISRUPT THE MATING ACTIVITIES OF OTHER FEMALES: EVIDENCE FOR FEMALE‐FEMALE COMPETITION? J. Walz and D. M. Kitchen The Ohio State University, 4034 Smith Laboratory, 174 W. 18th Ave, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA Within a group of olive baboons (Papio anubis), multiple females are reproductively competent at any given time, and thus may directly compete for the attention of high‐quality males. We examined the impact of female‐female aggression on mating opportunities in a wild population of baboons at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. From April–December 2012, we recorded agonistic interactions between focal females (N ¼ 13) and all adult individuals during consortships with adult males (N ¼ 18). We used approach‐retreat interactions to determine dominance ranks. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to test for an effect of rank and age of both members of the consort on the rates of aggression received from and directed towards mate‐guarded females by other females. We found a positive relationship between aggression received by mate‐guarded females and the rank of the mate‐guarding male [N ¼ 116, df ¼ 1, F ¼ 6.052, P ¼ 0.024]. However, there was no effect of the consorting male’s rank and the rate of aggression directed at other females by the consorting female. These data demonstrate that female‐female competition may impact a female’s ability to copulate with potentially high‐quality partners. Furthermore, a lack of relationship between rates of received and directed aggression and female rank or age indicates that, regardless of their social status, female olive baboons can attempt to disrupt the mating probabilities of female competitors.
140. SQUIRREL MONKEYS COORDINATE ON A COOPERATIVE BAR PULL TASK C. F. Talbot1,2,3, K. Hall3, L. E. Williams3 and S. F. Brosnan1,2,3,4 1 Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA USA, 3Department of Veterinary Services, Michale E. Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, TX USA, 4Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA USA Negative responses to inequity are proposed to have evolved in tandem with cooperation as a means to compare one’s own and others’ outcomes. According with this hypothesis, several species of cooperative primates react negatively to receiving less than a partner. Squirrel monkeys, who are not known to cooperate in the wild, do not respond to inequity, yet no study has directly examined cooperation in this species. Here, we tested unrelated squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) on a cooperative bar pull task modeled on one used with capuchin monkeys. Data thus far show that squirrel monkeys do coordinate on the task, and their responses differed depending on the value and distribution of the rewards [Q(2) ¼ 144.06, P < 0.001]. Subjects were more likely to coordinate their actions in the presence of a high value reward regardless of equitability [e.g., Unequal vs Mutual Low conditions; P < 0.001], but this appeared to be tempered by the opportunity for reward monopolization. Subjects were less likely to coordinate when rewards were clumped as opposed to dispersed [Clumped High vs Mutual High, P < 0.001]. Thus, although squirrel monkeys were primarily motivated by the absolute value of the rewards, they were still sensitive to subsequent competition, which had a negative effect on coordination. Next we plan to pair this task with a traditional inequity test to examine whether subjects’ willingness to coordinate correlates with their responses to inequity.
141. SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES AND PARTNER PREFERENCES IN WILD SADDLEBACK TAMARINS (SAGUINUS WEDDELLI) P. A. Garber1 and J. C. Bicca‐Marques2 1 Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Illinois Urbana‐Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, 2Laboratório de Primatologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil All species of tamarins are characterized by high levels of social tolerance and a system of cooperative infant caregiving. However, little is known regarding the strength and context of individual partner preferences and whether subgroups of individuals form special social relationships. In this study, we conducted a series of ﬁeld experiments to examine the effects of food productivity and resource density on social foraging strategies in a group of 9 individually marked tamarins in Brazil. The tamarins were presented with 8 visually identical feeding platforms located 5 m apart in a circular arrangement. In two experimental conditions 2 of the 8 platforms contained a concealed food reward and in the remaining two conditions all 8 platforms contained a concealed food reward. We found that as the number of baited feeding platforms decreased, the number of tamarin co‐feeders increased. When only 2 platforms contained food, 3–8 tamarins shared the platform during 54–66% of visits. Using social network analyses (SOCPROG) we found no consistent pattern of dyadic partner preferences or evidence of a strong pair bond between the lone breeding female and the highest ranking adult male. The tamarins formed 1–3 cliques during all experimental conditions, with juveniles, the breeding female, and low ranking adult males the primary participants. Network analysis offers critical insight into the social dynamics of male tolerance and cooperative caregiving in wild tamarins.
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142. DOES THE FULL MOON AFFECT WOUNDING IN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES)? J. Bridges1, L. A. Reamer1, S. P. Lambeth1 and S. J. Schapiro1,2 1 Department of Veterinary Sciences, Michale E. Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, TX, USA, 2Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen and University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Reducing the frequency of wounding is an aim of facilities managing socially‐housed chimpanzees. Some animal studies have shown a correlation between lunar cycle and behavior, speciﬁcally regarding increases in aggression during the full moon phase. No studies that investigate the lunar cycle’s effect on chimpanzee wounding from aggression exist; however, this information could be beneﬁcial for captive management. This retrospective study examined wounding incidents among eight social groups of captive chimpanzees (42F, 46M) over 118 months, to determine whether moon phases (New, Waxing, Full, Waning) were associated with changes in rates of wounding aggression. Chimpanzees were housed in open‐top corrals or Primadomes®, with continuous inside/outside access. Clinical staff surveyed all chimpanzees daily to identify wounds or other health‐related issues. Of the 4,018 days of the study, there were 408 full moon days (10.2% of total days) and 3,610 non‐full moon days (89.8% of total days). Within the study period, 392 wounds were observed, 48 (12.2%) occurred during the full moon phase; whereas 344 wounds (87.8%) occurred during non‐full moon phases. While wounding occurred slightly more frequently during the full moon phase, the distribution did not differ signiﬁcantly from chance [x2 ¼ 4.583, df ¼ 3, P ¼ 0.205]. This suggests that, contrary to some subjective impressions, the full moon does not have a signiﬁcant effect on wounding aggression in captive chimpanzees.
143. EFFECTIVE TOOL CHOICE BY CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) L. M. Mahovetz1 and W. D. Hopkins2,3 1 Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA, 2Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30302, 3Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, 30322 The ability to use tools is important for survival [Wagman & Carello, 2001] as tools aid in exploiting otherwise unattainable resources [Torrence, 1983; Foley, 1991]. Previous research has shown that captive chimpanzees choose tools based on properties of weight [nut‐ cracking: Shrauf et al., 2012] and length [probing: Sabbatini et al., 2012]. Here, we aimed to determine whether chimpanzees utilize tool properties beyond weight and length, and if ﬂexibility is exhibited in selecting effective tools when property requirements change. Eleven captive chimpanzees were presented opaque PVC pipes modiﬁed to require use of speciﬁc tools based on properties of length (utilized as a baseline for comparison), surface area, shape, and rigidity. Regression analyses indicated performance on the length task did not predict performance on surface area, shape, or rigidity tasks (all P ¼ ns). Paired t‐test analyses revealed signiﬁcant differences in performance in correct trial one choices between length and shape [t(10) ¼ 3.464, P ¼ 0.006], surface area and shape [t(10) ¼ 5.164, P < 0.001], and surface area and rigidity [t(10) ¼ 2.887, P ¼ 0.016] tasks. There were also signiﬁcant differences in overall performance between length and both shape [t(10) ¼ 2.995, P ¼ 0.013] and rigidity [t(10) ¼ 2.735, P ¼ 0.021] tasks, and between surface area and rigidity [t(10) ¼ ‐ 2.358, P ¼ 0.04] tasks. These comparisons show that, although performance was best when length was the required property, chimpanzees are able to use properties of surface area, shape, and rigidity to exploit resources.
144. ONTOGENY OF POSITIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HABITAT USE IN ANGOLA BLACK AND WHITE COLOBUS MONKEYS (COLOBUS ANGOLENSIS PALLIATUS) FROM SOUTH COASTAL KENYA N. T. Dunham and W. S. McGraw Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, 4034 Smith Laboratory, 174 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH, 43210, USA Primatologists interested in understanding constraints on positional behavior frequently examine relationships among body size, locomotion, posture, and habitat use. Previous studies have attempted to associate interspeciﬁc differences in body size to propensities to use certain positional behaviors and support sizes; however, few studies have examined the interaction of these variables within species. We compare locomotor, postural, and support use data among different age classes in an African colobine to test the null hypotheses of no differences across age categories. Data were collected from June to August 2012 (340 hours) on three groups of Peters’ Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus) inhabiting a mosaic of habitats in coastal Kenya’s Diani Forest. Instantaneous time point sampling was used to generate overall locomotor, postural, and support use proﬁles for three age classes: infant, juvenile/sub‐adult, and adult. Pairwise comparisons using G‐tests revealed signiﬁcant differences between adult vs. infant locomotor proﬁles and adult vs. infant postural proﬁles. Juvenile/sub‐adult locomotor and postural proﬁles were not signiﬁcantly different from those of infants or adults. All pairwise comparisons of overall support use proﬁles were signiﬁcant. These results suggest that adult‐like positional behavior proﬁles are present by the juvenile/sub‐adult period despite discrepancies in support use. Research supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 2012136655) and The Ohio State University.
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145. USING VIDEO CAMERA TRAPS TO STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF THE NEWLY ANNOUNCED GUENON LESULA, CERCOPITHECUS LOMAMIENSIS, FROM THE LOMAMI RIVER BASIN, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO S. G. McPhee1, P. Ayali2, J. A. Hart2 and K. M. Detwiler1 1 Florida Atlantic Univesity, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA, 2Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, 1235 Poids Lourd Avenue, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo In September 2012, a new species of primate was discovered in a remote stretch of the Lomami River Basin in Central Democratic Republic of the Congo. To learn more about the behavior of this newly discovered species, Cercopithecus lomamiensis (commonly known as lesula), we examined three‐camera trap studies conducted between 2012 and 2013. Two small‐scale pilot studies were conducted at the lightly hunted Losekola research site (camera trap days ¼ 461 and 245) within the proposed Lomami National Park, and a full‐scale survey was conducted at the heavily hunted Okulu site (camera trap days ¼ 2269) in an adjacent community conservation forest. For the Okulu survey we used videos rather than the standard three‐picture sequence traditionally used in camera trap studies, and collected between 20 to 90 seconds of 720p HD footage per camera trap trigger. The video data conﬁrm lesula’s terrestriality, minimum group size of 11 individuals, single‐male/multi‐female group composition, and expand known diet items to include insects and new plant families. We documented mixed‐species associations between lesula and two species, Peter’s duiker (Cephalophus callipygus) and red‐tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius). We also observed a minimum of two individuals who had recovered from arm amputations presumably from hunter ground snares. We found the use of video camera traps to be highly effective at gathering behavioral information on this cryptic, difﬁcult to observe species.
146. COMPOUND GRIP IN CAPTIVE TUFTED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (SAPAJUS SPP.) C. E. Jones and D. Fragaszy University of Georgia, Department of Psychology, Athens, Georgia, 30605, USA Manipulation in primates is largely accomplished with the hands. Simple grips described by Napier  address various ways that one hand can hold objects but this scheme does not fully describe manual grips. Compound grip, in which one object is held using two or more simple grips, or more than one object is held in one hand, has been described in general terms in several species of Old World primates. Compound grip requires that the digits operate independently to some degree to accommodate multiple objects or multiple grips. The objective of this study is to document prevalence and conditions promoting compound grip in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.). To elicit compound grip two tasks were introduced to seven tufted capuchins. Task 1 involved depositing 1–4 craft balls into a small tube using one hand. Task two involved transferring a combination of 1–3 balls and rods to and from a ﬂat surface. Grips were coded in slow motion video playback. All monkeys employed compound grip, holding more than one object in one hand when presented with two objects of different shapes/sizes. With three or four differently sized/shaped objects, they used simple grips, compound grips, or made errors. Findings conﬁrm the presence of compound grip and suggest the limits of its effectiveness in this New World monkey. The limits of compound grips in other species are unknown.
147. 5HTTLPR GENE, MOTHER’S SOCIAL DOMINANCE, AND INFANT CORTISOL IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) LIVING IN LARGE OUTDOOR ENCLOSURES K. R. Glass1, M. T. Bennett1, B. S. Humbert1, A. N. Sorenson1, B. Mcowan2, J. P. Capitanio2 and J. D. Higley1 1 Department of Psychology, 1042 SWKT, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA 95616 The acquisition of rank and social status in rhesus macaque societies resembles in many ways that of humans in that it is based on alliances and social cognition, thus enabling researchers to use rhesus monkeys to model the acquisition of human social status. Paralleling humans, maternal high social status confers advantages of safety, reproductive ﬁtness, and resource acquisition. In this study we examined the relationship between early infant plasma cortisol levels, serotonin genotype, and matrilineal social dominance rank. Subjects were 2,300 infant male rhesus macaques born at the California National Primate Research Center between the years of 2001 and 2012. Subjects were tested using a series of tests conducted when they were 3 to 4 months old. Data showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations in high ranking males when compared to less dominant males following both dexamethasone and ACTH administration (at the P < 0.05 level). A three‐way interaction was observed between 5HTTLPR, dominance rank, and cortisol sample. Overall, high ranking males with the ss genotype exhibited lower plasma cortisol than the LL and Ls genotype subjects (at the P < 0.05 level). These ﬁndings form a framework for further research to analyze the nature of rank acquisition, HPA axis regulation, and serotonin genotype in dominant males.
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148. CHRONIC INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN AFFECTS SOCIAL PREFERENCE BEHAVIOR IN JUVENILE TITI MONKEYS (CALLICEBUS CUPREUS) R. Arias del Razo1, T. A. R. Weinstein2, S. P. Mendoza2, M. Solomon3, S. Jacob4 and K. L. Bales1,2 1 Department of Psychology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, 95616, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, California, 3MIND Institute, University of California‐Davis, Sacramento, CA, 4Department of Psychiatry University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide hormone which plays a critical role in social bonding and recognition. We examined how developmental exposure to chronic intranasal OT affects juvenile titi monkeys’ social preference for their parents versus unfamiliar adult heterosexual pairs. Six males and ﬁve females were treated intranasally with either 0.8 IU/kg OT dissolved in 50 ul of saline (N ¼ 6) or saline (N ¼ 5) once per day from 12 to 18 months of age. Preference testing was conducted at 13 months. Subjects were tested for three hours in a three chamber setup; the subject occupied the center cage and stimulus pairs were in adjacent cages separated by grated windows, allowing social interactions between the subject and stimulus animals. We measured durations of time spent in proximity with the grated windows and manually touching the grated windows. A multivariate GLM revealed that juveniles that received OT spent less time in proximity with their parents when compared to animals treated with saline [F ¼ 6, P ¼ 0.04]. Juveniles treated with OT also spent a greater amount of time in proximity to the unfamiliar pair [F ¼ 38.26, P < 0.0001] and touching the unfamiliar pair’s grated window compared to juveniles receiving saline [F ¼ 10.53, P ¼ 0.01]. These results suggest that chronic OT treatment decreases interest in parents and increases attraction to strangers in juveniles as compared with saline‐treated animals.
149. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN STRESS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ACROSS DEVELOPMENT IS SEX DEPENDENT IN MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX GEOFFROYI) M. C. Huffman and J. A. French University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Psychology, 6001 Dodge St., Omaha, NE, 68182, USA Increased stress‐related behavior has been associated with decreased social behavior. However, males and females may exhibit different social responses to stress over time. We examined temporal changes in the association between stress and social behavior throughout development in juvenile and subadult marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi). Stress‐related behavior (i.e., cage manipulations, alarm calls) was examined during a psychosocial stressor, and social behavior (i.e., play, allogrooming) was observed in undisturbed social groups at 6, 12, and 18 months of age (males: N ¼ 29; females: N ¼ 20). Male marmosets exhibited decreased alarm calling from 6 to 18 months; this pattern was associated with an increase in total play behavior over this same timeframe. Females also exhibited a decrease in alarm calls from 6 to 18 months, but this pattern was associated with a decrease in total play [b ¼ 0.05, t(35) ¼ 2.03, P < 0.05]. In males, increased cage manipulations over time tended to be associated with increased play. In females, increased cage manipulations over time were associated with a trend towards decreased play [b ¼ 0.05, t(35) ¼ 1.95, P ¼ 0.06]. In males, as alarm calls decreased over time, there was no change in initiating allogrooming. However, in females, decreased alarm calls were associated with increased allogrooming [b ¼ ‐0.01, t(35) ¼ ‐2.33, P < 0.05]. Thus, not all stress‐related behavior is inversely associated with social behavior and is sex dependent. Speciﬁc stress‐related behaviors should be examined individually to understand their relationship with social behavior.
