JEFFRIES: A Peculiar Expression of

DR. J. S. PROUT, of Brooklyn, referred to one case in which, after the corneal section was miiade, he was obliged to stop and give ether l)efore the extraction could be coml)leted. He also referred to Horner, of Zurich, wlho had said that he wouild not operate for cataract with anlesthesia; that if he could not perform the operation without an anesthetic, hie wouLld not perform it. DR. B. JOY JEFFRIES, of Boston, saw no objection to the use of ether, yet he did. not hesitate to operate without it. He had attempted to operate withlout ether, and had been obliged to stop and administer it, and had not seen any bad results from so doing.


PROF. WILSON, of Edinburgh, says in hiis monograplh, published in 1855, P. 152: "I have lastly to notice thiat there is a sinigular expression in the eye of certain of the color-blind, which may assist in their detection. It is difficult to describe it, and it is wanting in well-nmrked cases. But various of the color-blind, whose cases I have described, have presented a peculiarity of look whlich others have recognized on their attention being drawn to it. In some it aiimounted to a startled expression, as if they were alarmed; in others to an eager, aimiless glance, as if seeking to perceive somiiething, but unable to find it; anid in certain otlhers to an almost vacant stare, as if their eyes were fixed upon objects beyonid the limnit of vision. The expression referred to, which is not at all times equally pronounced, never altogether leaves the eye which it seemis to characterize. "IWhether its occurrence in those color-blind persons wlhom I have examined is btut an evidence (which it may be), or the unconscious betrayal of a defective sense, I do not attempt to decide; but I mention- the imlatter here that future observers miiay keel) it in view." Prof. Wilson further says, p. I73: "Since the passage in the close of the Supplement, referring to a peculiar expression in the eyes of certain of the color-blind was written, I have had the opportunity of observing it somiewhat particularly in four gentlemen, not relatives, in two of whom it was readily recognized by others. All the parties referre(d to have healthy eyes, and excellent vision for


Eyefs of tkte Cldor-Plind.


everything but color. One has an absent, anxious glance, with somnething of the expression which amaurosis gives, only the pupil is smuall. One has a startled, restless look. The other two have an eager, prying, aimless air. The character common to them all, and to the otlhers I have seen, is this aimlessness of look.. Macbeth's reference to Banquo's ghost'Thou hast rno speculation in those eyes Which thou dost glare with '-

verv happily expresses the peculiarity which I find it so difficult to define. It has not, however, in nmost cases anything repulsive about it. The imiajority of those I have seen presenting it would be de'scribed as having finie eyes. In one the wistful, somewhat melanicholy, but pleasing expression of his eye had attracted my attention long before I knew that he was color-blind. "I do not know whether Dalton or the other famous examiiples of color-blindness had any such look as I have referred to. This note iay lead others to make further inquiry in the matter." On page 67 of my rmLanual on "Color-blindness: Its Dangers anid its Detection." I said: "1 I can recall soi-mething of what Dr. Wilson describes in reference to two or three of ly color-blind acquaintances, but, on the contrarv, not at all in reference to others. I recognize his difficuilty in describing just what it is. I doubt if I should have noticed it, or at least connected it with color-blindness, except for his remarks in reference to it. Had he spoken of such a look or peculiar expression on the part of the color-blind when being examined, I could corroborate it from my experience with both adults and young persons. I have now and then miia(le my diagnosis correctly, fromii a peculiar, dazed, half-anxious expression of the face anid eyes of a looker-on awaiting his turn, as if he was called up6n to do somethinig unusual, and sought or expected fturther explanation than that given the normal-eyed. I do not, of course, mean the natural nervousness of those conscious of some defect; but of those color-blind who had no idea anything was wrong with their chromatic sense, and who often proved difficult to convince. I believe no other observer than Prof. Wilson has rermiarked on or recorded anything of the kind." Since writing the above I have seen very many more color-blind, and hence had further opportunity of familiarizing mnyself with this peculiar look which belongs to them alone, and is not due to any amlietropic condition, occurring as it does in the emmetropic. I