150. AN EXAMINATION OF TWIN BIRTHS IN A CAPTIVE COLONY OF GARNETT’S BUSHBABIES (OTOLEMUR GARNETTII) S. Watson1,2, B. Fontenot2, T. Baker2, J. Christopher2 and K. Gamble2 1 118 College Drive, Petal, 39465, USA, 2University of Southern Mississippi In captive situations resources are consistently plentiful, whereas in the wild resources wax and wane. When food is abundant and threats (e.g., disease, predation) are low, many species produce greater numbers of offspring. Although Garnett’s bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii) rarely produce twins in the natural environment, we predicted that captive situations would be conducive to an increased number of twin births. Moreover, because female offspring are often considered the “biologically expensive” sex, we predicted production of more female offspring than would be expected by chance. To test these hypotheses, we examined birth records of a captive colony of Garnett’s bushbabies from 1988 until present. Preliminary examination of the birth records indicated that of 246 infants born, 120, or 49%, were the product of twin births. Of 115 male births, 45 (39%) resulted from a twin birth, as did 40 (57%) of the 70 females born. Moreover, the number of females resulting from twin births was signiﬁcantly higher than that of males, z ¼ 2.39, P ¼ 0.016. These results support the assumption that factors that inﬂuence reproduction in the wild also inﬂuence reproduction in captivity. In addition, it appears that these environmental inﬂuences may play a role in the production of multiple births, even among species that typically yield only a single offspring.
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151. SUCCESSFUL SOCIAL HOUSING OF ADULT MALE CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES WITH SIMILAR BODYWEIGHTS D. M. Abney, J. E. Toscano, L. L. Poor and H. A. Moomaw Charles River Laboratories, Pre‐Clinical Services – Nevada, 6995 Longley Lane, Reno, NV, 89511, USA At Charles River Laboratories, we are committed to ensuring all animals have the highest level of care and welfare. To this end, our social housing program includes placing all nonhuman primates in pairs or groups. We have a rate of almost 100% success social housing juvenile, sub‐adult, and adult female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Social housing of sexually mature males, however, can be a challenge. Some publications suggest a large weight differential between males increases the likelihood of social pairing success, however many scientiﬁc projects require a narrowly deﬁned weight range between subjects. Over a one year period, data were reviewed for 82 attempted pairs assigned to 14 different studies to assess the success associated with social housing males of similar body weights. The mean difference in body weight was 1.0 kg 0.08 kg. Sexually mature males were deﬁned as 5 kg or greater and pairing success was deﬁned as full contact social housing maintained for a minimum of two weeks. Data were analyzed to assess if there was statistical signiﬁcance in pairing success by a weight differential within the pair of 1 kg and no signiﬁcance was found [x2 ¼ 0.36, df¼ 1, P ¼ 0.5]. This data suggests that body weight does not seem to play a signiﬁcant role in determining social success for adult male cynomolgus macaques and should not be seen as a deterrent to social housing attempts.
152. MATRILINEAL OVERTHROWS IN CAPTIVE GROUPS OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA): A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS D. M. Sanchez1,2, R. Herman1,2 and K. Wallen1,2 1 Emory University, 36 Eagle Row, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center In rhesus monkey groups, matrilineal dominance hierarchies are a major component of the social structure, governing the dynamics of most social relationships. These hierarchies are kin‐based, with maternal rank inheritance. Rank relationships are remarkably stable, which is perhaps why so little is known about the factors contributing to their breakdown. Matrilineal overthrows involve dramatic reordering of the social hierarchy, and in captive populations are associated with severe aggression. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 46 matrilineal overthrows spanning 19 years at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center Field Station. Groups which experienced overthrows were compared to date‐matched controls. There were signiﬁcant differences between speciﬁc pathogen‐free (SPF) and nonSPF controls, so each group type was analyzed separately. NonSPF overthrow (OT) groups were older [P ¼ 0.002], denser [P ¼ 0.033], and had fewer adult males than controls [P ¼ 0.041]. SPF OT groups were older [P ¼ 0.008], less dense [P ¼ 0.060] and had a greater percentage of juvenile males than controls [P ¼ 0.025]. SPF OT groups experienced greater rates of OTs than nonSPF groups, and were signiﬁcantly younger at the time of OT [P < 0.001]. These results suggest that both types of groups are more likely to experience overthrows as they age, and that SPF group formation procedures may have introduced as yet unidentiﬁed factors which impact groups’ long‐term stability.
153. HAIR LOSS AND HAIR CORTISOL CONCENTRATIONS IN RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) REMAIN STABLE ACROSS TIME AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION M. T. Menard1, S. N. El‐Mallah1, A. F. Hamel2, K. Rosenberg1, C. K. Lutz3, K. Coleman4, J. Worlein5, J. S. Meyer1 and M. A. Novak1 1 Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA, 2Neuroscience and Behavior Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, 3Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX, 4Oregon National Primate Research Center, Portland, OR, 5Washington National Primate Research Center, Seattle WA Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Hair loss may be mediated by normal factors (e.g., season) or may serve as a biomarker for health‐related disorders (e.g., stress and allergies). We examined hair loss and hair cortisol concentrations in 140 (83 female) rhesus macaques from four primate centers, all of whom had been sampled twice approximately eight months apart. If hair loss is a biomarker for stress, we predicted that hair cortisol levels should increase with hair loss and decrease with regrown hair. Surprisingly, hair loss condition changed little across sampling periods with only 12 (9%) monkeys showing a greater than 10% loss of hair and 30 (21%) monkeys showing a greater than 10% regrowth of hair. Hair cortisol was correlated across samples [r ¼ 0.33, P < 0.001] and was higher in the monkeys whose hair loss condition remained the same [r ¼ 0.48, P < 0.001]. Regrowth of hair was signiﬁcantly associated with a decrease in hair cortisol levels in females [F ¼ 2.85, P ¼ 0.05], but loss of hair in females was not associated with an increase in hair cortisol levels. At one facility, some monkeys went from indoor to outdoor housing whereas others remained indoors. Loss/gain of hair was equally spread across housing condition. Hair cortisol levels did not change when monkeys were moved outdoors. Hair loss and hair cortisol values were stable over eight months under several environmental conditions.
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154. EVALUATING THE USE AND EFFICACY OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION DISPLAYS AT ZOOS L. A. Taglialatela 1000 Chastain Road, Department of Psychology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, 30144, USA Relatively little is know about the use and impact of educational displays at zoos, and research typically has not included necessary controls. Therefore, it remains unclear if such installations help zoos attain their mission of educating the public about conservation issues. To this end, I evaluated the use and impact of installations in the Living Treehouse (Zoo Atlanta), where visitors can view educational displays highlighting the importance of trees for the survival of ecosystems. I collected pre‐/post‐exhibit information from 130 visitors for direct comparison, collected behavioral data from those visitors, utilized parallel forms, ensured equivalency of pre‐/post‐ knowledge questions, and evaluated potential priming of the pre‐test on activity within the exhibit. Visitors spent an average of 2 min 40 s (SD 1 min 32 s) inside the educational space. On average, visitors interacted with one display, staying 10.11 s (SD 19.20 s). Visitors’ knowledge was higher at post‐exhibit, F(1, 98) ¼ 99.365, P < 0.001, however, interaction with displays did not correlate with knowledge gain. Pro‐conservation attitudes from pre‐/post‐ did not change [P ¼ 0.779]. Reported intent to engage in “green” behaviors at post‐exhibit was higher than actual use of behaviors at pre‐exhibit, F(1, 91) ¼ 166.639, P < 0.001, and this increase correlated with stay time [P ¼ 0.046]. These data indicate that use is marginal and interaction with the displays does not translate directly into increased knowledge, however it does correlate with intent to engage in pro‐conservation behaviors.
155. IDENTITY AND CONSERVATION MODELS IN BALANCAN, MEXICO: KEY TO SAVING THE CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEXICAN BLACK HOWLER MONKEY J. C. Serio‐Silva1,2, F. Vidal‐García1,2,3, A. Balandra‐Montes de Oca2, M. A. Alvarado‐Villalobos1,2,3, J. Aristizabal1,2, H. M. Díaz‐Lopez4, R. A. Collado‐Torres4, B. Valenzuela‐Córdova4, L. M. Ayala‐Camacho5, C. Oliva‐Uribe5, A. Villalón1, M. Franquesa‐Soler1,3, A. Cambou1,6 and D. Tejero‐Gerónimo2 1 Red de Biologia y Conservacion de Vertebrados, Instituto de Ecologia AC, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, Mexico, 2Estación de Investigación Primatológica y Vida Silvestre, 3Posgrado Instituto de Ecologia, AC, 4División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, 5Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Huixquilucan, Estado de México, 6 Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France After many years of identifying the problematic situation of wild monkeys and their habitat, we have seen that we can only have a positive effect on conservation if people are involved with elements of the environment with which they can feel represented. To address the above, we developed an identity/conservation model for the endangered black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and its habitat in Balancán, Tabasco, Mexico. With our support, local authorities agreed to make a formal declaration; this town is now identiﬁed as the “Sanctuary of the Sacred Black Howler Monkey.” As part of such declaration we developed a festival called the “First International Black Howler Monkey Week.” Main activities included primate‐related lectures and workshops (N ¼ 150), ﬁeld guides visits/habitat restoration activities (N ¼ 10), exhibitions of primate handicrafts made by people from communities and cultural activities (dancing, singing, poetry, theater, mural‐painting, movies) offered to all the attendees (4,000þ throughout the week) who were learning about their monkeys and the importance of preserving tropical rain forest. The utility of this project is involving local people around howler monkeys and promoting more environmental education in places where scientiﬁc research is conducted. We cannot be only spectators but we must act, researching, protecting and restoring. Only then will our primate diversity and communities be able to live in harmony.
156. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ON CHILDREN’S LEARNING: THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE F. Vidal‐Garcia1, K. A. Esper‐Reyes2 and J. C. Serio‐Silva1 1 Instituto de Ecología AC., Carretera Antigua a Coatepec No. 351, El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, USA, 2Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México Environmental education is a tool for studying and understanding relationships and interactions between primates and nonhuman primates. It is also a process by which individuals and local community become aware of their environment; it is a teaching mechanism that helps people to acquire ethical values, skills and willingness to act on the resolution of current and future environmental problems. The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of environmental education workshops in children by using pre‐ and post‐learning tests. This project was directed in Tabasco, México. It is an important region, because the three species of Mexican primates (Alouatta pigra, A. palliata and Ateles geoffroyi) are distributed there. We designed a test of knowledge and a workshop with information about Mexican primates. The workshops included information about behavior, habitat, threats and distribution of primates. We applied the workshop in six groups of children between 10 and 12 years old. The test of knowledge was applied after and before of the workshop. Each test was scored, and scores were compared by using a student’s t‐test. The test included some questions about perceptions too. The scores after the workshop were signiﬁcantly higher than previous scores [t ¼ 9.09; df ¼ 5, P ¼ 0.001]. Children improved their knowledge and change their minds about Mexican primates after workshops.
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157. SURVEY OF THE LONG‐TAILED MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) ON JAVA, INDONESIA: DISTRIBUTION AND HUMAN‐PRIMATE CONFLICT R. C. Kyes1,2, E. Iskandar2, D. P. Farajallah2, S. Saputro2, P. Kyes1, F. Iskandar3 and J. Pamungkas2 1 Depts of Psychology and Global Health, Center for Global Field Study, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA, 2Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia, 3Directorate for Conservation of Natural Resources, Directorate General of Forest and Nature Conservation, Dept. of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia Despite presumed abundance and widespread distribution, limited data exist on the status of the longtailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) population in Indonesia. In 2009, we conducted a preliminary survey of M. fascicularis on Java to assess their distribution and the increasing reports of human‐primate conﬂict. As a follow‐up, we conducted a more thorough survey of the island during 3–17 March and 16–25 October 2012, covering 8,079 km. Travel and observation occurred from 7 am until 8 pm daily and involved the use of secondary roads to allow for frequent stops to query local people regarding the presence/absence of M. fascicularis. Over the 25‐day survey period, we visited 78 sites across Java with reported or conﬁrmed monkey sightings (national parks, nature reserves, agricultural areas, local tourist sites). Reports of human‐primate conﬂict were noted at 54 of the 78 sites and typically involved various forms of crop raiding or stealing food. The average reported population size was 67.9 monkeys (range: 5–450). Also striking was the vast area with reports of “no monkeys here.” These macaque populations are often located in areas of human habitation, where sightings and conﬂict occur frequently, and may lead to assumptions of over‐abundance in regions where actual population size is much smaller then perceived. Supported by: Indonesian Department of Higher Education, International Research Collaboration and Scientiﬁc Publication Grant to PSSP‐IPB; ORIP, NIH Grant No. P51OD010425 to WaNPRC.
158. PRELIMINARY CENSUS OF FREE RANGING VERVET MONKEYS, CHLOROCEBUS SABAEUS, IN DANIA BEACH, FLORIDA D. M. Williams1, E. T. Broemel2 and K. M. Detwiler1,2 1 Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Department of Biological Sciences, SC‐1 Lab 253, Boca Raton, FL, 33433, USA, 2 Florida Atlantic University, Department of Anthropology, 777 Glades Road, SO 171, Boca Raton, FL 33431 Observations of vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus sabaeus, have been documented in 3700 hectares of mangrove preserves of Dania Beach, Florida since the 1950 s. A scientiﬁc census in 1995 provided conﬁrmation of this population. The 1995 census showed the population consisted of two groups with a total of 36 individuals. We resurveyed the population from January–April 2014 by visiting sites where monkeys have been reported either in the media or by local residents. We found the vervets inhabit two geographically isolated areas, separated by a man‐made waterway. The population is divided into three groups with a total of 18 individuals. Group A occupies the northern part of the mangroves, and consists of 3 adult males, 1 juvenile male, 5 adult females, and 1 infant. Group B occupies the central part of the mangroves, and consists of 1 adult male, 2 adult females, 1 subadult female, and 2 juveniles. Group C occupies the southern part of the mangroves, and consists of 2 adult females. In the 1995 study, this southern group ranged in size from 19–23 individuals. Our results indicate the population decreased over the past 19 years. To conﬁrm this population decrease, research will expand surveys into unexplored areas of the mangrove preserve to document the presence or absence of additional groups. Ongoing research will investigate day ranges, behavior, and feeding ecology of this feral primate population.
159. HABITAT AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE STATUS DIFFERENCES IN URINARY INDICES OF HEALTH IN WILD BLACK HOWLING MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) IN BALANCAN, MEXICO E. L. Zucker1, J. C. Serio‐Silva2,3 and D. Tejero‐Geronimo3 1 Department of Psychological Sciences, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, 70118, USA, 2Insituto de Ecologia AC, Xalapa, Mexico, 3 Estacion de Investigacion Primatologica y Vida Silvestre, Balancan, Mexico Female health likely varies with habitat quality, potentially mediating reproductive outcomes. To assess differences in health indices as a function of habitat type, urine samples (N ¼ 178) were collected from adult female black howler monkeys (24 different groups and subgroups) in two habitat types (playón and rainforest fragments) at Ranchería Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez, Balancan, Mexico. Samples were tested in the ﬁeld for 10 parameters with commercially‐available reagent strips. Proteins and nitrites were present in signiﬁcantly more samples from rainforest fragment females than playón females, while playón females had signiﬁcantly more samples with elevated leucocytes [tests for differences in proportions: P < 0.01]. Rainforest females without infants had signiﬁcantly more samples with elevated proteins, and signiﬁcantly fewer samples with elevated leucocytes, than rainforest females with infants [P < 0.01]. Playón females without infants had more samples with markers of poorer health for several parameters compared to playón females with infants. In both habitats, urinary pH was higher for females without infants than those with infants, while speciﬁc gravity was higher for females with infants than for those without; variability was greater for females without infants for both measures in both habitats. These patterns suggest one habitat type might be more conducive to reproduction, and females currently with infants might be in better overall health, but long‐term monitoring of reproductive outcomes is necessary to conﬁrm these relationships.
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160. CONSPECIFIC PROXIMITY OF PAN TROGLODYTES, PAN PANISCUS, AND GORILLA GORILLA AND THE ROLE OF THE PRESENCE OF FOOD ON SOCIO‐ECOLOGY S. C. Milne1 and J. Taglialatela1,2 1 Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA, 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, USA Among the African Great Apes, chimpanzees and gorillas experience signiﬁcant habitat overlap, whereas bonobos do not overlap with either of the other two species. It is thought that differences in the feeding ecologies of chimpanzees and gorillas play an important role in determining social differences between the two species. Similarly, some social parallels between gorillas and bonobos, such as group cohesion, are thought to be a result of increased reliance on terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV). We hypothesized that gorillas and bonobos should show a higher tolerance of conspeciﬁcs in close proximity during feeding compared to other contexts than should chimpanzees as a result of their socio‐ecological strategies. Previously recorded data, collected in compliance with IACUC standards, on 15 captive chimpanzees housed at the Yerkes Primate Center and 10 captive bonobos housed at the Jacksonville Zoo were analyzed. Contexts were classiﬁed into categories, feeding and other, and proximity was categorized as alone or not alone. We found that chimpanzees were more likely to be alone while feeding than any other context [x2 ¼ 4.7; P ¼ 0.029], but found no signiﬁcant difference in bonobo proximity across contexts [P > 0.05]. These data suggest that the tolerance for conspeciﬁc proximity may be greater across contexts for bonobos, but that chimpanzees may not be as ﬂexible. These data represent preliminary results to be used with similar data on gorillas for a comprehensive cross‐species analysis.
161. URINARY CORTISOL IN YOUNG CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES): EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON S. D. Breaux1, J. J. Breaux1, S. L. Watson2 and M. B. Fontenot1 1 University of Louisiana at Lafayette New Iberia Research Center, PO Box 13610, New Iberia, LA, 70562, USA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Southern Mississippi Urinary cortisol measures provide noninvasive means for examining hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis activity in primates. While some research indicates individual stability and potential value in predicting future behavior, there are psychological and physiological factors that may inﬂuence cortisol levels. We investigated the effects of age, sex and season on morning cortisol levels in juvenile to adolescent chimpanzees [N ¼ 28 (19M, 9F); aged 3.17–9.83 years (mean ¼ 6.43 years)]. Using positive reinforcement training, urine samples were collected weekly between 0800‐1100 hrs from March 2008 through May 2009. Cortisol was corrected for speciﬁc gravity, residualized for time of collection and averaged for each subject for ﬁve seasons: Spring 2008 (March‐May), Summer 2008 (June– August), Fall 2008 (September–November), Winter 2008‐2009 (December–February), and Spring 2009. Repeated measures ANCOVA, co‐ varying age, revealed a signiﬁcant effect of season [F(4, 104) ¼ 7.91, P < 0.001], indicating that cortisol was lowest in Spring compared to other seasons, and a season by age interaction [F(4, 104) ¼ 8.84, P < 0.001]. Univariate analysis indicated cortisol levels in juveniles decreased signiﬁcantly over time [F(1, 25) ¼ 8.33, P < 0.01] and were signiﬁcantly lower than adolescent levels in Spring 2009 [F(1, 25) ¼ 5.09, P < 0.05]. Adolescent levels increased over time [F(1, 25) ¼ 8.72, P < 0.01]. Over time, cortisol levels vary between juvenile and adolescent chimpanzees and may reﬂect factors such as post‐weaning stress among juveniles and degree of reproductive maturation among adolescents.
162. MALE CAPUCHINS (CEBUS CAPUCINUS) SHOW SIGNIFICANT ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO ECOLOGICAL FACTORS V. M. Schoof1, K. M. Jack2, T. E. Ziegler3, A. D. Melin4 and L. M. Fedigan5 1 Department of Anthopology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2Tulane University, 3Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin‐Madison, 4Washington University, 5University of Calgary Ecological variation strongly inﬂuences female reproductive endocrinology, frequently resulting in seasonal patterns linked to energetic constraints. Such energetic constraints may similarly affect males, but research has emphasized social factors, while largely ignoring ecological inﬂuences on male reproduction. We examine the effects of both ecological variation (food availability, rainfall season, temperature) and social factors (reproductive season, male age/rank) on fecal glucocorticoids (fGC, N ¼ 1342 from 24 males between July 2006–2010) and testosterone (fT, N ¼ 1056 from 19 males between July 2008–2010) in white‐faced capuchins living in a seasonal environment. Repeated measures GLMMs indicate that male fGC was signiﬁcantly predicted by fruit biomass [F ¼ 6.048, P ¼ 0.015], rainfall [F ¼ 9.381, P ¼ 0.002], male age/rank [F ¼ 26.698, P ¼ 0.002], and reproductive season [F ¼ 12.359, P < 0.001], but not temperature [F ¼ 0.294, P ¼ 0.588]. Analysis of residuals indicate that fGC levels were highest in the conception season, followed by the birth season, and were lowest in the gestation and post‐birth period [Kruskal‐Wallis: K ¼ 21.884, P < 0.001]. Male fT was signiﬁcantly predicted by fruit biomass [F ¼ 10.528, P ¼ 0.001], male age/rank [F ¼ 38.562, P < 0.001], and reproductive season [F ¼ 4.392, P ¼ 0.007], but not by rainfall [F ¼ 1.610, P ¼ 0.206] or temperature [F ¼ 0.953, P ¼ 0.330]. However, analysis of the residuals indicates that when food availability was low, fT was high [Mann‐Whitney U: Z ¼ 2.211, P ¼ 0.027] and there was a similar trend for fGC [Z ¼ 1.877, P ¼ 0.061]. Our ﬁndings indicate that ecological conditions may play a more signiﬁcant role in male reproductive patterns than previously considered.
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163. BEYOND PEANUT BUTTER: REFINEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF THE FORAGING AND ORAL DOSING PLAN FOR CLINICAL AND ENRICHMENT PURPOSES M. C. Carey1,2,3,4, R. J. Mistretta1,2,3,4, W. L. Wagner1,3, J. M. Erwin5, C. Guevara1,2,3,4, Z. Pippin3 and A. Lozano1,3 1 BIOQUAL, Inc., Department of Primate Psychology, Rockville, MD, 20852‐1749, USA, 2BIOQUAL Inc., Department of Primate Biology and Medicine, Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD, 3BIOQUAL Inc., Department of Primate Biology and Medicine, Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD, 4BIOQUAL Inc., Department of Primate Biology and Medicine, Piccard Drive, Rockville, MD, 5Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, Washington, DC Research protocols, clinical procedures, and nutritional supplementation may require the use of repeated dosing methods for the delivery of medications. While a variety of routes are available, oral dosing is a non‐invasive option which can minimize stress and encourage animals’ voluntary cooperation with treatments. Peanut butter is a staple of oral treatments and enrichment programs, but frequent and consistent use of one particular item can result in habituation to (and refusal of) treatments as well as possible nutritional imbalances. To meet these challenges we have developed a Nonhuman Primate (NHP) Dosing Plan which has successfully been used with rhesus (Macaca mulatta), cynomologous (Macaca fasicularis), and pigtailed (Macaca nemistrina) macaques. All NHPs receive non‐dosed control cups as weekly enrichment treats regardless of protocol or clinical need. Control cups are distributed in the mornings prior to biscuit feeding and the same forage formula is never used consecutively. Technical staff observed each cup’s reception and noted acceptance or refusal. Because every forage formula is assessed prior to study requirements, we are able to acclimate individuals to the dosing procedure, identify individual/species food preferences, ensure nutritional balance, and determine compatible food‐medication combinations. Efﬁcacy of the plan was demonstrated when a current protocol required rhesus to receive two treatments/day (initial n¼ 80 doses). Preliminary results showed treatment acceptance was 95% successful, and demonstrated the ease of treatment application under an established Dosing Plan.
164. PARENTAL CARE DYNAMICS IN THE MONOGAMOUS OWL MONKEY (AOTUS AZARAE) R. K. Boner1, A. T. Garcia de la Chica1, S. M. van Kuijk1, M. Corley1,2, A. DiFiore3 and E. Fernandez‐Duque1,4 1 Fundacion ECO, Proyecto Mirikina, Casa 100, Ciudad de Formosa, Provencia de Formosa, 3600, USA, 2University of Pennsylvania, 3 University of Texas at Austin, 4Yale University The maternal relief hypothesis for the evolution of biparental care proposes that extensive paternal care reduces the reproductive and energetic burden of the female. We evaluate this hypothesis focusing on a genetically monogamous owl monkey population in Formosa, Argentina, where paternal care is substantial. We describe activity patterns and social proximity of pairmates before and after the birth of an infant using focal scan sampling. During the ﬁrst ﬁeld season of a 3‐year study we collected 42 hours of data from three reproducing pairs two months before and two months after the birth season. Both parents spent more time moving (males: 18 8% vs 21 2%; females: 19 3% vs 22 2%) and less time foraging (males: 38 11% vs 23 9%; females: 38 6% vs 26 12%) after the birth of the infant suggesting a negative energetic balance due to the presence of an infant. Only females spent more time resting after the birth of an infant (males: 33 5% vs. 30 15%; females: 21 2% vs 31 14%) indicating a reduced energetic burden possibly afforded by paternal care. Pairmates spent more time in proximity in the presence of an infant than before the birth of one (males: 25% vs 37%; females: 31% vs 46%). Although the observed patterns suggest a reduction in energetic burden during biparental care that is consistent with the maternal relief hypothesis, larger sample sizes are required to validate these observed trends.
165. COGNITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF MATERNAL MALTREATMENT IN JUVENILE RHESUS MONKEYS, MACACA MULATTA D. I. Sharpe1,2, T. L. Vratanina Smoot3, D. Guzman2,4, K. McCormack2,5, B. R. Howell2,6,7,8, J. Bachevalier2,9 and M. M. Sanchez2,6,7,8 1 University of Georgia, Department of Psychology, Athens, GA, 30602, USA, 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 3Olivet College, 4Emory Graduate Neuroscience Program, 5Spelman College, 6Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Emory Univ, 7 Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory Univ, 8Dept of Psychiatry & Behavior Sciences, Emory Univ, 9Dept of Psychology, Emory Univ We used a translational animal model of maternal maltreatment to explore prefrontal cortex (PFC)‐mediated cognitive consequences in juvenile rhesus macaques. Associations between quality of maternal care and cognitive task performance were measured. At 18 months of age, rhesus monkeys (N ¼ 36) cross‐fostered at birth to either maltreating or competent mothers were assessed in a battery of cognitive tasks including: (1) Object Retrieval Detour (ORD) task to evaluate impulsivity and cognitive ﬂexibility; and (2) Delayed‐Non‐Matching‐ to‐Sample Session Unique (DNMS‐SU) task to evaluate working memory. On the ORD task, animals that experienced high rates of maternal rejection early in life were more likely to ‘balk’ (subject stops responding) following a failed initial attempt on a trial, r ¼ 0.362, P ¼ 0.033, while those raised by more responsive and restraining mothers exhibited increased Day 1 latencies, r ¼ 0.409, P ¼ 0.015; r ¼ 0.339, P ¼ 0.046. On the DNMS‐SU task, animals that experienced more abuse and restraint committed more errors to criterion, r ¼ 0.637, P ¼ 0.003; r ¼ 0.578, P ¼ 0.008. Our results suggest that while juveniles with sensitive and restraining mothers may show hesitance to initially approach novel cognitive tasks, their cognitive performance is not compromised; rhesus offspring of abusive and rejecting mothers, on the other hand, display compromised performance on PFC‐dependent cognitive tasks and show evidence for stress‐ related decreases in motivation.
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166. HAIR CORTISOL IN PIGTAILED MACAQUE (MACACA NEMESTRINA) DAMS AND NEONATES J. M. Worlein1, K. S. Grant1,2,3, J. S. Meyer4, M. A. Novak4, K. Rosenberg4, G. H. Lee1, C. Kenney1 and T. M. Burbacher1,2,3 1 Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA, 2Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 3Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington, 4Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Amherst Cortisol levels obtained from hair are believed to be a retrospective measure of long‐term HPA activity in both human and nonhuman primates. This study examined the relationship of hair cortisol in 13 mother‐infant pairs of pigtailed macaques. Maternal hair was obtained early in gestation (at ultrasound pregnancy conﬁrmation) and again at delivery. Infant hair was obtained at birth. Maternal hair cortisol at delivery was correlated with hair cortisol obtained at ultrasound [r ¼ 0.87; P < 0.001]. Maternal hair cortisol levels were signiﬁcantly higher at delivery than at ultrasound [t ¼ 3.96; P ¼ 0.002]. Infants’ hair cortisol at birth was signiﬁcantly higher than their mothers’ at delivery [t ¼ 10.8; P < 0.001]. Although infant hair cortisol levels were not signiﬁcantly correlated with maternal hair cortisol at either ultrasound or delivery, the relative increase (RI) in maternal cortisol during pregnancy (delivery ‐ ultrasound) and infant’s hair cortisol at birth were highly correlated [r ¼ 0.82; P ¼ 0.001]. In a smaller sample (N ¼ 8) RI was also signiﬁcantly correlated with poorer infant performance on the A‐not‐B cognitive task [r ¼ 0.73; P ¼ 0.04]. These data show a gestational rise in maternal cortisol similar to that seen in humans. These data also indicate that the relative rise in maternal cortisol during pregnancy appears to affect fetal exposure in utero and has implications for the effects of sustained maternal stress on infant development. Funded by NIH grants P51 OD010425 and R24OD01180‐15.
167. INHIBITION AND COGNITIVE CONTROL IN CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS APELLA) AND RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA) T. A. Evans and M. J. Beran Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA Capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys performed a computerized inhibition task in which delaying a joystick response rather than starting the task immediately allowed their eventual response to be more efﬁcient. Monkeys earned food pellets for eliminating different sized arrays of target objects using a digital eraser. When a trial began, the eraser automatically grew in size as long as monkeys did not attempt to move it. Thus, there was a trade‐off between quickly getting started on the task and quickly/easily eliminating targets with a larger eraser. Monkeys of both species succeeded in this task by inhibiting moving the eraser for as long as 10 seconds, and they allowed the eraser to grow larger for successively larger target arrays. In a second experiment, these monkeys performed four variants of the eraser task in which the eraser either grew or shrank in size over time, and in which it was most beneﬁcial to either act immediately or to inhibit a response (depending on the relative size of the target area and the onscreen ‘gateway’ that led to that area). Individuals of both species learned to tailor their responses to the temporal and spatial restraints of each task variant, rather than always obtaining the largest eraser or always delaying their response as long as possible. This demonstrated that these monkeys’ responses were ﬂexible and cognitively controlled.
168. NOVEL OBJECT USE TASK FROM HUMAN DEMONSTRATOR TO RHESUS MACAQUE (MACACA MULATTA) RECIPIENT IMPACTED BY REACTIVITY AS MEASURED BY THE HUMAN INTRUDER TEST A. M. Ryan, C. A. Begnoche and M. A. Novak Department of Psychology, Tobin Hall, 135 Hicks Way, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, 01003, USA Object manipulation in macaques can be socially facilitated by the actions of other macaques; however, it is unclear whether humans can facilitate macaque object use. We developed a three‐object manipulation task to test whether macaques would engage in object manipulation following use by a human. In this task, a human either manipulated one of three objects on a board (manipulation trials) or performed no manipulations (control trials) and then presented another board with the same three objects to macaque subjects (N ¼ 11). We examined looking time during human manipulation and subsequent object board use (OBU). The macaques looked signiﬁcantly longer at the human during manipulation trials (N ¼ 3) as compared with control trials (N ¼ 3) [t(10) ¼ 2.65, P ¼ 0.024]. However, spontaneous OBU varied substantially. Although 7/11 macaques manipulated objects at least once during their six trials, only 19 trials (28%) elicited OBU. We then categorized macaques based on OBU into two groups: yes (7) and no (4) in order to analyze factors that could account for OBU. Although looking time failed to explain group membership, a reactivity assessment called the Human Intruder Test (HIT) successfully predicted group membership. Macaques with no OBU displayed signiﬁcantly higher reactivity behaviors during all phases of HIT combined [F (1, 5) ¼ 14.33, P ¼ 0.013]. Thus, spontaneous OBU seemed to be predicated on reactivity to the experimental situation rather than on social facilitation.