JEFFRIES: The Eyes of the Color-Blind.

awaited sonme miiention of it in the several monographs which have touched on peculiarities connected with color-blindness, but not finding any I called attention to it in a communication before the Boston Society of Natural History at thie Novenmber I7, i88Q, meetinIg. I would by this brief article draw the especial attention of gentlemiien who, officially or otherwise, test for chromatic defect, to this peculiar look, as it cannot but exist among the now many hundred color-blind who have been examined by comiipetent observers, with some of whom the latter must comlie in frequent contact. From my later experience I can, however, add but little to Prof. Wilson's description. There is a certain liquid look to the eyes, as if.slightly suffused. It gives also the color-blin(d person the appearance of not listening, or not being interested in what you are saying to themii. I have, as I said, detected a color-blind person by this look but I have also equally failed-being, I suppose, too anxious-to find it before I was sufficiently familiar with it. It has been readily recognized by intelligent bystanders to whom I pointed it out; A lady once asked me what was the matter with Mr. Blanik's eyes. Knowing he was color-blind, I drew her on to describe what she meant, and her accotunt was a very good repetition of Prof. Wilson's, above quoted. She had never heard of this peculiar look of the colorblind. She has since noticed and spoken to me of the same look in reference to somiie other mutual acquaintances who are color-blind. I can now recall this peculiar look as connected with the facial expression of a gentlemiian I knew for many years without detecting his chronmatic defect, although the question of color had been entered :into between us. His nephews I found color-blind, and they told me of the ridiculous mistakes of their maternal uncle. One of these nephews told me only yesterday that he could detect no difference between the brilliant skyrocket lights changing from red to green. This peculiar expression of the color-blind varies in amount, and even at (lifferent titnes, in the same person. It, however, seems to always hover about the eyes. I cannot answer positively whether it is lmnore apparent in those most defective. I judge that it-is. In speaking before the Natural History Society, last year, I said that I had not noticed it in the few color-blind females whom I had detected. Since then I have found a very color-blind lady in whom it exists to some degree. I probably should not have noticed it, ex-, ;cept for my considerable experience with other color-blind. An anecdote imiay here help to explain the effect of this peculiar look. During my labors of testing the Boston public scholars I was

LITTLE: Case of Persistent Hyaloid Artery.


one day at a boys' school, when the several classes comning and going in the hall made such a disturbance that the principal stepped on. to the edge of the platform'i to stop it. He said notlhing, but merely looked at the lads. To ny surprise the noise ceased as soon as he had attracted attentioni. I thought to miyself, as I watched his face, well, that indefinite, aimiless expression anid gazing into distance won't qtuell such turbulence. Shortly after I called himii to look at the matches a color-blind boy had made with Holmgren's test, in which he saw, as he said, nothing out of the way or to comment on. It then flashe(d over miie that he was color-blind, which, upon examination, proved true. His peculiar look was this of the color-blind. I met him once afterward, coming hastily throughl a door in the postoffice, wlhen I caught his eyes first, and instantly noticed the expression as that of the color-blind, before I recognized the rest of hiis face. I have thus briefly called atte'ntioni to tlis singular peculiarity, which may prove of value in the detection of color-blinidness. I would attemiipt no explanation of it. Ocular expression is of course due to the muscles of the lids and face. As they, however, are' called into play from mental impressions derived through thle eye, it does not seem impossible that the color-blind eye miiay have its own peculiar facial expression.




WHIILE examining with the ophthalmloscope the right eve of a boy, six years of age, who had been sent to nme by Dr. Joseph Hearn, of Plhiladelphia, for the correqtion of a strabismtus convergens affecting the right eye, a persistent hyaloid artery was observed. The boy is smiiall and spare, has been treated successfully for hip disease by Dr. Hearn, and has had the same armii fractured twice. With the optlhalmoscope the optic nerve, without a physiological excavation and with slight pigmi-entation on its niasal side, is seen with a +4D. The appearance of the vessels on the face of the nervre is as follows: on the upper and outer quadrant are crowded, very circumflex,

A Peculiar Expression of the Eyes of the Color-Blind.

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