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169. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAIN VOLUME AND CORPUS CALLOSUM SURFACE AREA IN 7 PRIMATE SPECIES E. M. Latash1 and W. D. Hopkins1,2 1 Petit Science Center, Georgia State Univeristy, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA, 2Yerkes Primate Center Neuroanatomical comparison across primate species provides a basis for understanding the evolution of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to test the hypothesis that the ratio of corpus callosum surface area (CCSA) to brain volume (BV) differs across the seven species. A ratio CCSA to BV in genus Papio (baboons), Macaca radiata (bonnet monkeys), Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkeys), Pan paniscus (bonobos), genus Gorilla (gorillas), genus Pongo (orangutans), and Homo sapiens (humans) was compared. Ratios between species varied signiﬁcantly [ANOVA: P ¼ 0.01 Bonnet monkey and rhesus monkey ratios of corpus callosum surface area to brain volume varied signiﬁcantly from the ratios of all of the great apes [Tukey‐Kramer HSD, P ¼ T, disrupts functioning of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis. We investigated the effect of CRH‐248 genotype and rearing experiences on HPA axis activity in a study modeling features of PTSD. Methods: Infants heterozygous for the CRH‐248 SNP (C/T) or homozygous for the common variant (C/C), were mother‐reared (MR) or nursery‐reared (NR) for the ﬁrst six months of life. Blood samples were taken at one, two, three, and four months of age, and again at six months of age following 4, four‐day social separations. Samples were assayed for ACTH and cortisol. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs showed signiﬁcant ACTH, cortisol, and ratio of cortisol to ACTH gene X environment interactions [P ¼ 0.027, P ¼ 0.041, P ¼ 0.030]. C/T, NR subjects exhibited higher ACTH, lower cortisol, and lower ratios of cortisol to ACTH than C/C and C/T MR subjects. C/C, NR subjects exhibited lower ACTH, and a higher ratio of cortisol to ACTH than C/C and C/T MR subjects. Analyses of the separation data showed a signiﬁcant 3‐way, gene x environment x time interaction [P ¼ 0.045], with only C/C MR and NR subjects showing habituation. Discussion: Possession of the CRH C/T genotype results in dysregulated HPA axis functioning, and our ﬁndings in NR subjects show that C/T subjects show an HPA axis pattern reported in individuals with PTSD.
171. CHIMPANZEES’ MORE EFFICIENT HAND DURING A TOOL‐USE TASK PREDICTS NEUROANATOMICAL ASYMMETRIES IN BROCA’S AND MOTOR HAND AREAS S. M. Pope1, M. C. Mareno2, L. A. Reamer2, S. J. Schapiro2 and W. D. Hopkins1,3 1 Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, 880 Petit Science Center, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA, 2M.D. Anderson Cancer Research Center, 3Yerkes National Primate Research Center Here, we examined whether hand preferences or performance asymmetries in tool use are associated with neuroanatomical asymmetries in the motor hand area of the precentral gyrus (MHA) and Broca’s area homolog (IFG) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Brain and behavioral data were examined in 176 chimpanzees including 69 males and 107 females (Mean age ¼ 26.31 years, SD 10.55). Hand preference and skill were measured on a tool‐use task designed to simulate termite ﬁshing. Data were collected on 50 responses per subject. Hand preference was calculated from the frequency of hand use and hand efﬁciency from the latency for tool insertions. Behavioral data was compared to left‐right differences for asymmetry quotients (AQ) in the volume of the MHA and IFG, respectively. Volume measurements were attained from region of interest (ROI) analysis of MRI volumes. There were no signiﬁcant associations between IFG and MHA asymmetries and the hand preference measure. However, hand efﬁciency was signiﬁcantly associated with both IFG and MHA AQ scores [F (1, 171) ¼ 8.34; P ¼ 0.004]. Chimpanzees that performed better with their right hand showed greater leftward lateralization (AQ ¼ 0.104) than individuals that performed better with their left hand (AQ ¼ 0.078). These results are consistent with the view that Broca’s area plays a role in praxic functions and may have served as a preadaptation for the emergence of other motor functions, such as speech.
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172. ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PRIMATOLOGICAL JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS J. P. Jefferson1, T. Boussina2 and L. A. Isbell1,2 1 Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis Primatology is an international ﬁeld heavily represented by women, but does this participation vary regionally? To examine gender contributions on a regional level, we collected data on gender of ﬁrst, collaborating, and senior authors, and afﬁliated institution/country of the ﬁrst author from original, review, and short communication publications in the International Journal of Primatology (hereafter IJP; 2009–2014; N ¼ 375) and Primates (2005–2013; N ¼ 346). Journals were chosen based on their international nature and extend previous investigations done on AJP and AJPA. Chi‐square goodness‐of‐ﬁt tests were performed to evaluate involvement by gender. ANOVAs were used to analyze total proportions of male and female collaborators per article with multiple authors. We did not ﬁnd a gender difference in numbers of publications of ﬁrst authors in IJP, but we found signiﬁcantly more articles written by men in Primates. Analyses of both journals by region demonstrated higher publication records by males afﬁliated with Asian institutions, but male preponderance was not found elsewhere. The journals differed in the gender composition of collaborating authors. Whereas in IJP both genders collaborated signiﬁcantly more with men, in Primates, only male ﬁrst‐authors have signiﬁcantly more male collaborators. Also, female ﬁrst‐authors collaborated signiﬁcantly more with women than did male ﬁrst‐authors. Finally, in publications with multiple authors, all ﬁrst‐authors published signiﬁcantly more often with a male than female senior‐author in both journals. We discuss possible explanations for regional differences.
173. VOLUNTARY COMPUTERIZED TESTING FOR STUDYING SOCIAL COGNITION IN A SPECIES‐TYPICAL SOCIAL GROUP OF RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) R. A. Roberts1,2 and K. Wallen1,2 1 Emory University, Department of Psychology, Suite 270, PAIS Building, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA, 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center Typical approaches to studying social cognition of nonhumans involve removing individuals from home areas for testing and creating artiﬁcial testing pairs. However, removal for testing can be stressful for the animals and results obtained from artiﬁcial pairs may not reﬂect what would occur in a socially‐naturalistic context. The present study uses a voluntary, touch‐screen computer kiosk system (cooperation station) to assess cooperation and prosociality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living in a socially‐naturalistic group at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Sixty monkeys in an age‐graded species‐typical social group have continuous access to a cooperation station in their home enclosure. The station consists of two, interconnected touch‐screen computers, pellet reward dispensers, and radiofrequency identiﬁcation (RfID) readers. RfID chips in each wrist of each monkey are read by the reader on the cooperation station allowing monkeys to voluntarily “log‐in” to the computers to participate. Rewards at one computer depend upon participation by another monkey at the adjacent computer. Tasks increase in difﬁculty, ultimately requiring monkeys to participate only when another monkey is present at the station, successfully cooperate to receive rewards, report knowledge of cooperative situations, and complete prosocial choice tests. The cooperation station offers a novel approach to studying complex social cognition in a socially‐naturalistic environment, providing for the collection of large data sets while simultaneously reducing experiment‐related stress and providing enrichment to the animals.
174. WILD RHESUS MACAQUE FEMALES ALLOCATE GROOMING DIFFERENTLY THAN THEIR CAPTIVE COUNTERPARTS A. L. Heagerty1,2, S. K. Seil1,2 and B. McCowan1,2 1 University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA, 2California National Primate Research Center Most comparisons of captive and wild primate behavior focus on time budgets. In this study, we speciﬁcally examined female grooming patterns. Due to differences in matriline size, male transfer, and interbirth interval between captive and wild groups, we predicted that wild adult females groom one another less often and groom juveniles more often than captive adult females. Grooming between animals classiﬁed by age and sex were recorded in 30‐minute scans of four known groups at two sites in northern India. Data were collected from October to December, and comprised 647 records from 59 hours of observation. Methods were repeated for four captive groups at the CNPRC, capturing 1,011 records over 42 hours. A chi‐square goodness of ﬁt test showed patterns in captive groups did not match those of wild groups [x2(4) ¼ 261, P < 0.001]. Results contradicted our ﬁrst prediction that wild females groom one another less than captive females, but supported our second prediction that wild females groom juveniles more than captive females do. In wild groups, on average 49.3% (SD 8.6) of adult females’ grooming records were directed at juveniles, whereas 29.6% (SD 6.1) of captive adult females’ grooming records had a juvenile recipient. Additionally, wild adult females directed less of their grooming to subadult males (M ¼ 7.7%, SD 4.0) than captive females (M ¼ 20.3%, SD 6.1). We propose explanations for these patterns and discuss implications for group cohesion and juvenile development.
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175. BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO CAGEMATE STRESS ARE INDEPENDENT OF SOCIAL RANK AND PREDICT CORTISOL OUTPUT IN GROUP‐HOUSED FEMALE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) J. N. Kohn1,2, Z. P. Johnson1, D. Toufexis3 and M. E. Wilson1 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Division of Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA, 2Emory University, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, 3Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT Studies of socially housed rhesus macaques indicate that social partners ameliorate the neuroendocrine response to acute stressors, though relatively little is known about the speciﬁc behaviors that buffer the stress response and whether buffering differs by social rank. To address this question, we exposed adult female rhesus macaques (N ¼ 20) of the highest and lowest rank within their respective social groups to human intruder stress (20 min) and recorded group‐wide behaviors immediately following reintroduction. In order to assess cortisol dynamics, serum cortisol was measured at baseline, 30 min, and 4 hr following stressor onset. Compared to non‐testing days, cagemate removal, stress, and reintroduction signiﬁcantly increased afﬁliative behavior within the group [F(3, 30) ¼ 6.45, P ¼ 0.017], independent of the stressed cagemate’s social rank. Neither total cortisol output [t(18) ¼ 1.22, P ¼ 0.239] nor cortisol recovery [F(1, 20) ¼ 1.98, P ¼ 0.176] differed by rank; however, the frequency of anxiety‐like behaviors emitted by stressed subjects predicted their own cortisol output [b ¼ 0.53, P ¼ 0.015]. Rank was not a signiﬁcant predictor [b ¼ 0.26, P ¼ 0.20]; overall model ﬁt was R2 ¼ 0.353. These results suggest that group housed adult female rhesus macaques increase prosocial behavior following cagemate stress, but that individual temperament, rather than group behavior, modulates the neuroendocrine response to acute psychosocial stressors. Support: NIH Grants MH081816 and P51OD011132.
176. AFFILIATIVE RELATIONSHIPS, ALLIANCE SUPPORT, AND PERSONALITY INFLUENCE CUMULATIVE RECEIPT OF SUBORDINATION SIGNALS IN CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUE SOCIETIES K. R. Davidek1,2, B. A. Beisner1,2 and B. McCowan1,2 1 California National Primate Research Center, Davis, California, 95616, USA, 2University of California ‐ Davis In rhesus macaques, silent‐bared‐teeth displays given in peaceful contexts (pSBTs) are subordination signals which communicate the long‐term state of dominance relationships. The frequency and diversity of signals serve as a measure of how group members regard an individual, i.e. their social power. Although higher‐ranking individuals tend to receive more pSBTs than lower‐ranking conspeciﬁcs, some individuals receive more than expected given calculated ranks. We hypothesized individual attributes e.g., temperament, sex, age, as well as social behaviors e.g., grooming, alliance relationships, may explain why some mid‐ranked individuals receive more signals than expected whereas some high‐ranked individuals receive fewer than expected. We tested these hypotheses using 1700þ hours of behavioral data on seven groups of captive rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. We ﬁt multi‐level GLMs to counts of pSBTs received to understand the social mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Animals received more SBTs when they were from smaller matrilines, frequently groomed non‐kin [P < 0.001], received more grooming [P < 0.001] and provided alliance support to subordinates [P ¼ 0.09]. Evaluation of personality factors demonstrated that as matriline size increases, very conﬁdent individuals are less likely to receive pSBTs [P ¼ 0.005, b ¼ 0.030]. Social network analyses will investigate the impact of an animal’s betweenness in the network to understand the inﬂuence of directionality and reciprocation on signaling. Continued analysis will provide important insights into the detailed behavioral mechanisms governing macaque societies.
177. SOCIAL BEHAVIORS OF A CAPTIVE HAMADRYAS BABOON (PAPIO HAMADRYAS HAMADRYAS) COLONY AND ITS COMPARISON TO WILD POPULATIONS D. J. Coppeto1, P. R. Morales2 and J. L. Wagner2 1 Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA, 2Mannheimer Foundation, Inc., Homestead, FL 33034 In the wild, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) are found to display a variety of social structures and behaviors, including a multilevel society that ﬁssions into monandrous polygynous “one‐male units.” The presence or absence of these social behaviors in captivity could enlighten our understanding of the forces that drive this sociality. Captive colonies also allow observers to more easily witness infrequent or rare behaviors. The current study used a long‐established hamadryas baboon colony at the Mannheimer Foundation to determine the presence of species‐typical social behaviors in captivity and to observe rare social behaviors. Observations were conducted on 113 adult hamadryas baboons divided into three mixed‐sex and age corrals. Each corral typically contained 3 adult males, 36 adult females, and dependent offspring. Observations were collected as 20‐minute continuous focal samples and scan samples taken at 10‐minute intervals. Results show that hamadryas baboons reproduce species‐typical social behaviors in captivity, including the one‐male unit social structure, although these units are much larger than wild units. This study also observed both voluntary female transfer between units and infanticides, events that are infrequently observed in wild populations. Lastly, results also suggest the presence of dominance hierarchies among males, among unit females, and between units. These results indicate not only that hamadryas baboons display species‐typical social behaviors in captivity, but also the ﬂexibility of these behaviors under varying conditions.
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178. BECOMING A FATHER CHANGES EVERYTHING: THE BEHAVIORAL NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF PARENTING IN MALE MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS T. E. Ziegler Wisconsin National Primate Res. Ctr., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53715, USA As with mothers, becoming a father comes with many physical, endocrine and neural changes. There are short‐term and life‐time changes exhibited by neural plasticity, increased responsiveness to infant stimuli, and endocrine changes reﬂective of and initiating paternal behavior. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the cotton‐top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) provide excellent models for understanding the onset of fatherhood and the motivation to parent. Studies with these two species have allowed us to examine the neuroendocrine changes occurring with fatherhood. Males gain experience from being a father and are more responsive to infant stimuli. Becoming a father and exhibiting hormonal and behavioral responses towards infants is not automatic but appears to require sensory interactions between the male, his pregnant mate and their infants. As with all social interactions, variability exists between fathers in their motivation to parent and this variability provides us with a source for determining the factors involved in becoming a good father.
179. METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN SOCIAL LEARNING D. M. Fragaszy and Y. Eshchar University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA Social learning is essential to many aspects of behavior in social animals, from foraging techniques through communication to tool use. In recent decades there has been an explosion of studies on social learning, which brought with it new methodological and statistical tools. Today, there are new, robust quantitative methods that can help us understand the details and mechanisms of social transmission. This symposium will focus on some of those methods with the aim of making them accessible to a wider audience and thus facilitate development in this ﬁeld. Major advances include the development of social network analysis methods, and the application of analytic tools ﬁrst used in behavioral economics. William Hoppitt will discuss how diffusion analysis studies are being informed by network analysis. Janet Mann will talk about combining dynamic network approaches and developmental approaches to study social learning in in wild bottlenose dolphins. Elizabeth Lonsdorf will talk about the need to account for group‐level social dynamics in social learning studies in chimpanzees and capuchins. Yonat Eshchar will discuss developmental approaches, combined with measuring the temporal aspect of social inﬂuence, in tufted capuchins learning to crack nuts. Brendan Barrett will describe a new modelling method (experience weighted attraction models) to describe how white‐faced capuchins acquire foraging behaviors.
180. USING SOCIAL NETWORKS TO STUDY THE SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF BEHAVIOUR W. Hoppitt Department of Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, Cambs, CB11PT, England Within the ﬁeld of social learning, attention is shifting away from the question of whether nonhuman primates and other animals are capable of imitation and other types of social learning, to the question of how important social transmission is in natural populations. Network based diffusion analysis (NBDA) is a novel statistical method that has been developed to answer this question. NBDA infers social transmission if the order and time at which individuals acquire novel behaviour follows a social network. In this talk, I will explain the logic behind NBDA, and illustrate the use of the method in two cases. The ﬁrst is a recent high proﬁle case showing strong evidence for the social transmission of a novel feeding behaviour (lobtail feeding) among members of a wild population of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The second is the application of NBDA to the spread of two novel behaviour patterns through the Sonso chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) community. In the latter case, one behaviour pattern (moss‐sponging) is shown to be socially transmitted, whereas the other (leaf‐sponge re‐use) is shown to be primarily asocially learned.
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181. SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF FORAGING TACTICS IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS: NETWORK AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES J. Mann, E. M. Patterson, C. Newport and L. O. Singh Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 20057, USA Demonstrating social learning in wild cetaceans is challenging given the inherent difﬁculties of observational and experimental research. Using focal (62 mothers, 104 offspring) and survey data on 1000þ wild bottlenose dolphins (studied from 1984–2014 in Shark Bay, Australia), we investigated maternal and non‐maternal inﬂuences on the occurrence and development of two foraging behaviors: sponge tool use and snacking. Sponge tool use occurs in 4% of the population in the eastern gulf and in deep channel habitat. In contrast, snacking has been observed in 16% of the population and occurs in all habitats. Using surveys, we examined ‘snacker’ and ‘sponger’ networks over time. Given that the dolphin network has high density and short path lengths, information ﬂow is expected to be robust. Despite this physical topology, where snackers and spongers commonly associated, only a few dolphins used both foraging tactics. Association alone does not explain foraging patterns. Focal data showed that of a mother sponger’s foraging budget, the time she spent sponging predicted whether or not her offspring became a sponger [MCMC GLMM: P < 0.01]. Sponging is vertically transmitted and female biased. Snacking however, appears to be mostly laterally transmitted and without sex bias. To help explain these patterns at the meso‐ (network) and micro‐ (individual) level, interactions between social, genetic, ecological, life history, and behavioral factors will be discussed.
182. INTEGRATING SOCIAL DYNAMICS INTO SOCIAL LEARNING EXPERIMENTS E. V. Lonsdorf1, K. E. Bonnie2, A. Krupnick1 and M. Grim1 1 Department of Psychology and Biological Foundations of Behavior, Franklin and Marshall College, PO Box 3003, Lancaster, PA, 17604, USA, 2Department of Psychology, Beloit College Primates have been particularly well represented in social learning studies, both in the ﬁeld and the lab, and across a variety of different tasks. Many primate societies have complex social dynamics that may either promote or inhibit social learning. In group diffusion studies, social constraints may cause certain individuals to forego participation, leading to an incomplete understanding of transmission dynamics and social learning abilities. We review here a set of social learning studies in chimpanzees, gorillas and tufted capuchins that demonstrate the differential spread of novel behaviors, and how these were likely affected by group‐level social dynamics. Despite their overt dominance hierarchies, chimpanzees appear to be more tolerant of the close proximity of group members during social learning tasks and faithful transmission across most members of the group has been achieved in multiple studies. In contrast, a lack of social tolerance prevents the spread, or perhaps, the expression of the ability to learn a novel behavior in captive gorillas. Capuchin studies have had mixed success with group diffusion studies, and we report here on new data in which a shift from group to individual testing was necessary due to complicating social dynamics among group members. We suggest that a mixed approach of both group and individual testing may be necessary to determine the extent to which animals learn from one another.
183. USING EXPERIENCE WEIGHTED ATTRACTION MODELS TO IDENTIFY SOCIAL LEARNING STRATEGIES IN WHITE‐FACED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS B. J. Barrett1,4 and S. E. Perry2,3 1 Department of Anthropology, 330 Young Hall, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616‐8522, USA, 2 University of California, Los Angeles, 3Behavior, Evolution and Culture Program, UCLA, 4Animal Behavior Graduate Group, UC Davis Social learning is an important part of how primates and other animals acquire complex extractive foraging techniques from conspeciﬁcs. However, analyzing variation in learning strategies among individuals and between groups can be challenging, especially with observational data collected in less than ideal ﬁeld conditions. Experience‐weighted attraction (EWA) models are an important tool in identifying the social learning strategies employed by wild primates. EWA models offer several advantages over other approaches to analyzing social learning strategies as they: (1) can estimate learning strategies from cross sections of behavioral data where researchers lack experimental control; (2) directly use mathematical models of social learning strategies as statistical models; (3) compare multiple, non‐mutually exclusive hypotheses. I will highlight the utility of EWA models using data collected on extractive foraging techniques in white‐faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) at Reserva Biologica Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. While learning to forage for Sterculia apetala fruits, one group of capuchins (N ¼ 23) use a success‐biased learning strategy to acquire the most efﬁcient processing technique. However in a long‐term dataset (2001–2012) instances where efﬁciency is unrelated to the technique being learned such as in Sloanea terniﬂora processing, individuals will bias attention toward and acquire the behavior of close conspeciﬁcs including cohort‐mates and matrilineal kin. I will also discuss the inﬂuence of sex and age on variation in social learning strategies in capuchin monkeys.
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184. TAKING TIME INTO ACCOUNT: HOW LONG DOES SOCIAL INFLUENCE LAST? Y. Eshchar and D. M. Fragaszy Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602, USA Social learning studies describe a long list of processes that can inﬂuence learning, from stimulus enhancement to imitation, but the dimension of time is rarely considered. We suggest that temporal analysis will reveal the dynamics of social learning in powerful new ways. For example, at present, the temporal pattern of effects of an individual’s activity on nearby group members is unknown. We illustrate one approach to temporal analysis using data from a wild population of bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) that use stones to crack palm nuts on anvils. We continuously recorded activities of focal juveniles (N ¼ 11; 4 to 64 months) which cannot yet crack nuts efﬁciently, and concurrently the activities of other nearby group members. The activity was recorded in 20‐min samples over an 8 week period. These data enable us to look at the inﬂuence of others’ nut‐cracking activity on the juvenile’s behavior over time. We used a general linear mixed model (binary distribution) to look at the probability of a juvenile interacting with a nut while speciﬁc individuals in the group cracked nuts, and in the minutes following, compared to baseline rates. A provocative ﬁnding is that juveniles increased their interaction with nuts while their mother or the alpha male cracked nuts nearby, and again two—but not one or three—minutes after she (or he) stops.
185. RECENT ADVANCES IN PRIMATE NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY: THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENT BALANCING N. Righini1,2 1 University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign, Department of Anthropology, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, 2Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Ver., Mexico Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food in order to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Traditionally, studies of primate diets have focused on how patch choice and time spent foraging and feeding are inﬂuenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. From a nutritional perspective, several theories and nutritional models, including energy and protein‐to‐ﬁber maximization, nutrient mixing, and toxin avoidance, have been proposed to explain the food choices of adult and juvenile primates. However, more recently, analytical frameworks such as nutritional geometry have been incorporated into primatology to explore, using a multivariate approach, the synergistic effects of multiple nutrients, secondary metabolites, and energy requirements on primate food choice. Moreover, dietary strategies associated with nutrient balancing are increasingly recognized as offering a strong explanation of the tradeoffs primates face in bypassing or selecting particular feeding sites and food items. Here, we bring together a set of studies focusing on the nutritional ecology of primate taxa characterized by marked differences in dietary emphasis. The goal of this symposium is to present, compare, and discuss the diversity of strategies used by primates in diet selection, and how species differences in ecology, physiology, anatomy, and phylogeny affect patterns of nutrient prioritization and nutrient balancing.
186. MACRONUTRIENT TRADE‐OFFS IN BAOBAB (ADANSONIA DIGITATA) FRUIT FOR WESTERN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES VERUS) AT FONGOLI, SENEGAL S. M. Lindshield1, J. M. Rothman2,3 and J. D. Pruetz1 1 324 Curtiss Hall, Department of Anthropology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA, 2Hunter College of the City University of New York, 3New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology Although nutrient balancing is thought to be important to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), it is unclear how this process shapes their food selection behavior. Our study addresses this problem through assessing the macronutrient composition of foods for western chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Senegal. We focused on baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit in relation to the foraging behavior of focal study subjects (N ¼ 11) during two baobab fruit seasons. Baobab fruit was the top food during the study, as chimpanzees consumed it during 67% of feeding observations. Fruit pulp (N ¼ 105 fruits) was high in nonstructural carbohydrates (Mean ¼ 76.4%), but low in protein (Mean ¼ 3.3%) and fat (Mean ¼ 0.9%). The low protein in pulp indicates that individuals must supplement their diets with alternative protein sources. Concomitantly, chimpanzees routinely re‐ingested baobab seeds by extracting them from feces, removing the softened coat and ingesting the kernel. In contrast to baobab pulp, kernels were on average 36.4% available protein and 29.7% fat (N ¼ 4), containing the highest protein and fat concentrations of 37 different foods sampled. It is likely that pairing baobab fruit pulp with seed enables individuals to efﬁciently meet most protein and energy requirements, and explains the prevalence of seed re‐ingestion, an unusual behavior, in Fongoli chimpanzees.
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187. HOWLER MONKEY NUTRITIONAL GEOMETRY: WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM AN INTERSPECIFIC APPROACH N. Righini1, V. A. Fernandez2, P. A. Garber1 and J. M. Rothman3,4 1 University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign, Department of Anthropology, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, 2Estación Biológica Corrientes, Museo Argentino de Cs. Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (CONICET), Argentina, 3Hunter College of the City University of New York, Department of Anthropology, 4New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP) Recent research on the nutritional ecology of human and non‐human primates (Gorilla, Ateles and Papio) indicates that different species can solve problems of nutrient balancing in alternative ways. Howler monkeys are considered the most folivorous of New World primates, however marked intra and interspeciﬁc differences in the amount of fruits, leaves, and ﬂowers consumed suggest that patterns of nutrient and energy intake vary in response to site‐speciﬁc differences in the phytochemical content of plant foods. We examined the nutritional ecology of Alouatta pigra in Mexico and A. caraya in Argentina to elucidate the factors affecting food choice and nutritional strategies. We conducted full‐day focal follows of 22 adult individuals (2,675 focal hours) and analyzed the nutritional composition of foods consumed. Black howlers maintained a relatively constant ratio of daily protein and non‐protein energy intake (0.04–0.44, CV ¼ 36%) despite seasonal changes in the speciﬁc food items consumed and the proportion of food types exploited. An analogous pattern was found in black‐and‐gold howlers during the winter (ratio ¼ 0.27–0.29, CV ¼ 3.5%), whereas during the spring, when the diet varied most in protein content (5–30% of total energy vs 19‐23% in the winter), a protein prioritization pattern was evident. Using an interspeciﬁc comparison, we were able to identify how nutrient prioritization patterns varied in response to seasonal changes in the nutritional composition of local plant foods.
188. DIETARY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NEIGHBORING GROUPS IN VERREAUX’S SIFAKAS F. Koch and C. Fichtel German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, Göttingen, 37077, Germany Studies of nonhuman primate diet and food selection have long described the ecology of a species as a whole, treating conspeciﬁc individuals as ecologically equivalent. However, it has been shown in a variety of species, from invertebrates to vertebrates, that individuals often specialize in different resources. In primates, intraspeciﬁc variation in diet composition has been observed in gorillas, chimpanzees, vervet monkeys, capuchins and other species. This can be explained either in terms of ecology (food abundance and proﬁtability), inter and intragroup competition or social learning. In order to investigate the factors driving within species variation in diet composition, we compared the diet of eight neighboring groups of Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) in western Madagascar over a period of one year. We selected the 10 tree species of highest importance for their diet and analyzed their relative contribution to the diet of each group. Additionally we measured the abundance of those species in each home range. Our results show that although the abundance of the 10 species was comparable in all home ranges, their relative importance to the diet of each group varied. Geometrical framework analyses will be conducted to elucidate the role of nutrients in the variation of diet composition between groups.
189. WITHIN‐ SPECIES VARIABILITY IN THE MICROHABITATS OF MOUNTAIN GORILLAS (GORILLA BERINGEI): IMPLICATIONS FOR NUTRIENT BALANCING J. M. Rothman1,2,3, E. Cancelliere2,3 and D. Raubenheimer4 1 Department of Anthropology, Hunter College of CUNY, New York, NY, 10065, USA, 2New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, 3Department of Anthropology, Graduate Center, CUNY, 4Charles Perkins Centre, School of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Sydney Primate foods are variable in nutritional composition within species, but we know little about the abiotic and anthropogenic drivers of this variability. In the same month, we collected multiple samples (N ¼ 285) of four species of herb and tree leaves frequently eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda in relation to microhabitat characteristics including altitude, slope angle, topographic position, and areas of the park zoned for human use. We analyzed these foods for sugar, protein, and ﬁber using standard nutritional methods, and used generalized linear models to assess the effects of microhabitat characteristics on nutritional composition. Nutrients in the four species varied widely, and patterns within a species were apparent. Neutral detergent ﬁber declined with increasing altitude in Myrianthus and Triumfetta leaves, and sugars in Triumfetta, Urera and Myrianthus were higher within increasing altitude [GLM: P < 0.01]. Protein varied widely within species but with no relationship to microhabitat characteristics [GLM: P > 0.10 for all models]. Nutrients in gorilla foods in areas used by humans did not differ from those outside of human‐ use zones [GLM: P > 0.10 for all models]. Our results indicate that habitat heterogeneity is not only affected by the abundance and distribution of plant species. Particular plant species do not always provide the same nutritional beneﬁts, which affects nutrient intake and balancing by gorillas.
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190. BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PIGRA) AT PALENQUE NATIONAL PARK, MEXICO TARGET LIPID METABOLITES WHEN FORAGING K. R. Amato1, K. Ju2, A. V. Ulanov2 and P. A. Garber2 1 Department of Anthropology, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 596 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA, 2University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign In addition to macronutrients, primates need to consume micronutrients such as essential amino acids and vitamins to fuel maintenance, growth and reproduction. Here, we analyze the metabolite proﬁle of food items consumed by wild, Mexican black howler monkeys (Aloutta pigra) during a 10 month ﬁeld study. Because howler monkeys are reported to regulate protein intake, we hypothesized that the essential amino acid content of the diet would be relatively consistent from week to week while the amount of sugar or lipid metabolites would be more variable. Our results indicate that: (1) lipid metabolite intake varied less from week to week than amino acid or sugar metabolite intake; (2) essential amino acid metabolite intake varied less than overall amino acid metabolite intake from week to week during periods of low leaf consumption. These data suggest that howler monkeys target lipids and essential amino acids when foraging. This targeting appears to be most effective during periods when fruit feeding is reduced and least effective during periods of reduced food consumption (grams). This pattern differs from the previously observed protein‐regulation strategy, suggesting either that the use of published literature values to estimate macronutrient intake may not accurately represent the nutrient content of individual food items ingested, or that metabolite and macronutrient intake patterns differ for the same diet. We explore each alternative.
191. NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES DURING SPRING AND WINTER IN AN ASIAN COLOBINE, RHINOPITHECUS ROXELLANA P. A. Garber1, R. Hou2, N. Righini1, W. Ji3, B. Li4 and S. Guo5 1 Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Illinois Urbana‐Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, 2Northwest University, School of Life Sciences, Xi’an, China, 3Human and wildlife interactions research Group Institute of Natural Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand, 4Shaanxi institute of Zoology, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an, China, 5Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China of Ministry of Education, and College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Studies examining primate nutritional ecology are central to understanding the ability of individuals to successfully exploit habitats characterized by low quality or difﬁcult to digest resources. Here we present data on patterns of nutrient intake in the golden snub‐nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), an endangered species of Asian colobine inhabiting high altitude deciduous broadleaf and conifer forests in central China. We used provisioning as a research tool to determine how the nutritional content of provisioned foods inﬂuenced same day dietary choices and nutrient intake of natural foods. Data were collected during 27 days in the spring (48% of diet from natural foods) and 14 days during the winter (33% of diet from natural foods). Overall, in the spring 15.1% of total energy was consumed as protein, 75.9% as carbohydrates, and 9.1% as lipids. During the winter these values were 10.8% protein, 83.6% carbohydrates, and 5.6% lipids. Across both seasons, the ratio of daily protein to nonprotein energy intake varied less (CV ¼ 17‐23%) than the intake of other macronutrients. During the winter the monkeys consumed signiﬁcantly more energy per unit metabolic body mass than during the spring (132 kJ mbm‐1 hr‐1 vs 41 kJ mbm‐1 hr‐1). We argue that in order to survive cold winter temperatures and the high costs of thermoregulation, golden snub‐nosed monkeys exploit an energy‐rich diet during the winter.
192. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF THE SEASONAL DIET OF FREE‐RANGING BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (ALOUATTA PIGRA) IN A FRAGMENTED HABITAT OF MEXICO J. F. Aristizabal1, J. M. Rothman2, L. M. García‐Feria1 and J. C. Serio‐Silva1 1 Instituto de Ecologia AC, Red de Biología y Conservación de Vertebrados, Carretera Antigua a Coatepec No 351, El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, Mexico, 2Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, CUNY. NY, USA Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for primates because it is associated with low food availability, low tree species diversity, and lack of large feeding trees. Howler monkeys are known to persist in highly disturbed forest fragments and it is interesting to consider how they meet their nutritional needs in these modiﬁed landscapes. We collected feeding observations (N ¼ 658 hours; N ¼ 46 full‐day follows) of individuals in two Alouatta pigra groups in the small (2.7–4 ha) highly fragmented forests of Balancan, Mexico. We estimated the nutrient intake by estimating the mass of food ingested, the time spent feeding on these foods, and the nutrient and energetic content of foods that comprised 3% of the diet (58 samples from 16 plant species). The primary foods based on dry matter intake were: mature leaves (29%) and ripe fruits (32%). Macronutrients varied in the same food in the three different seasons, demonstrating the intraspeciﬁc variability in nutritional contents of food items. The mean daily energy intake for A. pigra in Balancan (361 kJ/MBM/day) was just slightly higher than the requirements calculated for the genus (355 kJ/MBM/day) and the mean of protein intake (3.97 g/MBM/day) was less that the estimated requirements (4.9 g/MBM/day). Our results suggest that nutritional constraints could be a long‐term problem for howlers living in fragments and long‐term studies are needed to assess their ability to cope with these challenges.
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193. NUTRITIONAL BALANCING IN WILD BORNEAN ORANGUTANS: THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONALITY E. R. Vogel1,2,3, T. D. Bransford1, M. A. van Noordwijk4, D. Raubenheimer5 and J. M. Rothman6 1 Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, 131 George Street RAB 307, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA, 2Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Rutgers University, 3Department of Ecology and Evolution, Rutgers University, 4Anthropologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich, 5Charles Perkins Centre and School of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Sydney, 6Department of Anthropology, Hunter College The rainforests of Borneo are considered impoverished habitats for vertebrate frugivores, such as orangutans. The peatland forests of Borneo have high densities of orangutans and are characterized by overall low and unpredictable fruit production. Previous work at the Tuanan Orangutan Research Station (TORP) area in Central Kalimantan, a peatland forest, has demonstrated that while the orangutans prefer fruit, they fallback on low energy foods during episodes of fruit scarcity. However, we have little understanding of how they balance and prioritize nutrients and how this is affected by fruit availability. We examine variation in nutrient intake across age‐sex classes over a seven year period. We hypothesized that orangutans would more tightly maintain their target intake of protein (P) than non‐protein energy (nPe) when ecologically constrained to eat a diet that is imbalanced with respect to macronutrients (“protein prioritization”). We conducted 2,233 full‐day nest‐to‐nest focal follows on 49 habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) totaling over 39,000 hours of observations. Diet varied in macronutrient balance across different fruiting periods, showing a negative relationship between fruit availability and the P:nPe ratio [P < 0.05]. As predicted from previous studies on frugivores, protein intake was maintained more tightly than non‐protein intake, a pattern that is consistent with protein prioritization. Daily caloric intake was lower during episodes of fruit scarcity across all age‐sex classes [P < 0.0001], indicating that the availability of fruit constrains energy intake.
194. FACILITATING COLLABORATION BETWEEN VETERINARIANS AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TO ENHANCE ANIMAL CARE AND WELFARE M. A. Fahey1, K. Baker, Ph.D.2, M. Bloomsmith, Ph.D.3, R. Bohm,Jr.,DVM, DACLAM2, J. Cohen, VMD, DACLAM3, B. Fontenot, DVM, Ph.D., DACLAM4, E. Hutchinson, DVM., DACLAM5 and B. McCowan, Ph.D.6 1 New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA, 01772, USA, 2Tulane National Primate Research Center, 3Yerkes National PrimateResearch Center, 4University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 5Johns Hopkins Medicine, 6 California National Primate Research Center This session will explore the interface between veterinarians and behavioral scientists in nonhuman primate care and management in the laboratory setting. With today’s complex enrichment programs, varied options for social housing, primate training programs, and focus on prevention/amelioration of abnormal behavior, behavioral specialists are key members of the team providing comprehensive veterinary care and animal management. Facilitating collaboration between veterinarians and behavioral scientists can enhance animal care and welfare. Data from published behavioral studies can be utilized to address health or management concerns and to inform best practices. Veterinarians and behaviorists work together to develop and approve housing conﬁgurations and enrichment plans for research animals during the IACUC approval phase of projects. Integration of behavioral scientists in the clinical care team is important, yet there are often areas of disagreement. This workshop aims to guide optimal management of animals in order to promote physical and psychological health. How can we best facilitate communication and coordination between veterinarians and behavioral scientists to enhance animal care and improve animal welfare? Presentations will be followed by panel discussion. Sponsored by the Behavioral Management Consortium and Association of Primate Veterinarians.
195. DECREASES IN SCRATCHING DURING ANXIETY‐PROVOKING SITUATIONS IN COMMON MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX JACCHUS) S. J. Neal, J. Wombolt, M. Rice and N. Caine California State University, San Marcos, 333 S. Twin Oaks Valley Rd., San Marcos, CA, 92096, USA Scratching is a reliable indicator of anxiety in many species of primates. However, most studies of scratching in relation to anxiety in callitrichids have taken place in laboratories where testing occurred outside the social group. We investigated scratching in eleven outdoor‐housed captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during three anxiety‐inducing conditions: predation threat, brief social isolation, and food competition. We recorded scratching during a 15‐minute baseline period, a four‐ or eight‐ minute experimental induction of anxiety period, and a 10‐minute post‐induction period using all‐occurrences sampling. Each marmoset served as a subject during three trials in each condition between August 2013 and March 2014. Scratching rates per minute were calculated for analyses. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there was a main effect of time period, F(1.75, 148.58) ¼ 9.73, P < 0.001. Subjects exhibited signiﬁcantly lower scratching rates during experimental induction of anxiety (M ¼ 0.13, SE ¼ 0.03) than during baseline (M ¼ 0.27, SE ¼ 0.02) [t(148.58) ¼ 4.16, P < 0.001], or during the post‐induction period (M ¼ 0.30, SE ¼ 0.04) [t(148.58) ¼ 3.63, P < 0.001]. These results are inconsistent with previous research showing increases in scratching during these same anxiety‐provoking situations. Stressful events may be experienced differently in socially cooperative species like marmosets when they experience those stressors in the context of the social group.
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196. THE PERSONALITY, SUBJECTIVE WELL‐BEING, AND HEALTH OF CAPTIVE GIBBONS (FAMILY HYLOBATIDAE) A. Weiss1, M. C. Gartner1, F. B. Morton2, C. Cunningham4 and M. Inoue‐Murayama3 1 Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, USA, 2The University of Stirling, 3Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University, 4Abertay University Gibbons are noted for their monogamy and high level of species diversity; both may inﬂuence their personality. We sent personality, subjective well‐being, and health questionnaires to facilities that housed gibbons (Family Hylobatidae). We obtained ratings of personality on 162 gibbons, subjective well‐being on a subset of 109 gibbons, and health on a subset of 51 gibbons. One item, with an intraclass correlation (ICC[3,k]) less than 0 was not reliable across raters. The ICC(3,k)s of the remaining items ranged from .04 to .81 (median ¼ 0.58) and were thus acceptable. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the personality items yielded 6 components for the Hylobates (N ¼ 84) and 5 for a combined sample (N ¼ 78) comprising 6 Hoolock, 38 Nomascus, and 34 Symphalangus. Four components— Extraversion/Openness, Dominance, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism—generalized across genera. PCA of the subjective well‐being items revealed one dimension. Extraversion/Openness was associated with higher subjective well‐being [r ¼ 0.52, P < 0.001] and better rated health [r ¼ 0.50, P < 0.001]. Agreeableness was associated with higher subjective well‐being [r ¼ 0.65, P < 0.001]. Neuroticism was associated with lower subjective well‐being [r ¼ 0.32, P < 0.001] and poorer rated health [r ¼ ‐0.39, P < 0.001]. These ﬁndings reveal that gibbon personality and its association with well‐being and health resemble those found in other primates, including humans.
197. PROFILES IN COURAGE: LEADERSHIP BY MALE TUFTED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (SAPAJUS NIGRITUS) DURING INTERGROUP ENCOUNTERS C. J. Scarry Department of Anthropology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 11367, USA Theoretical arguments suggest that collective male resource defense is difﬁcult to maintain. Yet among Argentine tufted capuchin monkeys, dominant and subordinate males are equally likely to lead intergroup aggression over high quality resources. To understand the potential beneﬁts to males, I performed a principal components analysis, using behavioral data collected through instantaneous focal animal sampling (N ¼ 130.7 hrs), to create sociospatial proﬁles for 12 adult and subadult males that were not correlated with rank. The ﬁrst three principal components can broadly be considered as measures of social integration and dietary quality or spatial integration. I ﬁtted generalized linear mixed effects models using these measures of male proﬁle, rank, and the asymmetry in male group size. The best ﬁt model included the asymmetry in male group size, as well as principal components one and two, outperforming a model substituting male rank for male sociospatial proﬁle (DAIC ¼ 3.3). As males become more socially and spatially isolated and spend more time foraging versus feeding on fruits, they are increasingly likely to take riskier forward positions during aggressive intergroup encounters. These results suggest that subordinate males may use participation in intergroup encounters to gain social tolerance or defend resources critical to their own physical condition. Financial support provided by the Leakey Foundation, the National Geographic Society, NSF‐DDIG (BCS‐0752683 to C.H. Janson), and the Wenner‐Gren Foundation.
198. EFFICIENCY OF MOVEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM NATURAL OBSERVATION AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS A. Howard, D. Fragaszy, M. Madden, N. Nibbelink and L. A. Young University of Georgia, Department of Psychology, Psychology Building, Athens, GA, 30602‐3013, USA This study investigates the inﬂuence of landscape variables on movement efﬁciency of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) using three models of movement and a novel callback method to experimentally manipulate travel. We generated a surface of resistance to movement by calculating the inverse of a MaxEnt habitat suitability model (AUC ¼ 0.81) of our study group’s use of space. The movements of the monkeys were simulated between stop points and change points using a straight line path model, a minimum resistance model, and a landscape perceiving path model (i.e., moving a simulated monkey toward stop/change points using neighboring pixels of least resistance). The monkeys’ travel resembled straight line travel in resistance values (mean resistance, NRMSE ¼ 5.49%), but their movement was not linear (sinuosity ¼ 1.34). We conclude that capuchin monkeys move in zones of low resistance but do not use minimum resistance patterns. A ﬁeld experiment demonstrated that when travel goals were manipulated, the monkeys moved more linearly (sinuosity ¼ 1.18) and resistances incurred in travel also increased. These results indicate that for a limited, high quality resource, monkeys in our study group are sensitive to movement linearity. We present methodological advantages and challenges of the callback method of experimental analysis of animal movement. We conclude that future analyses of movement efﬁciency should include some consideration of the landscape context in which movement occurs.
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199. MOTHER‐OFFSPRING BEHAVIORAL CONFLICTS IN VIRUNGA MOUNTAIN GORILLAS (GORILLA BERINGEI BERINGEI) W. Eckardt1,2, K. Fawcett1 and A. W. Fletcher2 1 Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, 800 Cherokee Ave, Atlanta, Georgia, 30315, USA, 2Department of Biological Science, University of Chester, UK Resolution models of parent‐offspring conﬂicts incorporate assumptions about phenotypic interactions between parents and offspring. One key question addressed by resolution models relates to who wins the conﬂict: parent, offspring, or both. We aimed to identify mother‐offspring behavioral conﬂicts (BC) in Virunga mountain gorillas and investigated how and to what extent mother and offspring shape maternal investment patterns. We collected maternal rejection behavior and offspring whimper signals, which are common indicators of BCs, during focal sampling on 37 mother‐offspring dyads monitored by the Karisoke Research Center resulting in >1,150 observation hours. Findings suggest that mountain gorilla mother‐offspring dyads engage in various BCs over the timing and the quantity of maternal investment, e.g. suckling. The impact of mother and offspring on the mediation of BCs depended on the conﬂict context and offspring age, with short‐term effects of maternal rejection on offspring behavior often being different from long‐term effects. Long‐term effects of BC suggest that mothers succeeded in achieving their aims, although offspring managed to impede and slow down the reduction in maternal investment. Thus, our ﬁndings provide some support that pro‐rata models, with conﬂict resolutions at a compromise level between the optima of both parties, apply to BC mediation in mountain gorillas rather than supporting the alternative hypothesis that BC outcomes are always on mother’s optimum through force majeure.
200. WILD VERVETS ARE “SELLING SNAKE OIL” BY SOLVING ROUTING PROBLEMS WITH SIMPLE HEURISTICS J. A. Teichroeb Dept. of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Rm 103B Biological Sciences Building, Box 90383, Durham, NC, 27708, USA The “Traveling Salesman Problem” (TSP) requires individuals to visit several targets using the shortest possible path and becomes mathematically impossible with many destinations. Most non‐human primate species have shown limited ability to route plan. However, captive vervets were shown to solve a TSP for six sites, while appearing to plan three steps ahead [Cramer & Gallistel, 1997]. I investigated the abilities of wild vervets in Uganda to solve an open‐TSP routing problem for six, equally‐rewarding experimental platforms. The arrangement of platforms allowed it to be determined whether vervets found the shortest route or used one of three simple heuristics (nearest‐neighbor rule, additive gravity, or the convex‐hull) to navigate. Single vervet’s paths were consistent with simple heuristics 61.9% (N ¼ 276 trials, 9 individuals) of the time and inefﬁcient routes 42.8% of the time. The convex‐hull heuristic was most efﬁcient, leading to the shortest possible paths, and routes were consistent with this heuristic most often (38.7%). When two or more foragers competed in the experiment (N ¼ 59 trials, 13 individuals), paths consistent with the most efﬁcient heuristics in a competitive situation (nearest‐neighbor rule and additive gravity) increased and use of the convex‐hull decreased [P ¼ 0.002]. Thus, vervets often appear to solve the TSP because they use the most efﬁcient simple heuristic, leading to an optimal route. Hence vervets are not actually traveling salesmen but are rather “selling snake oil.”
201. ESTRADIOL AND MALE‐FEMALE ASSOCIATION PATTERNS IN WILD SPIDER MONKEYS M. A. Rodrigues Department of Anthropology, Wake Forest University, 1834 Wake Forest Road, Winston‐Salem, NC, 27106, USA Spider monkeys (Ateles sp.) exhibit convergent behavior and association patterns with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Despite these similarities, they differ in their sexual signals. Female chimpanzees exhibit conspicuous sexual swellings, whereas female spider monkeys conceal ovulation. Given this difference, it is unclear if female reproductive state inﬂuences male‐female associations in spider monkeys as documented in chimpanzees. Here, I present preliminary results investigating the relationships between male association and estradiol in female spider monkeys. Behavioral data (mean ¼ 14.72 hours/individual) and fecal hormone data (mean ¼ 11.27 samples/individual) were collected over 15 months on 11 females at El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica. Females spent a mean of 16.5% of time in association with males, but individual rates varied from 3% to 50% of total focal observations. There was a positive correlation between male association rate and mean estradiol concentrations [Spearman’s: rs ¼ 0.589, N ¼ 11, P ¼ 0.028]. Whinny rates were previously found to correlate with estradiol concentrations [rs ¼ 0.818, P ¼ 0.002]. I suggest that estradiol concentration may modulate vocal cues, and potentially chemical cues, to attract mates. However, further research is needed to examine temporal variation in these patterns. This research was funded with the assistance of the Wenner‐Gren Foundation, the American Philosophical Society, and The Ohio State Graduate Alumni Grant and Sigma Xi.
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202. VISITOR PERCEPTIONS OF INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCES WITH BONOBOS (PAN PANISCUS) AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO E. M. Carver San Diego State University, Department of Anthropology, San Diego, CA, 92182‐6040, USA This research combines traditional methods from primatology with ethnographic tools to explore visitor‐bonobo interaction from both sides of the glass at a zoo exhibit, contributing to the growing synthesis between primatology and cultural anthropology. Randomly selected visitors (N ¼ 367) and bonobos (N ¼ 13) were continuously monitored for the formation of interactive dyads, and interactive behaviors (e.g., eye contact, vocalizing, gesturing) were recorded based on two ethograms (human and bonobo). Upon leaving the exhibit, visitors were asked to complete a questionnaire or participate in a brief informal interview addressing their experiences with the bonobos. By allowing visitors to report their ﬁrsthand perceptions of events I viewed as an outside observer, two perspectives on the same events could be compared. 13.1% of visitors (N ¼ 48) were observed in interactions and also conﬁrmed their involvement in interactions via questionnaire. I observed interactive behavior from 5.2% of visitors (N ¼ 19) who reported they were not involved in interactions, and an additional 20.7% of visitors (N ¼ 76) reported involvement in interactions that fell outside of ethogram categories. Furthermore, I recorded bonobos initiating interaction in 18.9% of cases, while visitors reported bonobo initiation in 33.9% of cases. Overall, visitors’ perceptions of what events constitute interaction were broader and more complex than expected. These results illustrate how the incorporation of ethnographic methods has the potential to enrich research on human‐primate interaction in a zoo setting.
204. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOUCHSCREEN TESTING APPARATUS TO ASSESS RECURRENT PERSEVERATION IN RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) D. H. Gottlieb, S. W. Gonzales, K. A. Grant, L. Houser and K. Coleman Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR, 97006, USA Stereotypic behaviors, such as repetitive pacing, can have several potentially overlapping causes, including frustration, boredom, and stress. Further, some stereotypic behaviors may be caused by recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of previous responses or movements due to dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor system. Knowing which stereotypic behaviors are due to perseveration would help management and remediation of the behaviors. The goal of this project was to develop a method to assess recurrent perseveration in rhesus macaques. We designed a portable touchscreen testing apparatus that allowed us to train animals in their home cage to perform a modiﬁed “Two‐Choice Gambling Task,” a task commonly used to measure recurrent perseveration in human and non‐human animals. In this test, animals are randomly rewarded for touching one of two squares on a screen, with rewards diminishing when the same square is repeatedly touched. To date, we have used this methodology to test perseveration with two adult female macaques, one that exhibited stereotypic behaviors and one that did not. Subjects performed the task for 375 trials over ﬁve days. Using third order Markov chain analysis, we found that the stereotypic individual displayed responses consistent with recurrent perseveration, while the non‐stereotypic individual’s responses were not signiﬁcantly perseverative [alpha ¼ 0.05]. Thus, this test may be an effective, noninvasive tool to measure basal ganglia dysfunction in captive primates.
205. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PRIMATE BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN INTERACTION TRAINING PROGRAM D. M. Abney Charles River Laboratories, Pre‐Clinical Services – Nevada, 6995 Longley Lane, Reno, NV, 89511, USA Caring for captive primates can be a rewarding career choice, but not all who embark on this career path have previous experience working with primates. In particular, individuals fulﬁlling veterinary, technical, and husbandry roles may not come equipped with a background in primate behavior. At Charles River Laboratories (CRL), we believe it is essential for staff to be knowledgeable about the behavior of the animals they work with and understand the importance of behavioral management including how to interact appropriately with the animals in their care. To ﬁll this need, we have developed a robust training program that includes training not only in primate behavior, but also how staff should behave to ensure they are interacting with the animals in the best way possible. Training conducted by Behavioral Management staff begins at the initiation of employment and includes classroom and cage‐side training to give the staff a more comprehensive view of animal behavior. We believe it is essential to keep topics relevant to the behavior and welfare of the primates as part of a reoccurring training program. Subsequent training goes more in depth on topics such as appropriate human behavior, positive reinforcement training, and positive interactions with the primates. Keeping the trainings interesting, interactive, and informative facilitates learning and provides a more enriching environment for all.
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206. FACTORS IMPACTING SUCCESS AND WOUNDING DURING CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) SOCIALIZATION PROCEDURES A. W. Clay, M. A. Bloomsmith and J. E. Perlman Behavioral Management Unit, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA, 30043, USA Over the course of socializations among 42 chimpanzees, including a total of 162 introduction events, we recorded early rearing histories, familiarity of individuals, use of a protected contact panel (PCP) which provides visual and limited physical contact, wounding in the ﬁrst 24 hours, and success of the procedure. A procedure was considered successful if the animals were not separated due to aggression. Several factors were signiﬁcantly related to wounding and/or success, including sex composition of the group [x2 ¼ 10.65, P ¼ 0.005], familiarity of individuals [x2 ¼ 11.33, P ¼ 0.001], and rearing [x2 ¼ 10.73, P ¼ 0.005]. Within the subgroup of introductions which incorporated the PCP, sex composition and success were not related [x2 ¼ 0.34, P ¼ 0.84], but when the PCP was not incorporated, this relationship was signiﬁcant [x2 ¼ 10.73, P ¼ 0.005]. When the PCP was used, success of the group and wounding were related [x2 ¼ 8.51, P ¼ 0.004]. This relationship was nearly signiﬁcant when the PCP was not used [x2 ¼ 3.70, P ¼ 0.054]. A number of factors impact the success of chimpanzee socializations; using a PCP can ameliorate the impact of some of these factors. Continuing to investigate the various factors which contribute to successful chimpanzee socializations is an important part of captive chimpanzee management.
207. PAIRING RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA): METHODOLOGY AND OUTCOMES AT FOUR NATIONAL PRIMATE RESEARCH CENTERS K. C. Baker, K. Coleman, M. A. Bloomsmith, B. McCowan and M. A. Truelove Tulane National Primate Res. Center, 18703 Three Rivers Rd., Covington, LA, 70433, USA Pairing laboratory macaques is a high priority goal for many behavioral management programs. There are numerous methodological differences in introduction procedures across facilities, including the intermediate stages used between single housing and full contact. A retrospective database of 4325 isosexual rhesus macaque pairs (2973 female, 1351 male) housed at four National Primate Research Centers was compiled. All subjects were over 4 years old; mean ages at each center ranged from 8.4 to 11.1 years. One facility employed one intermediate phase consisting of a barrier allowing physical contact (“P facility”). Another used this method with the addition of an initial clear panel phase (“C‐P facility”). Two other facilities employed mesh panels providing minimal contact (“M facilities”). The proportion of full contact pairings deemed successful (co‐housed for a minimum of 14 days without problematic agonism/wounding) ranged from 52%– 65% (females) and 32–69% (males). In comparison to the P facility, the C‐P facility saw less success among females [x2 ¼ 9.87; P < 0.005], but not males. In comparison to the C‐P facility, one M facility saw more success among females [x2 ¼ 8.14, P < 0.005], but not males. The other M facility required observation of grooming as an additional criteria for success and saw signiﬁcantly less success in all comparisons [P < 0.0001] except female introductions at the C‐P facility. Comparisons within facilities are needed to evaluate changes to introduction procedures and possible tailoring of methodology to sex.
208. A COMPARISON OF TWO SOCIAL HOUSING TECHNIQUES FOR SEXUALLY MATURE MALE CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES (MACACA FASCICULARIS) S. L. Nelsen, D. Bradford and P. Houghton Panther Tracks Learning Center, Primate Products, Inc., PO Box 1588, Immokalee, FL, 34143, USA Social species of nonhuman primates, such as macaques, should be given the opportunity for social access to conspeciﬁcs. In captive laboratory settings, creating a system to provide this opportunity can be challenging, especially concerning sexually mature animals. The majority of macaques are group housed at Panther Tracks Learning Center. When it is necessary to pair house, animals receive temperament evaluations and a review of their history. Potential pairs are selected and relocated to side‐by‐side cages with opaque dividers. Then they are placed together through a step‐wise barrier method of introduction, which has been successful, but takes a signiﬁcant amount of time. This method was compared to a quicker sedation method. Thirty‐four Macaca fascicularis males ranging from 6–14 years in age received temperament evaluations, and were then designated into pairs. Each pair was randomly assigned to the step‐ wise barrier method, or the sedation method. All animals were monitored multiple times each day for 1 week post‐introduction. If a ﬁght arose between partners that required veterinary intervention, a pair was considered failed. Of the 9 step‐wise barrier method pairs, 2 failed. Of the 8 sedation method pairs, 1 failed. There was no signiﬁcant difference between the two methods of introduction (Fisher’s Exact Test: P ¼ 1.000); therefore, other variables such as partner selection or acclimation before beginning introductions may be more inﬂuential to the success of the resulting pair.
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209. SOCIALIZATION IN PIGTAILED MACAQUES; FEMALES ARE UNPREDICTABLE J. M. Worlein, R. Kroeker, G. H. Lee, J. P. Thom, R. U. Bellanca and C. M. Crockett Washington National Primate Res. Ctr., University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA Renewed emphasis has been placed on providing social housing for all laboratory‐housed nonhuman primates. Information identifying factors affecting compatibility would aid managers in selecting animals for prospective pairings. This study investigated predictors of: (1) compatibility assessed at introduction; and 2) risk for wounding during subsequent social housing. Subjects were 674 pairs of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) housed in protected (N ¼ 674) and full (N ¼ 87) social contact at Washington National Primate Center between 2005 and 2012. The introduction protocol involved introduction and observation over a period of days (median number of days ¼ 2). Logistic regression was used to identify factors affecting compatibility and wounding. P‐values 0.05 were considered statistically signiﬁcant. Signiﬁcant predictors of initial compatibility were: age, presence of aggression or wounding during introductions, number of introductory sessions, and a compatibility rating based on behavior, assigned on the last day of introduction. Age and weight differences were not signiﬁcant predictors. Predictors of wounding were analyzed separately for Male/Male, Male/Female and Female/Female pairs. Signiﬁcant predictors of wounding included length of pairing and age class for M/M pairs and contact aggression on the ﬁrst day of introduction for M/F pairs. There were no signiﬁcant predictors of wounding for F/F pairs. These data suggest that it may be more difﬁcult to predict long‐term compatibility in F/F pigtail pairs. Funded by NIH grants P51 OD010425 and R24OD01180‐15.
210. POOR RECEPTIVE JOINT ATTENTION SKILLS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ATYPICAL GRAY MATTER ASYMMETRY IN THE POSTERIOR SUPERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS OF CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) W. D. Hopkins1,2, M. B. Misiura1,3, L. A. Reamer4, J. A. Schaeffer1,2, M. C. Moreno4 and S. J. Schapiro4,5 1 William Hopkins, Georgia State University, Neuroscience Institute and Language Research Center, P.O. Box 5030, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA, 2Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, 3Agnes Scott College, 4The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 5 University of Copenhagen Clinical and experimental data implicate the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio‐communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Our goal was to investigate whether individual differences in responding to socio‐communicative cues was associated with variation in either gray matter (GM) volume of speciﬁc brain areas and hemispheric asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance image scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We manually traced the superior temporal gyrus using the Analyze software to obtain brain volumes for the speciﬁc regions. For the RJA task, each chimp was given a maximum of four test trials to elicit an orienting response, and the number of social cues required determined the score on the task. We performed partial correlation coefﬁcients comparing RJA performance and pSTG GM volumes and found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the left compared to right hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus [b ¼ 0.155, P < 0.04)]. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.
Am. J. Primatol.
106 / Author Index
AUTHOR INDEX Abavandimwe, D. ‐ Session 17 Abney, D. M. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 28 Addessi, E. ‐ Session 10 Allard, S. ‐ Session 17 Altschul, D. M. ‐ Session 11 Alvarado Villalobos, M. ‐ Session 19 ‐ Session 22 Amaral, D. ‐ Session 20 Amato, K. R. ‐ Session 25 Andrews, K. ‐ Session 11 Appt, S. E. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Arias del Razo, R. ‐ Session 22 Aristizabal, J. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 25 Arnold, D. ‐ Session 14 Aslin, R. N. ‐ Session 10 Aston, S. A. ‐ Session 22 Ayala‐Camacho, L. M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Ayali, P. ‐ Session 22 Bachevalier, J. ‐ Session 22 Baeckler Davis, S. ‐ Session 13 Baker, K. C. ‐ Session 13 ‐ Session 26 ‐ Session 28 Baker, M. ‐ Session 16 ‐ Session 19 Baker, T. ‐ Session 22 Balandra‐Montes de Oca, A. ‐ Session 22 Baldree, R. ‐ Session 11 Bales, K. L. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 11‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 21 ‐ Session 22 Barbian, H. J. ‐ Session 2 Bard, K. A. ‐ Session 13 Barger, N. ‐ Session 18 Barr, C. S. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Barrett, B. J. ‐ Session 24 Begnoche, C. A. ‐ Session 22 Beisner, B. A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 22 Bellanca, R. U. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 28 Beneﬁt, B. ‐ Session 11 Benner, S. A. ‐ Session 4 Bennett, C. ‐ Session 17 Bennett, M. T. ‐ Session 22 Beran, M. J. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 22 Berman, C. M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 21 Bertrand, D. A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 21 Bibollet‐Ruche, F. ‐ Session 2 Bicca‐Marques, J. C. ‐ Session 21 Bliss‐Moreau, E. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 20 Bloomsmith, M. ‐ Session 8 ‐ Session 8 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 26 ‐ Session 28 ‐ Session 28 Boel, C. ‐ Session 19 Boeving, E. R. ‐ Session 11 Bogart, S. L. ‐ Session 11 Bohm, R. P. ‐ Session 26 Boner, R. K. ‐ Session 22 Bonnie, K. E. ‐ Session 24 Borgmann‐Winter, K. E. ‐ Session 15 Borries, C. ‐ Session 11 Boussina, T. ‐ Session 22 Bradford, D. ‐ Session 28 Bransford, T. D. ‐ Session 25
Am. J. Primatol.
Breaux, J. J. ‐ Session 22 Breaux, S. D. ‐ Session 22 Bridges, J. ‐ Session 22 Broemel, E. T. ‐ Session 22 Brosnan, S. F. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 21 Bshary, R. ‐ Session 10 Buchanan‐Smith, H. ‐ Session 4 Burbacher, T. M. ‐ Session 22 Caine, N. G. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 27 Calcutt, S. ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 Cambou, A. ‐ Session 22 Cancelliere, E. ‐ Session 25 Canning, B. ‐ Session 19 Cantor, R. M. ‐ Session 18 Capitanio, J. P. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 22 Carey, M. C. ‐ Session 22 Carnathan, D. G. ‐ Session 15 Carp, S. B. ‐ Session 11 Carrigan, M. ‐ Session 4 Carver, E. M. ‐ Session 27 Cavanaugh, J. ‐ Session 18 Cavigelli, S. A. ‐ Session 9 Chico, F. ‐ Session 11 Christie, D. M. ‐ Session 11 Christopher, J. ‐ Session 22 Clay, A. W. ‐ Session 28 Clay, Z. ‐ Session 20 Cohen, J. ‐ Session 26 Coleman, K. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 28 ‐ Session 28 Collado‐Torres, R. A. ‐ Session 22 Collins, A. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Coppeto, D. J. ‐ Session 22 Corley, M. ‐ Session 22 Crast, J. ‐ Session 17 Crockett, C. M. ‐ Session 28 Cunningham, C. ‐ Session 27 Curnoe, D. ‐ Session 19 D’eath, R. ‐ Session 4 da Celis Alonso, B. ‐ Session 11 Danosi, C. ‐ Session 19 Davidek, K. R. ‐ Session 22 Davison, D. R. ‐ Session 21 Dayon, E. ‐ Session 19 de Waal, F. B. ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 Dent, B. E. ‐ Session 11 Dettmer, A. M. ‐ Session 3 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 Detwiler, K. M. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Di Fiore, A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 20 Díaz‐Lopez, H. M. ‐ Session 22 Dietz, J. M. ‐ Session 19 DiFiore, A. ‐ Session 22 Dolins, F. L. ‐ Session 10 Dominy, N. J. ‐ Session 19 Donati, G. ‐ Session 21 Dunham, N. T. ‐ Session 22
Author Index / 107
Easley, K. ‐ Session 15 Eckardt, W. ‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 27 El‐Mallah, S. N. ‐ Session 22 El‐Shaarawi, A. ‐ Session 4 Elchouﬁ, D. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11 Emery Thompson, M. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 27 Eppley, T. M. ‐ Session 21 Erwin, J. M. ‐ Session 22 Eshchar, Y. ‐ Session 24 ‐ Session 24 Esper‐Reyes, K. A. ‐ Session 22 Estrada, A. ‐ Session 20 Evans, T. A. ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 22 Fahey, M. A. ‐ Session 26 Farajallah, D. P. ‐ Session 22 Fawcett, K. ‐ Session 27 Feczko, E. ‐ Session 11 Fedigan, L. M. ‐ Session 5 ‐ Session 12 ‐ Session 22 Fernandez, V. A. ‐ Session 25 Fernandez‐Duque, E. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Ferrari, P. F. ‐ Session 6 Ferrer, E. ‐ Session 11 Fichtel, C. ‐ Session 25 Finkel, B. J. ‐ Session 11 Finn, K. R. ‐ Session 11 Fletcher, A. W. ‐ Session 27 Fontenot, B. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 26 Fragaszy, D. M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 24 ‐ Session 24 ‐ Session 27 Franquesa‐Soler, M. ‐ Session 22 Freeman, S. M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 21 Freimer, N. B. ‐ Session 18 French, J. A. ‐ Session 6 ‐ Session 18 ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 22 Frye, C. B. ‐ Session 4 Fujii, K. ‐ Session 17 Galvan, A. ‐ Session 11 Gamble, K. ‐ Session 22 Ganzhorn, J. U. ‐ Session 21 Garber, P. A. ‐ Session 16 ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 21 ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 Garcia de la Chica, A. T. ‐ Session 22 García Feria, L. M. ‐ Session 19 ‐ Session 25 Gartner, M. ‐ Session 4 ‐ Session 27 Georgiev, A. V. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 27 Gerald, M. S. ‐ Session 9 Gilagiza, B. ‐ Session 2 Gillespie, T. R. ‐ Session 1 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 16 ‐ Session 17 Glass, K. R. ‐ Session 22 Godfrey, J. ‐ Session 15 Gonzales, S. W. ‐ Session 28 Gottlieb, D. H. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 28 Grant, K. A. ‐ Session 28 Grant, K. S. ‐ Session 22 Grim, M. ‐ Session 24 Grote, M. N. ‐ Session 6 Guevara, C. ‐ Session 22 Guo, S. ‐ Session 25 Guzman, D. ‐ Session 22
Habermann (dec.), H. M. ‐ Session 5 Hahn, B. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Hahn, C. G. ‐ Session 15 Hall, K. ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 21 Hamel, A. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 Hamilton, L. R. ‐ Session 21 Hankerson, S. J. ‐ Session 19 Hannibal, D. ‐ Session 14 Hart, J. A. ‐ Session 22 Haslam, M. ‐ Session 11 Haverly, S. E. ‐ Session 11 Hayes, T. ‐ Session 15 Heagerty, A. L. ‐ Session 22 Hedman, C. J. ‐ Session 5 Heimbauer, L. A. ‐ Session 10 Heistermann, M. ‐ Session 11 Heitz, T. R. ‐ Session 11 Hensley, J. R. ‐ Session 17 Herman, R. ‐ Session 22 Hidalgo‐Tobón, S. ‐ Session 11 Higley, J. D. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Hinde, K. J. ‐ Session 3 ‐ Session 6 Hof, P. R. ‐ Session 18 Hoff, M. ‐ Session 8 Hogan, J. D. ‐ Session 5 Hopkins, W. D. ‐ Session 4 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 18 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Hoppitt, W. ‐ Session 24 Hou, R. ‐ Session 25 Houghton, P. ‐ Session 28 Houser, L. ‐ Session 28 Howard, A. ‐ Session 27 Howell, B. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 22 Hsieh, F. ‐ Session 17 Huffman, M. C. ‐ Session 22 Humbert, B. S. ‐ Session 22 Hurley, T. D. ‐ Session 4 Huskisson, S. ‐ Session 11 Hutchinson, DVM., DACLAM, E. ‐ Session 26 Inoue‐Murayama, M. ‐ Session 27 Isbell, L. A. ‐ Session 22 Iskandar, E. ‐ Session 22 Iskandar, F. ‐ Session 22 Jack, K. M. ‐ Session 22 Jacob, S. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Jajedi, R. ‐ Session 16 Jasinska, A. J. ‐ Session 18 Jefferson, J. P. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Ji, W. ‐ Session 25 Jin, J. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 Johnson, C. L. ‐ Session 11 Johnson, Z. ‐ Session 11‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 22 Jones, C. E. ‐ Session 22 Jones, R. L. ‐ Session 5 Jones, T. J. ‐ Session 17 Jorgensen, M. J. ‐ Session 18 Ju, K. ‐ Session 25 Judge, P. G. ‐ Session 11
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108 / Author Index
Kamenya, S. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11 Kaplan, J. R. ‐ Session 18 Kapoor, A. ‐ Session 5 Kawamura, S. ‐ Session 19 Kelley, J. ‐ Session 10 Kemnitz, J. W. ‐ Session 5 Kenney, C. ‐ Session 22 Kinsel, M. J. ‐ Session 2 Kitchen, D. M. ‐ Session 21 Klimowicz, C. G. ‐ Session 10 Koch, F. ‐ Session 25 Koenig, A. ‐ Session 11 Kohn, J. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 22 Kroeker, R. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 28 Krupnick, A. ‐ Session 24 Kyes, P. ‐ Session 22 Kyes, R. C. ‐ Session 22 LaChance, C. ‐ Session 19 Lacreuse, A. ‐ Session 11 Lambeth, S. P. ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 22 Laredo, S. A. ‐ Session 11 Latash, E. M. ‐ Session 22 Lazo, R. ‐ Session 19 Ledogar, J. A. ‐ Session 11 Lee, G. H. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 28 Lender, C. M. ‐ Session 11 Li, B. ‐ Session 25 Li, Y. ‐ Session 2 Light, L. E. ‐ Session 19 Lindell, S. G. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Lindshield, S. M. ‐ Session 25 Lipende, I. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11 Little, A. ‐ Session 4 Lonsdorf, E. V. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11‐ Session 24 Loveland, D. G. ‐ Session 11 Lozano, A. ‐ Session 22 Lutz, C. K. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 Machanda, Z. P. ‐ Session 9 Madden, M. ‐ Session 27 Maestripieri, D. ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 27 Mahovetz, L. M. ‐ Session 22 Makar, J. ‐ Session 21 Mallott, E. K. ‐ Session 19 Mann, J. ‐ Session 24 Mareno, M. C. ‐ Session 11‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 22 Margulis, S. W. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 21 Markham, K. E. ‐ Session 19 Marriott, B. P. ‐ Session 5 Martin, A. L. ‐ Session 8 ‐ Session 11 Martinez‐Mota, R. ‐ Session 16 Mason, W. A. ‐ Session 11 Matsushita, Y. ‐ Session 19 Matsuzawa, T. ‐ Session 13 McCormack, K. ‐ Session 22 McCowan, B. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 17
Am. J. Primatol.
‐ Session 21‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 26 ‐ Session 28 McCracken, G. ‐ Session 19 McCrossin, F. G. ‐ Session 11 McGraw, W. S. ‐ Session 22 McGuire, M. ‐ Session 17 McPhee, S. G. ‐ Session 22 Melin, A. D. ‐ Session 5 ‐ Session 19 ‐ Session 22 Menard, M. T. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 Menard, M. T. Mendoza, S. P. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Menzel, C. R. ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 10 Meyer, J. S. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Michopoulos, V. J. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Milich, K. M. ‐ Session 20 Milne, S. C. ‐ Session 22 Mistretta, R. J. ‐ Session 22 Mjungu, D. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Moadab, G. ‐ Session 20 Moomaw, H. A. ‐ Session 22 Moore, B. A. ‐ Session 4 Moore, C. ‐ Session 15 Moore, J. W. ‐ Session 11 Morales, P. R. ‐ Session 22 Moritz, G. L. ‐ Session 19 Morton, F. B. ‐ Session 4 ‐ Session 27 Mucyo, J. P. ‐ Session 17 Muehlenbein, M. P. ‐ Session 27 Muller, M. N. ‐ Session 9 Mummert, A. ‐ Session 11 Muñoz‐Delgado, J. ‐ Session 11 Murphy, A. M. ‐ Session 11 Murray, C. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Mustoe, A. C. ‐ Session 18 ‐ Session 20 Myers, C. R. ‐ Session 4 Myers, T. M. ‐ Session 21 Neal, S. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 27 Negi, A. K. ‐ Session 16 Neigh, G. N. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Nekaris, K. A. I. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 Nelsen, S. L. ‐ Session 28 Nelson, E. L. ‐ Session 11 Newport, C. ‐ Session 24 Nibbelink, N. ‐ Session 27 Norconk, M. A. ‐ Session 11 Novak, M. A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Nunez, C. L. ‐ Session 6 O’Bryan, L. R. ‐ Session 20 O’Connell, P. H. ‐ Session 22 Oliva‐Uribe, C. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Paglieri, F. ‐ Session 10 Paiardini, M. ‐ Session 15 Pamungkas, J. ‐ Session 22 Parr, L. A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 Parrish, A. E. ‐ Session 10 Parsons, M. B. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11 Partrick, K. A. ‐ Session 11
Author Index / 109
Patterson, E. M. ‐ Session 24 Paukner, A. ‐ Session 6 ‐ Session 11 Pebsworth, P. ‐ Session 16 Perdue, B. M. ‐Session 8 Perkins, S. P. ‐ Session 11 Perlman, J. E. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 28 Perry, S. E. ‐ Session 24 Peterson, E. J. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 Petracca, M. M. ‐ Session 11 Phillips, K. A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 Pintea, L. ‐ Session 2 Pippin, Z. ‐ Session 22 Platas‐Neri, D. A. ‐ Session 11 Poindexter, S. A. ‐ Session 11 Poor, L. L. ‐ Session 22 Pope, S. M. ‐ Session 22 Prall, S. P. ‐ Session 27 Pretot, L. ‐ Session 10 Proctor, D. ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 Prongay, K. ‐ Session 11 Pruetz, J. D. ‐ Session 25 Pusey, A. E. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Qian, T. ‐ Session 10 Radhakrishna, S. ‐ Session 16 Ragen, B. J. ‐ Session 11 Ramirez, M. A. ‐ Session 2 Raphael, J. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Raubenheimer, D. ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 Reamer, L. A. ‐ Session 11‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Rebout, N. ‐ Session 21 Register, T. C. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Reinhardt, K. D. ‐ Session 11 Reitsema, L. J. ‐ Session 11 Rice, M. G. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 27 Riddle, A. ‐ Session 11 Righini, N. ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 Riley, E. P. ‐ Session 16 ‐ Session 19 Roberts, R. A. ‐ Session 22 Rodrigues, M. A. ‐ Session 27 Roemer, IV, J. ‐ Session 5 Rosenberg, K. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Ross, C. N. ‐ Session 3 Rothman, J. M. ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 ‐ Session 25 Rothwell, E. S. ‐ Session 11 Russell, J. L. ‐ Session 11 Russon, A. E. ‐ Session 13 Rutherford, J. N. ‐ Session 3 Ryan, A. M. ‐ Session 22 Ryu, D. H. ‐ Session 17 Sahoo, S. K. ‐ Session 16 Sanchez, D. M. ‐ Session 22 Sanchez, M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 22 Santistevan, A. ‐ Session 20 Saputro, S. ‐ Session 22 Sayers, K. ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 10 Scarry, C. J. ‐ Session 27
Schapiro, S. J. ‐ Session 10 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 17 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Schmitt, C. A. ‐ Session 18 Schoof, V. M. ‐ Session 22 Schruth, D. M. ‐ Session 11 Schwandt, M. L. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Seil, S. K. ‐ Session 22 Serio‐Silva, J. C. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 19 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 25 Service, S. ‐ Session 18 Shackett, J. ‐ Session 22 Sharpe, D. I. ‐ Session 22 Sharpe, N. G. ‐ Session 21 Sherwood, C. C. ‐ Session 18 Shively, C. A. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Silverstein, M. G. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Silvestri, G. ‐ Session 15 Simpson, E. A. ‐ Session 6 Singer, R. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Singh, L. O. ‐ Session 24 Sinn, D. ‐ Session 11 Skidmore, M. A. ‐ Session 11 Smith, J. J. ‐ Session 13 ‐ Session 13 Smith, K. ‐ Session 11 Smith, Jr., J. C. ‐ Session 5 Solomon, M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Sorenson, A. N. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Spaan, D. ‐ Session 11 Spence, D. O. ‐ Session 11 Stimpson, C. D. ‐ Session 18 Stoinski, T. S. ‐ Session 17 Suchak, M. ‐ Session 20 Sultana, C. J. ‐ Session 5 Suomi, S. J. ‐ Session 6 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 Taglialatela, J. P. ‐ Session 4 ‐ Session 18 ‐ Session 22 Taglialatela, L. A. ‐ Session 22 Talbot, C. F. ‐ Session 21 Taylor, J. H. ‐ Session 6 ‐ Session 18 Taylor, K. ‐ Session 11 Teichroeb, J. A. ‐ Session 27 Tejero‐Gerónimo, D. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Templeton, C. N. ‐ Session 11 Terio, K. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Thom, J. P. ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 28 Torgerson‐White, L. ‐ Session 17 Toscano, J. E. ‐ Session 22 Toufexis, D. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 22 Travis, D. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Travis, D. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 11 Trible, R. ‐ Session 15 Truelove, M. A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 28 Tung, J. ‐ Session 9 Ulanov, A. V. ‐ Session 25 Uryasev, O. ‐ Session 4 Vagell, R. ‐ Session 11 Valenzuela‐Córdova, B. ‐ Session 22 Van Belle, S. ‐ Session 20 van der Heide, G. ‐ Session 11
Am. J. Primatol.
110 / Author Index
van Kuijk, S. M. ‐ Session 22 van Noordwijk, M. A. ‐ Session 19 ‐ Session 25 Vandeleest, J. J. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 17 Vanderford, T. H. ‐ Session 15 Vazquez‐Prokopec, G. ‐ Session 2 Vidal‐Garcia, F. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Villalón, A. ‐ Session 22 Vitolins, M. Z. ‐ Session 15 Vogel, E. R. ‐ Session 19 ‐ Session 25 Vratanina Smoot, T. L. ‐ Session 22 Wade, T. W. ‐ Session 19 Wagner, J. L. ‐ Session 22 Wagner, W. L. ‐ Session 22 Wallen, K. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Wallis, J. ‐ Session 13 Walz, J. ‐ Session 21 Watson, S. ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 Watzek, J. ‐ Session 20 ‐ Session 20 Wechsler, M. ‐ Session 6 Weinstein, T. A. R. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 22 Weiss, A. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 27 Weiss, D. J. ‐ Session 10 Wells, K. ‐ Session 19 Wichmann, T. ‐ Session 11
Am. J. Primatol.
Willard, S. L. ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 Williams, D. M. ‐ Session 22 Williams, L. E. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 21 Williams‐Newkirk, A. J. ‐ Session 17 Wilson, B. J. ‐ Session 9 ‐ Session 10 Wilson, M. E. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 15 ‐ Session 22 Wilson, M. L. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 20 Wilson, V. ‐ Session 4 Wirdateti, I. ‐ Session 11 Wolf, T. M. ‐ Session 2 ‐ Session 2 Wombolt, J. R. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 27 Worlein, J. M. ‐ Session 11 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 14 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 28 Wrangham, R. W. ‐ Session 9 Wright, B. W. ‐ Session 11 Xiao, L. ‐ Session 2 Young, L. A. ‐ Session 27 Zak, A. A. ‐ Session 16 Ziegler, T. E. ‐ Session 5 ‐ Session 22 ‐ Session 23 Zucker, E. L. ‐ Session 26 ‐ Session 22
Taxonomic Index / 111
TAXONOMIC INDEX Aloutta caraya  Adansonia digitata  Alouatta macconnelli  Alouatta palliata   Alouatta pigra          Aotus azarae  Aotus azarae azare  Ateles   Ateles geoffroyi   Ateles paniscus  Chlamydia suis  Cryptosporidium xiaoi  Callicebus cupreus     Callithrix  Callithrix geoffroyi  Callithrix jacchus       Callithrix penicillata  Cebus apella     Cebus capucinus       Cebus olivaceus  Cephalophus callipygus  Cercocebus atys  Cercopithecus ascanius  Cercopithecus lomamiensis  Cercopithecus mitis  Chiropotes sagulatus  Chlorocebus  Chlorocebus aethiops  Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus  Chlorocebus sabaeus  Chrysophyllum  Chrysophyllum gonocarpum  Colobus angolensis palliatus  Controrchis  Cryptosporidium   
Hoolock  Humans  Hylobates  Hylobates lar  Hylobatidae  Labroides dimidiatus  Lemur  Leontopithecus rosalia  Libinosus  Macaca cyclopis  Macaca fuscata  Macaca nigra  Microcebus murinus  Macaca fascicularis           Macaca mulatta                                           Macaca nemestrina     Macaca nigra   Macaca Silenus  Megaptera novaeangliae  Myrcianthes  Myrcianthes pungens  Myrianthus  Nycticebus javanicus  Nomascus leucogenys  Navigation  Nomascus  Nycticebus bengalensis  Nycticebus pygmaeus  Nycticebus coucang  Nycticebus javanicus  Nycticebus spp. 
Daubentonia madagascariensis   Entamoeba albifrons  Entamoeba spp.  Entamoeba   Entamoeba coli  Entamoeba histolytica  Eugenia  Eulemur  Galago moholi  Galeopterus variegatus  Gorilla  Gorilla beringei  Gorilla beringei beringei  Gorilla gorilla   Gorilla gorilla gorilla    Guazuma ulmifolia  Hapalemur meridionalis  Homo sapiens  Hapalemur  Hapalemur meridionalis  Homo sapiens  
Oesophagostomum  Otolemur garnettii  Pongo pygmaeus  Pan paniscus       Pan troglodytes                             Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii     Pan troglodytes verus  Papio  Papio anubis       Papio cynocephalus  Papio hamadryas  Papio hamadryas hamadryas  Parabronema  Pithecia pithecia  Pneumonyssus  Pongo Pygmaeus Wurmbii   Procolobus badius  Propithecus verreauxi  Pteropus samoensis  Ptilocercus lowii 
Am. J. Primatol.
112 / Taxonomic Index
Rhinopithecus roxellana 
Symphalangus syndactylus 
Saimiri sciureus  Saguinus midas  Saguinus oedipus   Saguinus weddelli  Saimiri spp.  Sapajus  Sapajus apella   Sapajus libidinosus   Sapajus spp  Sapajus spp.  Semnopithecus schistaceus  Shigella  Sloanea terniﬂora  Sterculia apetala  Syagrus romazofﬁana  Symphalangus 
Tarsius syrichta  Tarsius tarsier 
Am. J. Primatol.
Common Names chimpanzee                                           bonobo      gorilla           rhesus                                                   marmoset